Schweinfurt district

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the district of Schweinfurt Map of Germany, position of the district of Schweinfurt highlighted

Coordinates: 50 ° 1 ′  N , 10 ° 16 ′  E

Basic data
State : Bavaria
Administrative region : Lower Franconia
Administrative headquarters : Schweinfurt
Area : 841.46 km 2
Residents: 115,445 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 137 inhabitants per km 2
License plate : SW , GEO
Circle key : 09 6 78
Circle structure: 29 municipalities
Address of the
district administration:
Schrammstrasse 1
97421 Schweinfurt
Website :
District Administrator : Florian Töpper ( SPD )
Location of the district of Schweinfurt in Bavaria
Weiden in der Oberpfalz Straubing Würzburg Schwabach Schweinfurt Regensburg Rosenheim Nürnberg Nürnberg Passau Landshut Memmingen Kaufbeuren Kempten (Allgäu) Ingolstadt Fürth Hof Erlangen Coburg Bayreuth Bamberg Augsburg München Aschaffenburg Amberg Ansbach Landkreis Würzburg Landkreis Wunsiedel im Fichtelgebirge Landkreis Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen Landkreis Weilheim-Schongau Landkreis Unterallgäu Landkreis Traunstein Landkreis Tirschenreuth Landkreis Straubing-Bogen Landkreis Starnberg Landkreis Schweinfurt Landkreis Schwandorf Landkreis Rottal-Inn Landkreis Roth Landkreis Rosenheim Landkreis Rhön-Grabfeld Landkreis Regensburg Landkreis Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm Landkreis Regen Landkreis Passau Landkreis Ostallgäu Landkreis Oberallgäu Landkreis Nürnberger Land Landkreis Neu-Ulm Landkreis Neustadt an der Waldnaab Landkreis Neustadt an der Aisch-Bad Windsheim Landkreis Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz Landkreis Neuburg-Schrobenhausen Landkreis München Landkreis Mühldorf am Inn Landkreis Miltenberg Landkreis Miesbach Landkreis Main-Spessart Landkreis Lindau (Bodensee) Landkreis Lichtenfels Landkreis Landshut Landkreis Landsberg am Lech Landkreis Kulmbach Landkreis Kronach Landkreis Kitzingen Landkreis Kelheim Landkreis Hof Landkreis Haßberge Landkreis Günzburg Landkreis Garmisch-Partenkirchen Landkreis Fürth Landkreis Fürstenfeldbruck Landkreis Freyung-Grafenau Landkreis Freising Landkreis Forchheim Landkreis Erlangen-Höchstadt Landkreis Erding Landkreis Eichstätt Landkreis Ebersberg Landkreis Donau-Ries Landkreis Dingolfing-Landau Landkreis Dillingen an der Donau Landkreis Deggendorf Landkreis Dachau Landkreis Coburg Landkreis Cham Landkreis Berchtesgadener Land Landkreis Bayreuth Landkreis Bamberg Landkreis Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen Landkreis Bad Kissingen Landkreis Augsburg Landkreis Aschaffenburg Landkreis Ansbach Landkreis Amberg-Sulzbach Landkreis Altötting Landkreis Aichach-Friedberg Bodensee Schweiz Österreich Baden-Württemberg Hessen Tschechien Sachsen Thüringenmap
About this picture
Werneck Castle by Balthasar Neumann
with a pond and an English garden

The district of Schweinfurt is located in the eastern half of the Bavarian administrative district of Lower Franconia and completely surrounds the independent city of Schweinfurt , which is the seat of the district office . The district is a member of the Regiopole region Mainfranken .

The district of Schweinfurt has a rich (pre) historical heritage, is considered Germany's little herb garden ( Meßmer ), is the third largest wine district in Franconia and a center of Franconian customs and costume ( Plantanz ). In 2016, the Sennfelder and Gochsheim peace festivals were included in the nationwide register of intangible cultural heritage by the German Commission for UNESCO .

The district is almost free of industry and large-scale trade, with the exception of the region south of Schweinfurt, where the Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant , which was shut down in 2015, is also a nationally important power line node. In its inner area, the district forms the bacon belt around Schweinfurt, with mostly bourgeois residential suburbs and is dominated by agriculture and forestry in the largest area, with a largely intact landscape, local recreation areas and gentle tourism .



The district of Schweinfurt is located in the middle of Main Franconia , in Bavaria's German center and in the core area about 40 km from (clockwise) Baden-Württemberg , Hesse and Thuringia . The main flowing water is the Main . It comes from the east, changes its direction to the south in Schweinfurt and forms the main triangle from here .

The highest mountain in the district is the deciduous hill in the Haßberge at 504 m above sea level. NN and the second highest the Zabelstein in the Steigerwald with 489 m above sea level. NN; the lowest point is near Stammheim at approx. 195 m above sea level. NN. The highest village is Hoppachshof at 403 m above sea level. NN. The largest stagnant body of water in Lower Franconia, the Ellertshauser See , is located in the northeast of the district.

Autumnal panorama with a view of the Hausener Valley in the Schweinfurt Rhön . On the far right on the horizon the Schweinfurt basin and behind it in the haze the Steigerwald

The district is embedded in a wreath of low mountain ranges , with nature parks and forests, with the Vorrhön in the northwest, the Haßberge in the northeast, the Steigerwald in the southeast and the Gramschatzer forest in the southwest. They frame the district along or not far outside its borders in a diamond shape.

Neighboring areas

The neighboring districts are all in Bavaria and, with the exception of the district of Bamberg ( Upper Franconia ), all in Lower Franconia .

Bad Kissingen district District of Rhön-Grabfeld
Main-Spessart district Neighboring communities Haßberge district
Würzburg district Kitzingen district Bamberg district

Important places

Stadtlauringen : Official winery with princely building and Schüttbau

The only former district town and also the only town in the Schweinfurt district is Gerolzhofen with 6,788 inhabitants. The largest municipality in the district is the Werneck market with 10,222 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2014). The Stadtlauringen market with its small-town character around the historic market square is the central location for the northern district.

Although most of the suburbs around the independent city of Schweinfurt have more or only slightly fewer inhabitants than Gerolzhofen, they have neither central functions nor urban character.


Triassic sedimentary rocks and Quaternary loose sediments form the geological subsurface of the Schweinfurt district. Above the limestones , dolomites and marls of the shell limestone lie the rocks of the Unterkeuper and the gypsum keuper , which are predominantly clayey- marl with few limestone and sandstone layers . The strata of Steigerwald and the Haßberge are formed from sandstone keuper. In the area of ​​the large river valleys, especially the Main, there are gravel and sand that were deposited during the course changes during the incision in the Quaternary. To the southeast of the Main bend lie drift sands. Loess lies in the flatter areas west and north of the Main .


The district lies on the periphery of the Bavarian focus region Würzburg - Ansbach with nitrate-polluted groundwater as a result of intensive agriculture .


A typical feature is the relatively low precipitation , with just over 600 mm per year, due to the location of the district east of the Rhön - Spessart ridge on the leeward side .

The climate is divided into two parts. The Schweinfurt Rhön is comparatively cool in summer and cold in winter. A lot of snow fell from time to time until the post-war decades. In the other areas of the district, too, winters can be very cold and dry. But due to the low altitude by Bavarian standards, the transition times are mild and the summers are warm to hot. While in the higher regions of southern Germany the spring feeding late and as a result of global warming today relatively quickly in the summer passes, the spring pulls in Schweinfurt pool soon and is very pronounced. This leads to the early fruit blossom, diverse flora and good climatic conditions for asparagus and viticulture (see: Viticulture ).

In terms of the degree of continentality , the local climate lies in the transition area between the maritime climate and the continental climate . This already moderate continental climate, in a triad with low precipitation, cold winters and warm summers, does not occur anywhere else in western Germany , but is widespread in eastern Germany . The Spessart forms the climatic divide to the maritime climate.

Natural structure

The district of Schweinfurt belongs to eight main natural areas :

View from the Steigerwald ( Zabelstein ) over the Steigerwald foreland and the Schweinfurt Basin to the Hesselbacher Waldland (right on the horizon)
  • the middle part of the district lies in the partly flat Schweinfurt basin (main unit 136);
  • northeast of the Schweinfurt basin lie the undulating Wern-Lauer-Platten (135) with almost no transition ;
  • in the northeast is the Hesselbacher Waldland (139) (also: Schweinfurter Rhön );
  • in the far north-east lie flat, undulating southern extensions of the grave field (138 1 );
  • in the extreme northeast, the district has a small share of the Haßberge (116);
  • the south-east of the Schweinfurt basin borders with a flowing transition on the flat undulating Steigerwald foreland (137);
  • southeast of the Steigerwald foreland, the district has a share in the Steigerwald (115);
  • the valley section of the Main from Wipfeld to the south is already part of the Central Main Valley (133).

Middle Main Valley (133), Wern-Lauer-Platten (135), Schweinfurt Basin (136), Steigerwaldvorland (137), Grabfeldgau (138) and Hesselbacher Waldland (139) belong to the Mainfränkische Platten (main unit group 13). All eight main units belong to the layer level land on both sides of the Upper Rhine Rift (Greater Region 1st order 07-23), which stretches from the Paris Basin to Franconia .

The Landscapes

The district of Schweinfurt in the core of Main Franconia forms a microcosm with a variety of landscapes in a small area and relatively contrasting climatic zones, despite moderate height differences of a maximum of 300 meters. The district is clearly structured with four landscapes.

Schweinfurt Rhön

Main near Mainberg , top left with the Schweinfurt Rhön and bottom right with the Schweinfurt basin

The Schweinfurt Rhön landscape is identical to the Hesselbacher Waldland natural area . It is a relatively cold winter highland, up to 421 m above sea level. NN, in the north-eastern part of the district, largely uninhabited, with large forests. The green lung of the district is the most important local recreation area in Schweinfurt (see: hiking , sailing and golf ). In the post-war decades, winter sports were also practiced here on a smaller scale.

Schweinfurt Basin

The Schweinfurt Basin is the hot summer and mild winter lowland in the southeast of the district, which is below 200 m above sea level. NN is enough. It is characterized by special cultures and is Germany's little herb garden (see: Agriculture ). In the Sulzheimer gypsum hills , steppe plants grow that only appear again in the Hungarian lowlands .

Steigerwald foreland

The district Schweinfurt has in the outer south-east, between Schweinfurter pelvis and Steigerwald , share of the northern region of the Steigerwald foothills, with the main town Gerolzhofen . The second largest wine region in the district after the Main Valley, along the Steigerwald eaves, remained largely original and is one of the hottest and driest regions in Germany in summer (see: Viticulture ).

Schweinfurt Gauland

View into the granary of the district near Obbach in 1863

The Schweinfurt Gauland belongs to the natural area Wern-Lauer-Platten . It is located west of the Main and around and west of the upper Wern Valley, is a hilly farmland and the breadbasket of the district (see: Agriculture ). Which is why the villages there were the richest in the Main Franconia in historical times.

The four intermunicipal alliances

The municipalities in the district have come together in four inter-municipal alliances , which also include some municipalities just outside the district boundary. The alliances are almost identical to the four landscapes listed above in the same order:


Before 1800


The Schweinfurt area with its fertile soils is rich in prehistoric and early historical evidence. Schwanfeld is considered to be the oldest village in Germany, even if there is no evidence of continuous settlement from the first finds in 5500 BC from the ceramic band to this day. In Dittelbrunn a find from the Middle Stone Age (around 10,000 BC) is documented and in Hambach there are finds from the Neolithic Age (around 4000 BC), the Urnfield Culture (around 1200 BC), the Hallstatt Period (around 700 to 400 BC) and the La Tène period (around 450 BC) (see Dittelbrunn, Prehistory ).

Early Middle Ages

Zeuzleben's grave house
(today in Bad Windsheim )

Excavations from the Merovingian period were carried out on the cemetery of Zeuzleben and from the Ottonian period in Geldersheim an der Kirchenburg . Several villages were first mentioned in the 8th century.

First documented mentions in the 8th century:

In the early Middle Ages, the East Franconian Gau Grabfeld , whose counts have been documented since 819, stretched from the Rhön down to the Schweinfurt and Geldersheim area .

Late Middle Ages

Imperial city of Schweinfurt with surrounding territories until 1802, with the western bypass of the Würzburg-Meiningen road (1796)

In 1437 the council of the imperial city of Schweinfurt bought the villages in today's district, Zell , Weipoltshausen , the hamlet of Ottenhausen and the Thomashof farm from the Teutonic Order . In 1620 the village of Madenhausen became part of the imperial city (all in dark yellow on the adjacent map). The inhabitants of these places were subjects of the imperial city, but as a rule had no citizenship. In addition, the imperial villages of Sennfeld and Gochsheim (light yellow) and the imperial knights Schwebheim , Niederwerrn , Euerbach and Obbach (brown) were located in today's district around the imperial city of Schweinfurt . All of the aforementioned territories joined the Reformation and became Protestant .

Chaussee Würzburg – Meiningen

An important supraregional north-south connection ran through today's district through the ford near Schweinfurt and the Main . This old route is already in the Rompilgerweg Description of the Annales Stadenses from the 13th century included. The road was also an important main axis for the Würzburg monastery , but it led through Protestant territories in the central area around Schweinfurt. Therefore, from around 1780 to 1796, west of this old road, a road from Würzburg to Meiningen was built exclusively through the bishopric. It runs 27 km between Eßleben and Pfersdorf through what is now the western district of Schweinfurt. In terms of engineering, the road was planned on a completely new route, similar to a modern expressway, bypassing numerous villages, with long, dead straight sections and a few short, intervening curves, according to the same principle of the route as the later Reichsautobahn . In addition, the long straights were aligned in such a way that they often led exactly to the church towers of localities and the towers of Werneck Castle (see the map on the right for the imperial city of Schweinfurt).

The summer residence of the Prince-Bishops Castle Werneck was built shortly before, from 1733 to 1745, not far from Schweinfurt on this connection. The location on the site of a burned down castle was chosen for strategic reasons. This forestless area, in which intensive agriculture is practiced, was actually not suitable as a location for a summer residence or a hunting lodge.

The road later became a section of Reichsstraße 19 from Eisenach to the Kleiner Walsertal and then merged into the shortened Bundesstraße 19 . With the construction of the A 71 from Schweinfurt to Erfurt , the main road in the Schweinfurt area became meaningless and partially downgraded to a district road . The cultural value of the Chaussee Würzburg – Meiningen has not been generally recognized until today (2016), it has received little attention in the modern extensions of the road and it has not yet been considered a cultural heritage .

From 1800

Regional courts

Most of the district area belonged to the Werneck and Mainberg offices of the Würzburg monastery before 1800 . After the first transfer to Bavaria, the regional courts of Schweinfurt, Werneck and Gerolzhofen were formed in 1804 . These regional courts belonged to the Grand Duchy of Würzburg from 1806 and finally passed to Bavaria in 1814. Since then, the three regional courts have belonged to the Main District , from 1817 to the Lower Main District , which was renamed Lower Franconia and Aschaffenburg (later only Lower Franconia ) in 1838 .

District Offices

In 1862 the Schweinfurt district office was formed from the Schweinfurt and Werneck district courts and the Gerolzhofen district office from the Gerolzhofen and Wiesentheid district courts. The latter was enlarged in 1872 by some communities from the disbanded Volkach district office .

On March 10, 1871, the Karlstadt District Office ceded the Brebersdorf community to the Schweinfurt District Office.

On December 1, 1919, the municipality of Oberndorf was reclassified to the city of Schweinfurt.


On January 1, 1939, as everywhere in the German Reich, the designation district was introduced. The district offices became the districts of Gerolzhofen and Schweinfurt.

Gerolzhofen, district town until 1972; in the background the Steigerwald

Schweinfurt district

As part of the regional reform in Bavaria , on July 1, 1972, the district of Schweinfurt was expanded to include most of the district of Gerolzhofen , six communities in the district of Karlstadt , the communities of Greßthal and Wasserlosen in the district of Hammelburg , the community-free area Jeusing in the district of Bad Kissingen and nine communities in the district Hofheim in Lower Franconia enlarged to its current size. The rest of the Gerolzhofen district came to the enlarged Kitzingen and Würzburg district . The district seat of the district of Schweinfurt remained the independent city of Schweinfurt, in which, in contrast to almost all other Bavarian independent cities, no suburbs from the district were incorporated.

Population development

From 1988 to 2008 the district of Schweinfurt grew by over 9,300 inhabitants or around 9%. From 2002 onwards, after a peak of around 117,000 inhabitants, the trend was down and up again in 2018. In the period from 1988 to 2018, the population of the district rose from 104,691 to 115,106 by 10,415 inhabitants or 10%.

The following figures refer to the territorial status on May 25, 1987.

Population development
year 1840 1900 1939 1950 1961 1970 1987 1991 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
Residents 45,740 50,924 66,978 85,330 87,582 98,100 103,697 109.297 113,858 116,569 115.924 113.003 114,813


There are several desert areas in the area of ​​the district. Jeusungen was first mentioned in a document in 791, Sahermor in 1114 and Lauerbach in 1302. While the Senftenhof , which was presumably located on both sides of the border between Schweinfurt and today's district, the Brönnhof and Weipoltsdorf, no first dates are known.


Since the Bavarian local elections in 2020, the district of Schweinfurt has been the only remaining Bavarian district in which the SPD provides the district administrator .

District administrators

District council

District election 2014
Turnout: 63.5%
GR / AB / OL

The local elections in 2002, 2008 and 2014 led to the following allocation of seats in the district council:

2002 2008 2014
CSU 34 31 30th
SPD 13 10 11
FW 7th 8th 9
GREEN / Open List * 3 4th 6th
REP 2 2 0
FDP / Free Citizens 1 2 2
LEFT n / A 3 2
total 60 60 60

* Started in 2008 as "GREEN / Active Citizens / OL"

coat of arms

Coat of arms of the district of Schweinfurt
Blazon : "Above a red shield base, inside three silver tips, in gold a red armed, black eagle."
Justification of the coat of arms: The three silver tips from the Hochstift coat of arms ( Franconian rake ) remind us that almost the entire district area belonged to the Hochstift Würzburg . The eagle stands for the areas that used to belong to the imperial city of Schweinfurt and the imperial villages of Sennfeld and Gochsheim. At the same time it points to the former sovereign rights of several imperial knighthood families in the district area.

Economy and Infrastructure

Counter-image to the independent city of Schweinfurt

Economy and infrastructure form the opposite of the independent city of Schweinfurt. Schweinfurt has the third highest job density in Germany and the highest gross domestic product (GDP) in Bavaria at a comparatively low social level, while the district of Schweinfurt has the lowest number of jobs and the lowest GDP in Lower Franconia , with a high social level of the population, with a peak value of patent applications per inhabitant . These contradictions are based on the Bavarian regional reform , in which in the city of Schweinfurt, in contrast to almost all other cities, no place was incorporated. The county, with relatively narrow external borders, characterized in particular consists of residential suburbs and the affluent suburbs of the city. The articles Schweinfurt and the district of Schweinfurt therefore split a partially functional unit into two parts.

However, the district has by far the highest growth in start- ups in Main Franconia . The number of businesses in the Schweinfurt district grew by 188 in 2014, which is over half of the overall increase in Main Franconia. For comparison: District of Würzburg (+26), City of Schweinfurt (+9), City of Würzburg (−127). This also had an impact on employment . Among the 96 Bavarian districts and urban districts, the district of Schweinfurt had the highest increase in employees subject to social security contributions on June 30, 2017 compared to the previous year with 8.6%.

The relatively little industry in the district is mostly connected to the south of the Schweinfurt industrial area. As a result, the rest of the district is almost free of industry and has a high residential and leisure value (see: Nature and Leisure ).

High disposable income

High incomes from commuting to the large industrial center Schweinfurt with relatively low real estate prices in the district result in a very high disposable income for the district residents. The Institut der Deutschen Wirtschaft (IW) calculated for 2016 how many square meters of living space an average household can afford if it spends a quarter of the average local net wage on rent:


  • 59 m² city of Trier (worst value in Germany due to property buyers from Luxembourg)
  • 64 m² city of Würzburg (third worst value in Germany and worst in Bavaria)
  • 70 m² city of Munich (fifth worst value in Germany and second worst in Bavaria)
  • 94 m² city of Schweinfurt
  • 102 m² district of Würzburg
  • 116 m² district of Schweinfurt (third best value in Bavaria)
  • 126 m² district of Dingolfing-Landau (best value in Bavaria)

Established businesses

The largest employer in the district is the Schäflein forwarding company with around 1,000 employees. In second place is the SAP service provider FIS GmbH, which employs a total of more than 600 people with its subsidiaries, including around 500 in Grafenrheinfeld (as of end of 2016). This is followed by Belectric, a company from the solar industry with 500 employees, which was created in 2011 from the merger of Beck Energy GmbH, S&F Umwelttechnik GmbH and Blitzstrom GmbH. At the time of the merger, Beck Energy GmbH was the world market leader in the construction of solar power plants on open spaces with 269 megawatts.

Numerous well-known companies are represented in the district, mainly not far south of the Schweinfurt industrial area.

Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant at night, shut down in 2015, since then dismantling

The Husqvarna Germany headquarters was relocated from Gochsheim to Ulm in 2010 .

Hercules was sold to ZEG by the Winora Group Sennfeld in 2014 .

Power line node

One of the most important German line nodes for high-voltage direct current transmission at the Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant , which was decommissioned in 2015, will remain and has been expanded since the beginning of 2015, as an end to the planned Suedlink power line , as the first major underground cabling project .Template: future / in 3 years

See: Grafenrheinfeld # line node


The district is one of the German districts with the lowest livestock density, with less than 0.5  livestock  units (LU) per hectare. There are 1,200 companies in the district, more than half are run as part-time jobs. The average farm size is increasing and is around 40 hectares. The district has very fertile soils and forms a microcosm with high geographical and climatic diversity. Four very differently structured landscapes offer an almost unprecedented spectrum of products in a small space (see also: The four landscapes ).

The Schweinfurt Rhön is the center of forestry and hunting . There are brown trout in larger streams .

The Schweinfurt basin is characterized by meadows and special crops , with the well-known vegetable villages of Sennfeld and Gochsheim . This is why the food industry is also located here (see: Resident companies ). Field vegetables are grown on 220 hectares in the district . Larger greenhouses have been built in both villages and Röthlein since the 1980s , including for flowers. There are also some carp ponds and larger asparagus fields here. The district of Schweinfurt is the second largest asparagus district in Lower Franconia, and asparagus is grown on 90 hectares. Messmer Tee is headquartered in the tea village of Grettstadt , which is surrounded by meadows . Schwebheim is considered a herbal village . Medicinal , aromatic and aromatic plants as well as culinary herbs are grown on 100 hectares in the district .

In Steigerwald foothills wine production (see: viticulture ). The Lindach area is the center of fruit growing , with distilleries .

The Schweinfurt Gauland is rich in loess and the breadbasket of the district. High quality malting barley also thrives here .


Originally remaining vineyards near Falkenstein am Steigerwald

The district of Schweinfurt, with 350 hectares of vineyards, is the third largest wine district in the Franconian wine-growing region . The largest wine town in the district is Stammheim (Kolitzheim) . The most famous vineyard is the Wipfelder Zehntgraf . On the Kirchbergsteige in Wipfeld there is one of the oldest vineyards in Germany, which is still planted with mixed batches.

In contrast to the Kitzinger and Würzburg area, the district was largely spared the land consolidation of the vineyards and the introduction of large locations in the German Wine Act . As a result, the historical wine and cultural landscape was largely preserved here. There is also no mass wine grown, which is why the wines are not available nationwide, for example in discounters .

“The Müller-Thurgau has its best locations on the Gipskeuper floors south of Schweinfurt. This is Weinfrankens most homely corner, a largely original farming country [...] The climate is continental : scorching sun alternates with grim frost. "

Whiskey distillery

The Martin Mößlein winery and whiskey distillery in Zeilitzheim has been distilling Franconian whiskey since 1996. The 2011 Whiskey Guide ranks the distillery among the top 3 of the best German whiskey distilleries.

Public facilities

Craheim Castle near Wetzhausen

Convention centers

Exhibition centers

  • Steigerwaldzentrum Handthal


Werneck, at the bottom left of the castle is the glass operating room of the orthopedic clinic

The main clinic of the district, "a cluster of the health industry", is Werneck , with three hospitals and the largest practice clinic in Franconia (according to their own information):

The Geomed Clinic is also in Gerolzhofen .

The psychiatric hospital with psychiatric museum in Schloss Werneck is one of the oldest psychiatric clinics in Germany. It was opened in 1855 by Bernhard von Gudden , the doctor who drowned in Lake Starnberg in 1886 together with King Ludwig II of Bavaria after he had previously written an opinion that led to the king's removal.


The district's grammar school, the Celtis-Gymnasium , is located in the independent city of Schweinfurt. In the district in Gerolzhofen there is a lower and middle school level of the branch of the Franken-Landschulheims Schloss Gaibach and the Ludwig-Derleth-Realschule.


The district nursing home is located in Werneck.


The district of Schweinfurt is centrally located within reunified Germany. The region is located at the intersection of numerous traffic routes and is very well integrated into the supra-regional economic area. Almost all major traffic routes and high-voltage lines run relatively compact and gentle on the landscape in the less scenic area in the south-west of the district, around Werneck and at the Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant (KKG), which was shut down in 2015 . As a result, the valuable natural spaces and wine-growing landscapes of the district, in contrast to the neighboring district of Würzburg , are not cut through.

Verkehrsgemeinschaft Schweinfurt

The transport association Schweinfurt (VSW) is a transport association of local public transport for the area the independent town Schweinfurt and the district of Schweinfurt. 23 bus routes operated by local bus companies and two train routes operated by the Erfurt Railway and Deutsche Bahn offer a joint tariff.

Rail transport

Railway line Schweinfurt– Bamberg along the Main , near Schweinfurt

The state-run Ludwigs-West-Bahn , which runs down the Main from Bamberg , reached the city of Schweinfurt in 1852 and Würzburg in 1854. Schweinfurt became a railway junction with the Bavarian State Railways branching off to Bad Kissingen here in 1871 . This line got a branch to Meiningen in 1874. In Waigolshausen, a single-track cross connection, the Werntalbahn , has been going from the Würzburg Railway to Gemünden since 1879 , which today mainly serves for freight traffic and has been electrified. The Gerolzhöfer Gau on the western edge of the Steigerwald was connected to the railway network in 1893 by a branch line from Kitzingen to Gerolzhofen ; from 1903 it led to Schweinfurt. The Stadtlauringen market in the north of the district was the terminus of a branch line from Rottershausen from 1900 onwards . Passenger traffic in this network, which is now 77 km long, has been reduced by 33 km:

Since 2004 the so-called Radelzug Aschaffenburg - (Schweinfurt) - Bamberg has been running on the Werntalbahn on Sundays, and recently also on Saturdays . Since 2015, the Main-Spessart-Express Bamberg – Schweinfurt – Frankfurt (Main) has also operated here on weekends

In the district there are five stations for passenger trains in operation ( Eßleben , Oberwerrn , Poppenhausen , Schonungen , Waigolshausen) and a freight station in the Bergrheinfeld industrial area. The station for goods loading in the Conn Barracks has not been used since the US Army withdrew from Schweinfurt in 2014 (see: US Army Garrison Schweinfurt ).

Dispute over reactivation of the Steigerwaldbahn

For a long time there have been initiatives to reactivate passenger traffic on the closed Kitzingen – Schweinfurt railway line , the so-called Lower Steigerwald Railway or, for short, the Steigerwald Railway , which crosses the entire southern district. At the beginning of 2019, a violent dispute broke out that has continued to this day and became a political issue . In August 2019, a new concept for reactivation was finally presented by the traffic planner Robert Wittek-Brix. A regional tram as an integral train that would run from Kitzingen from Schweinfurt Sennfeld station in one branch on the existing railway line to Schweinfurt main station and in a second branch would be connected to the Schweinfurt – Meiningen railway line via Schweinfurt city center .

See: Steigerwaldbahn, required recommissioning

Road traffic

The following list only gives a brief overview of the current status.

For more on the history and planned new buildings and extensions see: Schweinfurt # Road traffic and Schweinfurt # Location

  • E45 (A 7) It runs from north to south through the western district.
  • E48(A 70) It leads from Schweinfurt to Prague, begins at the Schweinfurt / Werneck motorway junction and runs from west to east in the Main Valley through the district.
  • A3 It runs not far south of the district and is connected to the district by the B 286 motorway slip road.
  • A7 It leads through the western district area.
  • A70The Maintalautobahn leads from Schweinfurt to Bayreuth .
  • A71The Thuringian Forest Motorway runs from Schweinfurt to Erfurt .
  • B19 It runs parallel to the A 71 from north to south through the western district and has been downgraded in sections, as it is only of local importance here.
  • B22 It crosses the district on the southern edge for a short distance.
  • B26 It runs from east to west across the district parallel to the A 70 and has therefore been largely downgraded in this section.
  • B26aIt begins at the Schweinfurt / Werneck motorway junction and runs a short distance through the western edge of the district parallel to the B 26 to Arnstein .
  • B26n It is being planned as a new road and will lead from the Schweinfurt / Werneck motorway junction to the southwest to the A3.
  • B286 It crosses the district from north to south and runs north of Schweinfurt parallel to the A 71.
  • B303 It begins on the A 7 and crosses the district from west to east.

In 2016, a bridge collapsed on the A 7 during construction work on the new six-lane construction of the Schraudenbach viaduct . A construction worker was killed.

Federal waterway

An important federal waterway , the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal , which connects the North Sea with the Black Sea , runs through the district on the Main . In the district there is only one sports boat harbor on this waterway near Garstadt, a district of Bergrheinfeld . Otherwise, the district is reached via the Schweinfurt ports , with three landings on the Main, including for river cruise ships , two lock outer ports , a port and a sports boat port.


Nature and leisure

In 2010 the city and district of Schweinfurt merged their tourism activities into a special purpose association. The common tourist information office Schweinfurt 360 ° now resides in the rooms on the ground floor of the old Schweinfurt town hall at Am Markt 1 .

Nature parks

The district has a share in two nature parks

Steigerwald Nature Park

Steigerwald: View from the Stollburg near Handthal to the Schwanberg in the neighboring district of Kitzingen

To the district Schweinfurt belongs to its southeastern edge a 15 km long section of the Steigerwald - the main ridge , with smaller upstream vineyards and smallest varieties one of the primitive areas wine franc . (see also viticulture )

Since 2008 there has been a seven-year dispute between nature conservation, forestry and politics as to whether or not parts of the Steigerwald should become a national park . The dispute ended in chaos in which even politics lost its bearings. Only the nomination date for a desired UNESCO World Heritage Site , which was no longer to be met, marked the (preliminary) end for the project (see Steigerwald, National Park discussion ). In March 2016, the dispute, which is also largely driven by economic expectations, flared up again between supporters of a North Steigerwald National Park and opponents, behind whom the Bavarian State Secretary for the Interior Gerhard Eck stands. Since then, the old fronts have stood again, the Steigerwald can no longer rest, the situation is poisoned.

The Free State of Bavaria intervened through two large projects in and around Handthal near Oberschwarzach . The construction of a million-dollar Steigerwald Center , a forest information, research and conference center. And the construction of a 1,150 m long and up to 41 m high treetop path through the Bavarian State Forests .

Haßberge Nature Park

The district of Schweinfurt has a very small share of the Haßberge Nature Park in its northeast corner . It is an idyllic, small, remote low mountain range, known as the “Land of Palaces, Castles and Ruins”, three of which are in the Schweinfurt district ( Birnfeld , Craheim , Wetzhausen ) and all others in the neighboring Haßberge district .

Protected areas

Bird sanctuary near Garstadt

The district has 20 nature reserves , 18 landscape protection areas , a total of twelve FFH areas, some of which overlap with other districts, and at least 18 geotopes designated by the Bavarian State Office for the Environment .

See also:

Bike paths

Above all, the well-signposted network of cycle paths - in addition to the wine activities - is an important cornerstone of tourism. Overall, cyclists in the Schweinfurter Land will find the best-developed network of cycle paths in Lower Franconia with different requirement profiles: 880 kilometers lead across the Schweinfurter Land - from Lake Ellertshausen to the Steigerwald . Of these, over 150 kilometers of developed cycle paths run along district, municipal, state and federal roads. Information boards, signage, cycling maps and cycling guides represent the implementation of the district's cycle path concept: 20 thematic circular routes with additional local connections are shown. The Lower Franconian long-distance cycle paths and the long-distance cycle paths of the Steigerwald Nature Park (e.g. Main-Steigerwald-cycle path) are included in the cycle path network for around 160 kilometers. In addition, there are long-distance bike trails such as B. the Main Cycle Path or the Main-Werra Cycle Path .


In particular, the Schweinfurt Rhön is criss-crossed with a dense network of hiking trails that begins on the outskirts of Schweinfurt and continues in the northeast towards the Haßberge . The trail of Schweinfurt by can highlight the conservation area Jeusinggrund , past the new National Heritage , the Brönnhof after Maßbach . The path leads for 15 km to the Bad Kissingen district , only through one village, Zell . Furthermore, the 143 km long Friedrich Rückert hiking trail , which leads from the house where he was born on the market square in Schweinfurt, across the Schweinfurt Rhön to Neuses near Coburg .

Swimming lakes

Ellertshauser lake

The district has numerous bathing lakes and bathing beaches:

  • Badsee, part of the Altmainschleife Nord in Grafenrheinfeld , unofficial nudist lake, together with the Leonhardsee and another north-western lake
  • Bergrheinfelder bathing lakes, part of the Altmainschleife Süd , two bathing lakes in the municipality south of the Main
  • Donnersdorf , Gipssee
  • Donnersdorf, Höckersee (no sunbathing area)
  • Ellertshauser See , in the Schweinfurt Rhön , with 33 hectares one of the largest lakes in Lower Franconia
  • Glöckle-See, part of the Altmainschleife Nord; The border between Berg- and Grafenrheinfeld runs across the lake, a private bathing lake for employees of the Schweinfurt construction company Glöckle
  • Grafenrheinfeld natural bathing lake, part of the Altmainschleife north
  • Schonunger Bay
  • Dorfsee , part of the Sennfelder Seenkranz ; East bank at the village: public bathing beach; West bank: closed private outdoor swimming pool for SKF employees in Schweinfurt
  • Sulzdorf bathing lake, on the Haßberge


On Ellertshäuser See are sailing boat harbors several clubs.



Culture and sights

Cultural event

Sennfelder and Gochsheim Peace Festival

The Sennfelder and Gochsheimer Friedensfeste , also Sennfelder and Gochsheimer Kirchweihen , in the communities of Sennfeld and Gochsheim go back to the regaining of imperial freedom and the right to exercise the Protestant faith freely in 1649. Both places bear the title of a former imperial direct and free imperial village . In 2016, both festivals were included in the nationwide register of intangible cultural heritage by the German Commission for UNESCO .

Stage of the Sommersdorf Passion Play

Franconian Passion Play Sommersdorf

The Franconian Passion Play has been held in Sömmersdorf every five years since 1933 . In the village of 700 inhabitants, 400 people take part in the performances. Until 2018, the Passion Play was attended by around 300,000 spectators. A passion museum and a passion garden were opened in the village.

Other Events

The International Variety Festival in Sennfeld with leading international artists is an extraordinary event, which takes place around every three years. In 2006, 15,000 visitors came to this event, for which a large tent is always set up at Sennfelder See.

In June and July the Werneck Castle Concerts take place in the castle park.

The church consecrations of the two former imperial direct and free imperial villages of Sennfeld and Gochsheim in front of the gates of Schweinfurt, which take place simultaneously on the first Sunday and Monday in September, go back to the regaining of imperial freedom in 1649 and since then every year with traditional costumes and the plant dance as Symbol of regained imperial freedom are celebrated. The “post-church consecrations” take place on the following Sunday.

On the first Sunday in October, the harvest festival is celebrated in Gochsheim with a large pageant and floats decorated with flowers.

From May to October there are wine and pint festivals in many communities.

Furthermore, cultural events and concerts take place in the Grafenrheinfeld cultural hall.


Stammheim Museum for Military and Contemporary History

Places with fortified churches

The district has an above-average number of fortified churches . You can find them in the following places:

Townscapes, castles and monasteries


(Residents on December 31, 2019)


  1. Gerolzhofen (6868)


  1. Oberschwarzach (1422)
  2. Stadtlauringen (4087)
  3. Werneck (10,157)

Other communities

  1. Bergrheinfeld (5328)
  2. Dingolshausen (1325)
  3. Dittelbrunn (7347)
  4. Donnersdorf (1971)
  5. Euerbach (3054)
  6. Frankenwinheim (969)
  7. Geldersheim (2908)
  8. Gochsheim (6433)
  9. Grafenrheinfeld (3426)
  10. Grettstadt (4226)
  11. Kolitzheim (5610)
  12. Lülsfeld (844)
  13. Michelau i.Steigerwald (1115)
  14. Niederwerrn (8289)
  15. Poppenhausen (4373)
  16. Röthlein (4505)
  17. Plantations (7679)
  18. Swan Field (1799)
  19. Schwebheim (4206)
  20. Sennfeld (4568)
  21. Sulzheim (2011)
  22. Uchtelhausen (3812)
  23. Waigolshausen (2712)
  24. Waterless (3363)
  25. Wipfeld (1038)

Administrative communities

  1. Gerolzhofen (town of Gerolzhofen, Markt Oberschwarzach, communities Dingolshausen, Donnersdorf, Frankenwinheim, Lülsfeld, Michelau i.Steigerwald and Sulzheim)
  2. Schwanfeld (municipalities Schwanfeld and Wipfeld)

Unregulated areas (35.29 km²)

  1. Bürgerwald (8.04 km²)
  2. Geiersberg (0.79 km²)
  3. Hundelshausen (11.12 km²)
  4. Nunnery (1.21 km²)
  5. Stollbergerforst (4.18 km²)
  6. Vollburg (1.46 km²)
  7. Wustvieler Forst (8.49 km²)
Schweinfurt Landkreis Main-Spessart Landkreis Bad Kissingen Landkreis Rhön-Grabfeld Landkreis Haßberge Landkreis Kitzingen Landkreis Würzburg Landkreis Bamberg Nonnenkloster (Unterfranken) Stollbergerforst Bürgerwald Vollburg Wustvieler Forst Hundelshausen (gemeindefreies Gebiet) Geiersberg (gemeindefreies Gebiet) Bergrheinfeld Dingolshausen Dittelbrunn Donnersdorf Euerbach Frankenwinheim Geldersheim Gerolzhofen Gochsheim Grafenrheinfeld Grettstadt Kolitzheim Lülsfeld Michelau im Steigerwald Niederwerrn Oberschwarzach Poppenhausen (Unterfranken) Röthlein Schonungen Schwanfeld Schwebheim Sennfeld Stadtlauringen Sulzheim (Unterfranken) Üchtelhausen Waigolshausen Wasserlosen Werneck WipfeldMunicipalities in SW.svg
About this picture

Municipalities of the district before the territorial reform 1971/78

Before the regional reform, the district of Schweinfurt had 64 municipalities (see list below). (The churches that still exist today are written in bold ):

Gochsheim: largest municipality in the district before the regional reform
Former parish Today's church Today's district
Abersfeld Sparing Schweinfurt district
Ballingshausen Stadtlauringen Schweinfurt district
Bergrheinfeld Bergrheinfeld Schweinfurt district
Brebersdorf Waterless Schweinfurt district
Dittelbrunn Dittelbrunn Schweinfurt district
Dürrfeld Grettstadt Schweinfurt district
Ebertshausen Uchtelhausen Schweinfurt district
Eckartshausen Werneck Schweinfurt district
Egenhausen Werneck Schweinfurt district
Eating life Werneck Schweinfurt district
Ettleben Werneck Schweinfurt district
Euerbach Euerbach Schweinfurt district
Forest Sparing Schweinfurt district
Garstadt Bergrheinfeld Schweinfurt district
Geldersheim Geldersheim Schweinfurt district
Gochsheim Gochsheim Schweinfurt district
Grafenrheinfeld Grafenrheinfeld Schweinfurt district
Grettstadt Grettstadt Schweinfurt district
grove Poppenhausen Schweinfurt district
Hambach Dittelbrunn Schweinfurt district
Hausen Sparing Schweinfurt district
Heidenfeld Redness Schweinfurt district
Hergolshausen Waigolshausen Schweinfurt district
Hesselbach Uchtelhausen Schweinfurt district
Hirschfeld Redness Schweinfurt district
Holzhausen Dittelbrunn Schweinfurt district
Kronungen Poppenhausen Schweinfurt district
Kützberg Poppenhausen Schweinfurt district
Spoonsterz Sparing Schweinfurt district
Madenhausen Uchtelhausen Schweinfurt district
Maibach Poppenhausen Schweinfurt district
Mainberg Sparing Schweinfurt district
Marktsteinach Sparing Schweinfurt district
Niederwerrn Niederwerrn Schweinfurt district
Obbach Euerbach Schweinfurt district
Obereuerheim Grettstadt Schweinfurt district
Oberwerrn Niederwerrn Schweinfurt district
Pfandhausen Dittelbrunn Schweinfurt district
Pfersdorf Poppenhausen Schweinfurt district
Poppenhausen Poppenhausen Schweinfurt district
Reichmannshausen Sparing Schweinfurt district
Redness Redness Schweinfurt district
Rundelshausen Werneck Schweinfurt district
Schleerieth Werneck Schweinfurt district
Schnackenwerth Werneck Schweinfurt district
Sparing Sparing Schweinfurt district
Schraudenbach Werneck Schweinfurt district
Swan field Swan field Schweinfurt district
Floating home Floating home Schweinfurt district
Sennfeld Sennfeld Schweinfurt district
Sommersdorf Euerbach Schweinfurt district
Stettbach Werneck Schweinfurt district
Theilheim Waigolshausen Schweinfurt district
Uchtelhausen Uchtelhausen Schweinfurt district
Untereuerheim Grettstadt Schweinfurt district
Vasbühl Werneck Schweinfurt district
Waigolshausen Waigolshausen Schweinfurt district
Waldsachsen Sparing Schweinfurt district
Weipoltshausen Uchtelhausen Schweinfurt district
Werneck Werneck Schweinfurt district
Weyer Gochsheim Schweinfurt district
Wipfeld Wipfeld Schweinfurt district
Zell near Schweinfurt Uchtelhausen Schweinfurt district
Zeuzleleben Werneck Schweinfurt district

License Plate

On July 1, 1956, the district was assigned the distinctive sign SW when the vehicle registration number that is still valid today was introduced . It is still issued today. The license plate liberalization has made it possible to issue the GEO ( Gerolzhofen ) distinctive mark since July 10, 2013 .

See also


  • Joseph Schwarzmeier: Geological map of Bavaria 1: 25,000 - sheet no. 5927 Schweinfurt with explanations . Bavarian Geological State Office, Munich 1982
  • Johannes Müller: Basic features of the natural geography of Lower Franconia (= Franconian landscape 1) . Klett / Justus Perthes Verlag, Gotha 1996, ISBN 978-3623005003
  • Several authors: District of Schweinfurt. Between Steigerwald and Rhön - known and hidden . Echter Verlag, Würzburg 1998, ISBN 978-3429009571
  • Ulrike Ratay: Journey through Schweinfurt and the Schweinfurt Land - an illustrated book with over 190 pictures (German & English). Stürtz Verlag, Würzburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-8003-4178-8 .
  • Several authors: 50 historic inns in Lower Franconia . Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-7917-2710-3
  • Leisure map of the district of Schweinfurt 1: 75,000 . Cities publisher E. v. Wagner & J. Mitterhuber, Fellbach 2016, ISBN 978-3738103458
  • Hiking map of the Schweinfurt district 1: 50,000 - sheet no.87 . Fritsch Landkartenverlag, Hof 2014, ISBN 978-3861160878

Web links

Commons : Landkreis Schweinfurt  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
  2. a b Bavarian State Ministry for Science and Art: Intangible Cultural Heritage. Archived from the original on December 14, 2018 .;
  3. Chapel in the center of the village, contour lines interpolated in the BayernAtlas
  4. a b Bavarian Geological State Office (ed.): Geological map of Bavaria 1: 500,000. 4., rework. Edition. Munich 1996.
  5. ^ Josef Schwarzmeier: Geological map of Bavaria 1: 25,000 sheet No. 5927 Schweinfurt with explanations . Bavarian Geological State Office, Munich 1982.
  6. Gisela Rauch: Too much nitrate in the groundwater. Main Post Wuerzburg, June 25, 2017 .;
  7. Various authors: Geographische Landesaufnahme: The natural spatial units in single sheets 1: 200,000 . Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1952–1994. → Online maps
    • Sheet 140: Schweinfurt (Brigitte Schwenzer 1968; 43 pages)
    • Sheet 152: Würzburg (Horst Mensching, Günter Wagner 1963; 45 pages)
    • Sheet 153: Bamberg (Karl Albert Habbe 2004, in communications from the Fränkische Geographische Gesellschaft 2003/2004. Pp. 55–102; 48 pp.)
  8. ^ Government of Lower Franconia / Regional Management Schweinfurter Land. Retrieved July 25, 2018 .
  9. ^ Geldersheim: Expelled pastors, disappeared altars., July 24, 2019 .;
  10. a b Schnackenwerth Association / History. Retrieved July 25, 2019 .
  11. ^ Information brochure City of Schweinfurt. Weka Info-Verlag, Mering 2002, p. 6.
  12. BayernAtlas, historical map
  13. ^ Wilhelm Volkert (ed.): Handbook of Bavarian offices, communities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 570 .
  14. ^ Wilhelm Volkert (ed.): Handbook of Bavarian offices, communities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 97 .
  15. a b c Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing
  16. Entry on the coat of arms of the district of Schweinfurt  in the database of the House of Bavarian History , accessed on September 4, 2017 .
  17. Statistics of employees subject to social security contributions in Lower Franconia, as of December 31, 2004 ( memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), on the web portal "Unterfranken in Numbers" of the government of Lower Franconia, accessed on January 2, 2014.
  18. Economy in Mainfranken, April 2016, p. 25.
  19. ^ Information from the Bavarian State Office for Statistics
  20. That's how much apartment you get in Bavaria for your wages. tz Munich, August 17, 2016 .;
  21. Beck Energy becomes BELECTRIC ( Memento from October 31, 2013 in the Internet Archive )., February 24, 2011.
  22. ^ FIS GmbH. Retrieved February 14, 2016 .
  23. ^ Winora Group. Retrieved March 29, 2020 .
  24. Stefan Sauer: Rest gently Husqvarna Gochsheim. Schweinfurter Tagblatt, October 26, 2010 .;
  25. Accell Group sells Hercules. TV Mainfranken, February 3, 2014 .;
  26. SuedLink - TenneT publishes possible routes. TV Touring Schweinfurt, September 27, 2016 .;
  27. Nicolai Kwasniewski: This is where the new energy highway should run. Der Spiegel, February 5, 2014 .;
  28. ^ Regional database Germany
  29. a b c d e Office for Food, Agriculture and Forests Schweinfurt; Information in April 2016.
  30. ^ TV Touring Schweinfurt, April 15, 2016.
  31. Das Weinbuch , Naumann and Göbel Verlag, special edition for Planet Medien AG, Zug, p. 35.
  32. Mößlein distillery., accessed on August 25, 2018 .
  33. a b Economy in Mainfranken: The Grafenrheinfeld Culture Hall - an attractive event location at the gates of the city of Schweinfurt. September 2012, p. 49.
  34. a b c Steigerwald Center. Retrieved April 2, 2016 .
  35. a b Economy in Mainfranken, March 2016, p. 42.
  36. IHK: Steigerwaldbahn would strengthen the region., July 20, 2018, accessed on January 20, 2020 .
  37. By train through the inner city of Schweinfurt., August 2, 2019 .;
  38. ^ Before CSU celebrations - Steigerwald supporters and opponents demonstrate. TV Touring Schweinfurt, March 2, 2016 .;
  39. Treetop Walk: The barricade can go up. Schweinfurter Tagblatt, March 5, 2016 .;
  40. Golf Club Schweinfurt. Retrieved March 29, 2020 .
  41. Hoppachshof Golf Academy. Retrieved November 15, 2016 .
  42. Friedrich Rueckert Poetikum - Oberlauringen. Retrieved June 28, 2017 .
  43. "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
  44. ^ Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. schweinfurt.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).