|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||194 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||269.91 km 2|
|Residents:||213,981 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||793 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||0361, 036201, 036202, 036203, 036204, 036208|
|License plate :||EF|
|Community key :||16 0 51 000|
|LOCODE :||DE ERF|
|City structure:||53 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Andreas Bausewein ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Erfurt in Thuringia|
Erfurt [ˈʔɛɐ̯.fʊɐ̯t] is the capital of the Free State of Thuringia . With a population of around 214,000 (New Year's Eve 2018), it is also the largest city in Thuringia and, alongside Jena and Gera, one of the three regional centers in the country. The most important institutions in addition to the state authorities are the Federal Labor Court , the University and University of Applied Sciences Erfurt , the Catholic diocese of Erfurt , whose cathedral is the Erfurt Cathedral , and the regional church office of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany . In addition to the Krämerbrücke , the cathedral is one of the main attractions of the city. In addition, the city has an almost three square kilometer medieval old town center with around 25 parish churches , the baroque Petersberg citadel , the oldest surviving synagogue in Central Europe and numerous half-timbered and other town houses .
Erfurt was first mentioned in a document in 742 in connection with the establishment of the diocese of Erfurt by Bonifatius - even then as a large settlement. Shortly afterwards it developed into the center of the Thuringian area, even though it was not politically part of the country for a long time. In the Middle Ages the city had a high degree of autonomy. That changed with the violent submission by the Mainz in 1664. In 1802 Erfurt became part of Prussia (with the exception of the period from 1806 to 1814, when it was under French rule as the Principality of Erfurt ) and remained so until 1945. The university was founded in 1392 opened, closed in 1816 and re-founded in 1994. This makes it the third university to be opened in Germany, but thanks to a founding privilege from 1379 it can also be considered the oldest. Martin Luther was her most famous student.
The city's economy is characterized by administration and services. In addition, Erfurt is the location of various companies in mechanical and plant engineering as well as in microelectronics. Furthermore, due to the low wage costs and the central location in Germany, an important logistics branch has established itself. After Leipzig, Erfurt is the city with the second largest trade fair in the eastern German states. Furthermore, Erfurt with the main train station is an important railway junction for passenger traffic. Erfurt is also known for its horticulture ( egapark , German Horticultural Museum , Federal Garden Show 2021 ) and as a media center (headquarters of the children's channel KiKA , several radio stations and daily newspapers).
Erfurt lies on the southern edge of the Thuringian Basin , in the wide valley of the Gera , a tributary of the Unstrut . In the south, the urban area is bordered by the wooded heights of the Steigerwald . The largest extension of the urban area is from north to south 21 km and from east to west 22.4 km. Due to the city's location in the transition from the Thuringian Basin to the foreland of the Thuringian Forest , the altitude in the city area fluctuates between in the north and in the southeast. The urban area is drained towards various rivers: the Nesse drains the western districts towards the Weser , while Gera and Gramme drain the center and east of the city towards the Elbe .
Neighboring cities are Weimar in the east, Gotha in the west, Arnstadt in the south and Sömmerda in the north, each about 20 kilometers from Erfurt. The nearest major cities are Leipzig (95 kilometers northeast), Halle (85 kilometers northeast), Jena (40 kilometers east), Kassel (110 kilometers northwest), Göttingen (95 kilometers northwest), Frankfurt am Main (180 kilometers southwest) and Nuremberg ( 160 kilometers south, distances as the crow flies). Since Erfurt is only about 50 kilometers southeast of the center of Germany , it is the central city of the country. Like most of the major cities in East Germany, the city does not have a particularly distinctive suburban belt and is not located in a metropolitan area. However, the links with the large neighboring cities of Weimar and Jena are close in many areas, which is also reflected in various regional cooperations. A term for cities like Erfurt, which are not the center of a metropolitan region , but also have more functions than a normal regional center, is that of the regiopole .
The relatively dense development in the inner city can be traced back to the fact that comparatively few buildings were destroyed in Erfurt during the Second World War and these vacant lots - in contrast to many other large cities - were mostly built on again. The local recreation areas in Erfurt are therefore almost exclusively on the outskirts, such as B. the Steigerwald, the north beach or the ega-Park . In addition to the Steigerwald, there are two other forests in the urban area, the Willroder Forest in the southeast near Windischholzhausen and the forests in Schaderoder Grund above Tiefthal in the northwest. The remaining undeveloped area is mainly used for agriculture, as productive arable farming can be carried out on the fertile soils. The only larger bodies of water are the Erfurt Lakes , a series of flooded gravel pits near Stotternheim in the north of the city.
Expansion of the urban area
Until the Erfurt Fortress was abolished by the Prussian government in 1873, the built-up urban area was within the city fortifications from the 14th century. The city fortifications surrounded Erfurt in a circle and had numerous gates that gave their names to the suburbs that developed outside of it . The citadel Petersberg and the citadel Cyriaksburg as well as two city moats (the today filled in Wilde Gera in front of the inner wall and the flood ditch in front of the outer wall) also belonged to the Erfurt fortifications . The center of this "old Erfurt" was the fish market . Between 1873 and 1918, a seamless belt of Wilhelminian-style quarters formed around the old town, with the bourgeois quarters being the Löber and Brühlervorstadt in the south-west and the workers' quarters the Krmpfer and Johannesvorstadt in the north-east. Daberstedt and the Andreasvorstadt were partly bourgeois, partly characterized by workers. This ring of old buildings in the Prussian style is still completely preserved today, which is relatively rare in Germany. In addition, the largest suburb grew in the north of the city: Ilversgehofen with over 12,000 inhabitants (1910), which was incorporated in 1911. In the period up to 1945, further residential areas were built in the north and south-east, so that the round town became a "long-drawn one".
During the GDR era, the city first grew to the north, where from 1969 the residential area Erfurt-Nord , consisting of the Rieth , Berliner Platz , Moskauer Platz and the Red Mountain was built. From 1979 Erfurt-Südost was created , consisting of the Herrenberg , the Wiesenhügel and Melchendorf with the prefabricated building areas Drosselberg and Buchenberg . After the fall of the Wall , new settlements made up of single-family and terraced houses emerged on the Ringelberg and in the surrounding villages, which were incorporated in 1950 and 1994. In the prefabricated building areas, a migration trend to the city center, surrounding villages or the old federal states became noticeable from 1990 onwards, so that several prefabricated buildings in these districts have already been demolished. New green spaces were created at these points.
The following communities border the city of Erfurt. Going clockwise, starting in the east, these are:
- in the district of Weimarer Land : Grammetal and Klettbach (the latter belongs to the Kranichfeld administrative community )
- in the Ilm district : Wachsenburg office
- in the district of Gotha : Nesse-Apfelstädt as well as Nottleben , Zimmersupra and Bienstädt ( administrative association Nesseaue )
- in the district of Sömmerda : Witterda (fulfilling municipality is Elxleben), Elxleben , Walschleben ( administrative community Gera-Aue ), Riethnordhausen ( administrative community Straußfurt ) as well as Nöda , Alperstedt , Großrudestedt , Udestedt , Kleinmölsen and Großmölsen (all administrative community Gramme-Vippach )
City structure and population distribution
The urban area of Erfurt is divided into 53 districts. 44 of these also form a district within the meaning of Section 45 of the Thuringian municipal code. The districts were established by the main statute of the city of Erfurt. These are mainly spatially separated villages that were formerly independent communities. For 38 districts there is a district council elected by the people at a citizens' meeting, which has between four and ten members depending on the number of inhabitants. Each three districts form a joint district council with neighboring districts. The chairman of this body is the local mayor, who is also elected by the people. The district councils are to be heard on all matters relating to the district and can decide on their own authority on matters whose importance does not go significantly beyond the district.
The population of Erfurt is roughly divided into three types of settlement: (old) urban districts, prefabricated building areas and villages (all incorporated towns with the exception of Melchendorf and Ilversgehofens). In 2010, 51.9% of the population lived in urban areas, 26.5% in prefabricated building areas and 21.4% of the population in the villages. In 1990 only 48% of the population lived in urban areas, 40% in prefabricated building areas and only 12% in villages (the incorporations from 1994 are already included here). In most urban districts, however, two completely different types of settlement are combined: densely built-up quarters of tenement houses adjacent to the old town (built between 1873 and 1940; the population density of these areas is around 15,000 inhabitants per square kilometer) and old new buildings (around 1950 to 1970), on the other hand, a little further out of town, there are also single-family housing estates (emerged from around 1920) with a low population density. Overall, however, compared to other German cities of the same size, Erfurt is very compact. The majority of the population is concentrated in the old town and the immediately adjacent Wilhelminian style belt of tenement houses. This concentration towards the city center has increased significantly since 2000. On the one hand, the wave of suburbanization triggered by reunification subsided , on the other hand, the inner-city renovation measures progressed, and thirdly, the peripheral prefabricated building areas are continuously shrinking. On the other hand, the area belonging to the city of Erfurt is very large, which is why the population density in relation to the entire city area is the third lowest among the major German cities after Wolfsburg and Salzgitter . The extensive rural catchment area of Erfurt has a certain tradition, so the municipal council built up extensive municipal land holdings as early as the Middle Ages, so that most of today's districts have been under the Erfurt council for the longest part of their history (with interruptions in the 19th and 20th centuries) . In Erfurt there are eight housing cooperatives that own a comparatively high proportion of the housing stock. In contrast, the proportion of single-family houses is low. In the actual urban area without the incorporated villages in 2009, of 91,011 apartments, only 5784 (just under 6.4%) were in single-family houses, while the national average was around 28.3%. The proportion of foreign population was 6.1% in 2015 (3.8% in 2012) with Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Vietnam as the main regions of origin. Districts with a prominent ethnic infrastructure (e.g. migrant retail trade, services) are, for example, around Schmidtstedter and Trommsdorffstrasse in the southeast of the old town as well as in approaches along Magdeburger Allee in Ilversgehofen.
The urban morphology of Erfurt leads to a very high level of social segregation between the residential areas. The inexpensive living space is found in the prefabricated building, which in Erfurt (unlike in Dresden or Magdeburg, for example ) was almost exclusively separate from other types of construction and in spatial concentration on the periphery and is therefore less attractive than the old building near the center. A study from 2018 found a segregation index of 38.9 based on households that were dependent on unemployment benefit II in 2014 . This means that Erfurt, together with Rostock , Erlangen and Potsdam, took the top position among the major German cities, with the average of all major cities being 26.6. The social segregation of the city continues to increase, so the proportion of households that were dependent on social benefits fell from 19.6% to 12.4% in the old town between 2005 and 2014, while in the prefabricated districts it only fell from 31% to 30 , 2%. The segregation of rich households is also comparatively high; these are concentrated in a few residential areas in the districts of Brühlervorstadt and Löbervorstadt as well as in upscale new buildings in gaps in the old town .
The climate of Erfurt is characterized by its location on the southern edge of the Thuringian Basin and the surrounding low mountain range Harz and Thuringian Forest . The lee effect of these mountains, some of which are over 1000 meters high, results in a rather dry climate for Central Europe. While the relatively flat areas of the city center and the northern parts of the city have a fairly uniform climate, there are local climatic peculiarities in the southern districts such as Bischleben or Molsdorf due to the mountain ranges Fahner Höhe and Steigerwald , which tower above the city center by about 150 meters .
The annual average temperature in Erfurt from 1961 to 1990 was 7.9 ° C, with the average daily high temperature in January being +2 ° C and the average low temperature being −2 ° C. In July, the mean maximum temperature is 24 ° C and the mean minimum temperature is 14 ° C. The average annual rainfall in the period mentioned was 500 mm, making Erfurt, together with Halle and Magdeburg, one of the driest cities in Germany. The total precipitation falls into the lower twentieth of the values recorded in Germany. Lower values are registered at just one percent of the German Weather Service's measuring stations . The driest month is January, with the most rainfall in June. In June there is 2.7 times more rainfall than in January, which means that the rainfall varies greatly. Lower seasonal fluctuations are recorded at 68% of the measuring stations. The number of annual hours of sunshine is around 1600 and, due to the heat development in the city, is around 50 hours above the values in the immediate vicinity. The average wind speed in winter is around 6 m / s, in summer it drops to 4 m / s. The main wind direction is southwest. The values come from the Erfurt weather station in the Bindersleben district at an altitude of , it should be representative of the natural area of the Thuringian Basin. Since Erfurt city center is only 200 meters above sea level, it can be assumed that the temperature values there, also due to the warming effect of the city itself, are on average around one Kelvin higher.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Erfurt
Traces of first settlement in the current urban area can already be found from prehistoric times. Archaeological finds in the north of Erfurt testify to human traces from the Paleolithic around 100,000 BC. Chr. Further finds in the Erfurt-Melchendorf mine prove a settlement in the Neolithic .
A large Germanic settlement existed to the west of Erfurt in the centuries AD , which was cut in the year 2000 during the construction of the federal motorway 71 and about half excavated from 2001 to 2003 (Erfurt-Frienstedt). For 480 the Germanic collective association of Thuringians ( Thuringi ) from Hermunduren , fishing and warning in the Erfurt area has been documented by tradition, without any archaeological finds for the 4th to 10th centuries being able to be proven. On the other hand, there were almost 200 coins from Roman times, dating back to the 3rd century, as well as 150 Roman ceramic fragments and more than 200 fibulae. There are also eleven body graves belonging to the Haßleben-Leuna group.
In the above-mentioned Germanic settlement, the Frienstedt site near Erfurt, the oldest runic Germanic word discovered in Central Germany was found on a ridge from a sacrificial shaft: "kaba" (spoken: kamba ; comb).
The oldest known documentary mention of Erfurt can be found in a letter from Boniface , anno 742 as a mission archbishop to Pope Zacharias II Place (in loco) which is called 'Erphesfurt', which was a fortified settlement (urbs) of pagan farmers long ago ... "
The thus founded diocese of Erfurt was united with that of Mainz as early as 755, when Boniface became Archbishop of Mainz . The reasons for this are unclear; the proximity to the border with the Saxons and Slavs may have played a role. At the latest when the diocese was founded, a bishop's church must have existed and it can be assumed that this was a forerunner of today's cathedral on the Domberg. In 805, Charlemagne declared Erfurt to be one of the border trading centers, not far from the border of what was then the Franconian Empire . Erfurt had a royal palace under the Carolingians and Ottonians , which is assumed to be safe on today's Petersberg . In the 10th century Erfurt came under the secular rule of the Archbishops of Mainz, which lasted until the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss in 1803.
Outstanding evidence of Jewish culture from the high and late Middle Ages has been preserved in Erfurt. These include the Old Synagogue , construction of which began in 1094, making it the oldest surviving synagogue in Europe. The neighboring, dating from the 13th century mikvah is one of the oldest in Europe. In 1998, during excavations in Michaelisstrasse, a Jewish treasure was found, the content of which is one of the most important evidence of Jewish-medieval culture in Europe. The first Jewish community came to an abrupt end with a plague pogrom in 1349. A second Jewish community emerged from 1354 until the Erfurt council withdrew protection from the Jews in 1453/54 and forced them to emigrate. Only in the 19th century Jews settled in the city again.
With around 18,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, the city developed into a medieval city in the 14th and 15th centuries, only exceeded in size by Cologne , Nuremberg and Magdeburg . Erfurt thus reached the peak of its economic, political and spiritual-cultural development in the Middle Ages and became the center of trade in the Middle Holy Roman Empire. This also included the development of Erfurt, which began in the 13th century, into one of the largest woad markets in the empire. In 1331 Erfurt received the trade fair privilege from Emperor Ludwig IV.
As early as the 13th century, the city had grown into an educational center of far-reaching importance. No other city in Germany had more students in the second half of the 13th century. In the first half of the 14th century, the Erfurt General Studies developed into the most important educational institution in the Roman-German Empire . In 1392 the city - and not the archbishop - opened the third university on German soil, which with its founding privilege of 1379 can also be considered the oldest.
Early modern age
One of the most famous graduates of the University of Erfurt was Martin Luther , who studied here from 1501 to 1505 and received his master's degree from the philosophical faculty . During the Reformation , the city mostly turned to the evangelical creed. The council of Erfurt signed the Lutheran formula of concord from 1577.
On April 21, 1618, a contract was signed between the Archbishop of Mainz, Johann Schweikhard von Kronberg, and the city of Erfurt, which confirmed the religious freedom that had been granted earlier and expressly extended it to the Erfurt countryside. Regarding the legal status of the city, it was determined that it was owned by the Archbishopric of Mainz and that it waived any imperial estate . The Thirty Years War severely damaged the city. Erfurt was occupied by the Swedes from 1632 to 1635 and from 1637 to 1650 . The Peace of Westphalia did not bring the city the hoped-for imperial freedom. This sparked off disputes for years.
In 1664 French and Imperial execution troops of the Elector of Mainz and Archbishop Johann Philipp von Schönborn conquered the city. This began the Electoral Mainz rule. As the capital of the Erfurt State , Erfurt was ruled together with Eichsfeld by a Mainz governor who had his seat in the Electoral Mainz governorship (today's State Chancellery). In order to prevent further uprisings and as protection against the Protestant powers, the Elector of Mainz and Archbishop, Johann Philipp von Schönborn, had a citadel built on the site of the Petersberg .
In 1682 and 1683 Erfurt experienced the worst plague years in its history, in 1683 alone over half of the population succumbed to the deadly disease.
The persecution of witches from 1526 to 1705 is known in Erfurt . Trial files are only incomplete. Twenty people got into witch trials , at least eight people were killed. In 1705 the 42-year-old goose-girl Anna Martha Hausburg from Mittelhausen was tortured, beheaded and then burned. Her 7-year-old daughter Katharina Christina had to watch her mother being executed.
According to the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss , the city and country area of Erfurt came to Prussia in 1802 as compensation for lost areas on the left bank of the Rhine . After Napoleon's victory over Prussia in the battle of Jena and Auerstedt , French troops occupied the fortress on October 16, 1806 without a fight after their surrender. In 1807, Napoleon declared Erfurt together with Blankenhain as the Principality of Erfurt to be an imperial domain that was not part of the Rhine Confederation , but was directly subordinate to him.
In 1814, after the successful siege of Erfurt by Prussian, Austrian and Russian troops, the French occupation ended, and in 1815, due to the Congress of Vienna , Erfurt was again assigned to Prussia, which ceded most of the land area and the Blankenhainer area to Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach . The hardship prevailing at the time was alleviated by British aid funds, which in particular also benefited war orphans and were part of the first major humanitarian aid campaign ever. With the settlement of important mechanical engineering companies at the end of the 19th century, Erfurt became an important industrial location . Horticulture and seed cultivation are still of particular importance today . The native Erfurters owe the nickname " broad bean " to this fact . Since 1867 the company " NL Chriesteren " has played an important role here . Around 1900, commercial horticulture in the “city of flowers” Erfurt had a leading position worldwide.
In 1906 Erfurt became a major city with 100,000 inhabitants . The First World War killed 3,579 citizens. When the state of Thuringia with the state capital Weimar was formed in 1920 , the Prussian areas of Thuringia including Erfurt were not included due to the resistance of the Prussian government. Like Erfurt, some of these belonged to the province of Saxony . On June 26, 1921, the Thuringian costume and local festival took place in Erfurt.
After positive development from 1923 to 1928, the city was massively affected by the global economic crisis from 1929 onwards .
During the Night of the Reichspogrom , the Great Synagogue was burned down and the deportation of around 800 Jewish residents began. The memorial book of the Federal Archives for the victims of the National Socialist persecution of Jews in Germany (1933-1945) lists 447 Jewish residents of Erfurt who were deported and mostly murdered .
Between 1939 and 1945 between 10,000 and 15,000 prisoners of war as well as women and men from numerous countries occupied by Germany had to do forced labor , mainly in the city's armaments factories .
During the Second World War , Erfurt experienced 27 British and American air raids , not counting the numerous attacks by fighter bombers in April 1945. 1,100 tons of bombs were dropped. About 1,600 civilians lost their lives. 530 buildings were totally destroyed, 2550 heavily or moderately damaged. 17% of the apartments were completely destroyed, many more badly damaged. The historic old town of Erfurt was particularly affected. 23,000 people lost their homes. 100 industrial buildings were destroyed or badly damaged. Valuable secular and sacred buildings were lost, such as the Collegium Maius of the old university and the library of the Augustinian monastery . All the churches in the city center were more or less badly hit by bombs and artillery fire. The ruins of the Barefoot Church , which was destroyed by an air mine on November 26, 1944, is still a memorial today. For April 3 and 4, 1945, the Royal Air Force had planned an area bombing of Erfurt using 2,740 tons of bombs. The attack was canceled due to the rapid advance of US ground forces.
On April 12, 1945, units of the 3rd US Army under the command of General George S. Patton occupied Erfurt, after fighting in the city and its surroundings. On July 1, the Prussian district government ceased its activities. The city was assigned to the state of Thuringia with the administrative district of Erfurt. On July 3rd, based on the 1st London Zone Protocol of 1944 and the resolutions of the Yalta Conference, Red Army units took over the city, and Erfurt became part of the Soviet occupation zone .
Erfurt began to slowly recover from the aftermath of the war. 30,000 cubic meters of rubble were cleared from the streets, the tram and gas supply were put back into operation and the schools reopened. After the dissolution of the State of Prussia on February 25, 1947, which was also legally carried out with the Allied Control Council Act No. 46 , the Thuringian State Parliament declared Erfurt to be the state capital of Thuringia on July 7, 1948, before the State of Thuringia was dissolved in 1952 and divided into three districts, where Erfurt became the seat of the Erfurt district .
During the GDR era , the large-scale demolition of the Krmpferviertel on the eastern edge of the old town began at the end of the 1960s. Due to the new construction of 11 to 16-storey and up to 120-meter-long prefabricated buildings , the townscape, which had been relatively intact and characterized by church towers, was permanently impaired - despite the war damage. In addition, new residential areas with a total of over 17,000 apartments were built on the outskirts of the city by the end of the 1970s. The demolition of the Andreasviertel was prevented by citizen protests and the fall of 1989.
In March 1970, Erfurt was the scene of the Erfurt summit meeting between Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt and the Chairman of the GDR Council of Ministers, Willi Stoph . Brandt showed himself, among other things, at the window of the Hotel Erfurter Hof , which is opposite the main train station . The crowd greeted him enthusiastically with “Willy, Willy” - and “Willy Brandt at the window!” - shouts.
In 1975 riots in Erfurt led to the first pogrom-like incidents after 1945 in Germany. The events from August 10th to 13th were directed against Algerian contract workers who had been employed in various Erfurt factories since June 1975. During this period, Germans chased Algerians through downtown Erfurt several times and attacked them with iron bars and wooden slats, among other things.
In the fall of 1989 in Erfurt, too, increasing demonstrations initiated the turning point and peaceful revolution in the GDR . In 1991, 49 of 88 members of the state parliament voted for Erfurt as the Thuringian state capital. In 1994 the Erfurt University was re-established; also in that year the Episcopal Office Erfurt-Meiningen, which existed since 1973, was raised to the diocese of Erfurt.
The image of the city has changed significantly in the years since the fall of the Wall. Many buildings in the historic old town have been renovated, and new buildings have been built in some places. The redesign of the fish market was awarded the special prize of the German Urban Development Prize 2014.
On April 26, 2002, Erfurt got into the media around the world as a result of the Erfurt rampage . The rampage at Gutenberg-Gymnasium was the first rampage committed by a student at a school in Germany. Eleven teachers, a trainee teacher, a secretary, two students and a policeman were killed. Then the 19-year-old gunman killed himself.
Since the 1990s, organized crime in Erfurt has been able to gain a foothold with several mafia groups, such as the Italian 'Ndrangheta , but also the Armenian mafia ( thieves in law ). There was, among other things, a robbery and an arson attack in the catering trade, as well as a shooting in the street in 2014. The rocker group Hells Angels was also active in the city.
|1911, April 1st||Ilversgehofen|
|1937||Parts of the Marbach town hall|
|1938, April 1st||Hochheim , Melchendorf and parts of the Bindersleben and Salomonsborner local corridors|
|1950, July 1st||Bindersleben , Bischleben , Dittelstedt , Gispersleben , Marbach , Möbisburg , Rhoda and Schmira|
|1994, April 1||Alach , Ermstedt , Frienstedt , Gottstedt , Salomonsborn and Schaderode|
|1994, July 1st||Azmannsdorf , Büßleben , Egstedt , Hochstedt , Kerspleben , Kühnhausen , Linderbach , Mittelhausen , Molsdorf , Niedernissa , Rohda , Schwerborn , Stotternheim , Tiefthal , Töttleben , Urbich , Vieselbach , Wallichen , Waltersleben and Windischholzhausen|
|1994, October 12th||Töttelstädt|
In 1880 Erfurt had more than 50,000 inhabitants. In 1906 the city's population exceeded 100,000, making it a major city . Shortly after the end of the Second World War on December 1, 1945, the city had 164,998 inhabitants, in 1973 it exceeded the limit of 200,000 inhabitants. In 1989 the population reached its historic high of just over 220,000. After the reunification in the GDR, the city lost a total of around 20,000 people through emigration, suburbanization and the decline in the birth rate, despite numerous incorporations between 1994 and 2002. The population has been rising again since 2003, so that around a quarter of the decline after the reunification has been offset. This means that Erfurt has had the most stable demographic development of the comparably large East German cities ( Magdeburg , Halle , Chemnitz and Rostock ) since 1990.
On December 31, 2019, a total of 214,417 people with main residence were counted in the population register of the state capital Erfurt. These are divided into 104,630 males and 109,787 females. The number of foreign residents living in Erfurt is currently 18,811. The proportion of foreigners is thus 8.8 percent. The average age of the population living in Erfurt was 44.3 years on this date.
Erfurt has been represented in the German Bundestag by Antje Tillmann ( CDU ) since 2009 . In the 2009 Bundestag election , she won the direct mandate in the Erfurt constituency with 30.5% of the vote. In the federal elections in 2013 and 2017 , the voters confirmed the direct mandate. The direct candidate Carsten Schneider (SPD) entered the Bundestag via the state list. In the federal elections in 1998 , 2002 and 2005 , he had won the direct mandate in the Erfurt constituency.
|THE LEFT||8 (-3)|
|FW||2 (± 0)|
|PIRATES||1 (± 0)|
|III. path||0 (± 0)|
When voting in the city council, different majorities form across party and parliamentary groups, depending on the topic.
In the first free local elections in the GDR on May 6, 1990, the people of Erfurt elected a 160-member city council - the largest in all of Germany. The assembly in turn elected the mayor. Elections to the city council in its current concept have been held since 1994.
Lord Mayor since 1817
Since the 1820s, Erfurt had more local self-government again and on January 1, 1872, became an independent city with a mayor. Today the Lord Mayor is the head of the city administration of Erfurt and represents the city externally. He works full-time and is directly elected by the population.
The following people have been mayors of Erfurt since 1817:
- 1817–1833: Wilhelm August Türk
- 1833–1850: Karl Friedrich Wagner
- 1850–1851: Hermann von Mallinckrodt
- 1851–1871: Baron Carl von Oldershausen
- 1871–1889: Richard Breslau
- 1890–1895: Gustav Schneider
- 1895–1919: Hermann Schmidt
- 1919–1933: Bruno Mann
- 1933–1934: Theodor Pichier ( NSDAP )
- 1935–1936: Max Zeitler (NSDAP)
- 1936–1945: Walter Siegfried Kießling (NSDAP)
- 1945 (April 15 to July 7, 1945): Otto Gerber (independent), Acting Lord Mayor
- 1945 (July 7, 1945 to April 1946): Hermann Jahn ( KPD )
- 1946 (May 5, 1946 to September 1946) Georg Boock ( SED )
- 1946 (September 26th to October) Paul Hach ( LDPD )
- 1946 (December 1946) to 1961: Georg Boock ( SED )
- 1961–1969: Rudolf-Dietrich Nottrodt (SED)
- 1969–1982: Heinz Scheinpflug (SED)
- 1982–1989: Rosemarie Seibert (SED)
- 1989–1990: Siegfried Hirschfeld (SED)
- 1990-2006: Manfred Ruge ( CDU )
- since 2006: Andreas Bausewein ( SPD )
The current mayor, Andreas Bausewein, has been in office since 2006 and was re-elected in 2012 and 2018, with a runoff election in each of the 2006 and 2018 elections.
In 2004 the city of Erfurt had a debt of 226.7 million euros, which could be reduced step by step in the following years. In 2014, the city's debt level reached a provisional minimum of 143.6 million euros and recently rose again slightly to 152.9 million euros in 2015 (727.69 euros per inhabitant).
coat of arms
|Blazon : "The coat of arms of the city of Erfurt shows a silver , six-spoke wheel , with two spokes standing vertically against a red background."|
Foundation of the coat of arms: On the oldest city seal from the 12th century, the patron saint of Mainz , Saint Martin , was depicted. The six-spoke wheel appears in the seal around the middle of the 17th century. The wheel was first found on coins, memorial stones, in printed works, etc. as the city's coat of arms around 1285. This coat of arms is borrowed from that of the Archdiocese of Mainz , to which the city belonged for over 1000 years, from 755 to 1802.
The meaning of the Mainz wheel has not yet been clearly clarified: The popular explanation is the widespread legend of Archbishop Willigis , who was the son of a poor wagon builder and, despite the mockery of the noble Mainz canons, is said to have used the white wheel in the red field as a coat of arms .
Other explanations refer to the symbol of the wheel in the mythology of the Greeks and Romans, as well as the wheel as a standard of a Roman legion . See more explanations the wheel as " cross or monogram of Christ in Nimbus circle " as a symbolic representation of a carriage (the carriage to the church) or surrounded with a sealing edge bishop's ring .
The city's motto is Rendezvous in the middle of Germany .
With the aim of making the city better known and of standardizing the logos of the individual areas of the city administration, a new logo was presented in July 2009, which met mostly with criticism and rejection.
The criticisms were directed in particular against the color emphasis of the syllable "Er", the grammatically questionable expression "Landeshauptstadt Thüringen", as well as its positioning in the logo. Above all, the new design of the originally medieval wagon wheel was criticized.
Due to public criticism, the Mayor of Erfurt, Andreas Bausewein, presented a new version of the logo at the beginning of August. However, only the Erfurt bike was revised, which is now recognizable as such. The other points of criticism were not addressed.
Erfurt maintains a twinning relationship with the following eleven cities :
Culture and sights
The new building of the Erfurt Theater in Brühl was opened in 2003. It has space for 800 spectators and holds around 250 events annually. The theater, to which the Erfurt Philharmonic Orchestra also belongs, also organizes the Cathedral Stage Festival every year .
In addition to the Erfurt theater, there are also smaller independent theaters in Erfurt, namely the Schotte, the Erfurt theater company, the Neuen Schauspiel Erfurt as well as the Theater im Palais and the Galli Theater . The Erfurt cabaret Die Arche has existed since 1979 and a second cabaret since 2003 with the Laughing floor . The theater offerings also include two puppet theaters, the Waidspeicher Theater and the Erfreulichen Theater , which perform plays for both children and adults.
There are numerous museums in Erfurt with different collections. They are of supraregional importance in their respective area.
- The Erfurt City Museum is located in the Haus zum Stockfisch on Johannesstrasse in the east of the old town. The city's history has been presented there since 1974, with a focus on the late medieval and early modern history of Martin Luther and Erfurt as a university town . The city museum includes the museum Neue Mühle at the Schlösserbrücke with a functioning historical watermill as well as the moated castle Kapellendorf near Weimar, the Benaryspeicher on Gothaer Platz with a printing museum and an air raid shelter in the inner courtyard of the Wigbertikirche .
- The Angermuseum is located in the Kurmainzischen Packhof am Anger and is the art history museum of Erfurt. It shows the most important collection of medieval art from Thuringia as well as numerous graphics from the 20th century and an extensive collection of handicrafts. The life stages of the expressionist Erich Heckel also achieved great fame . It is the only surviving wall painting by the artist. The Anger Museum in 1886 from the estate of Frederick Nerly founded and has the Barfüßerkirche and in Bischleben located Margaretha Reichardt House as branches.
- The Erfurt Natural History Museum is located in a former woad store in the Große Arche near the fish market. It was founded in 1922 and has been at its current location since 1995. The focus of the collection is on the flora, fauna and geology of Thuringia. The trunk of a 350-year-old oak tree is installed over several floors in the stairwell of the museum.
- The German Horticultural Museum is located in the former Cyriaksburg citadel on the western edge of the city behind Gothaer Platz and is part of the egapark . His focus is the development of horticulture and garden art in Central Europe. The museum opened in 1961.
- The Museum of Thuringian Folklore Erfurt shows exhibits of everyday and social culture from several centuries and has been located in the building of the former Great Hospital on Juri-Gagarin-Ring in the east of the old town since 1888 .
- The old synagogue is located on Waagegasse near the fish market. It was opened in 2009 and shows the treasure of Erfurt as well as important Jewish writings from the Middle Ages. You can also visit the Small Synagogue and take a tour of the medieval mikveh .
- There is a military history exhibition in the commandant's house of the Petersberg Citadel . In addition, tours begin here through the so-called listening passages, an underground passage system behind the fortress walls, which was used to hear nighttime attackers during excavation or blasting work.
- In the memorial site of Topf & Sons, south of Weimarische Strasse in the southeast of Erfurt, the permanent exhibition entitled Technicians of the 'Final Solution' deals with . Topf & Sons: The Auschwitz Stove Builders the company's complicity and complicity in the Holocaust. The opening took place on January 27, 2011, the day of commemoration of the victims of National Socialism .
- The Andreasstraße memorial and educational site is a reminder of the former MfS remand prison there and offers a modern exhibition on Thuringia from 1949 to 1989.
- In today's archive of the Stasi documents on the Petersberg there is an information and documentation center, which addresses the structure and functioning of the MfS as well as its historical development. In addition, free archive tours are offered.
- In the dollhouse museum more than 100 dollhouses, doll kitchens, shops, farms and toys are exhibited.
- Changing exhibitions of contemporary and modern art take place in the Kunsthalle Erfurt in the Haus zum Roten Ochsen at the Fischmarkt.
- An exhibition of concrete art has been located in the Peterskirche on the Petersberg since 1993 .
- In the Molsdorf district , about ten kilometers south of the city center, is the late Baroque Molsdorf Castle . In addition to the eight hectare park and the castle itself, it offers an exhibition of the estate of the painter Otto Knöpfer .
The core of Erfurt is the old town, which can be divided into two parts: the inner old town within the first city fortification from the 10th century and the outer old town within the second city fortification from the 14th century. Both wall rings can still be clearly seen today; the inner one is traced from the Juri-Gagarin-Ring and the outer one from the city ring . The inner old town still largely shows a medieval image, which is characterized by the more than 20 Gothic parish churches and the surrounding half-timbered, town and trading houses. Most of them date from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries (Renaissance / Baroque). New buildings were erected in later times in the inner old town, but this was essentially limited to the main shopping streets. The outer old town, on the other hand, already shows a more mixed architectural picture. In addition to small early modern buildings (e.g. in Brühl ), there are also large buildings from the Wilhelminian era (e.g. in the station district) and subsequent eras (especially along the Juri-Gagarin-Ring).
It was not until 1873 that Erfurt lost its status as a fortress city. The city fortifications were removed and the areas outside were released for development. This allowed the city to develop quickly, but also very regularly. In the following 60 years, a belt of residential areas (the Erfurt suburbs ) was built around the old town . The oldest buildings of this phase are on Magdeburger Allee , and the youngest are the blocks of flats of the Neue Sachlichkeit from around 1930 in the Krämpfervorstadt. This belt did not have to suffer from war damage or later renovations, so that it is still completely preserved today; only a few industrial buildings were demolished after reunification. Nevertheless, there are big differences in the appearance of the districts: For example, richly decorated, detached villas dominate in the southwest of the city, while in the northeast, rather monotonous working-class quarters with the typical five-story block construction predominate. In contrast to many other cities in central Germany, these houses are unplastered and without facade decoration, typically made of red brick (made in the brickworks on the Rote Berg in the north of the city). The renovation status here is relatively high, the proportion of fallow land is rather low.
After the Second World War, the further development of the city was determined by the state housing programs in the GDR. The two large estates Erfurt-Nord and Erfurt-Südost were built with high-rise buildings in prefabricated construction. After reunification, the city's population declined due to moves and suburbanization . Suburbanization areas were primarily the Ringelberg in the east, Marbach in the west and other villages in the vicinity of Erfurt. In the city, the construction of commercial and administrative buildings dominated in order to fulfill the tasks of the new function as the state capital. In addition, extensive renovation of the old buildings in the old town and the suburbs was achieved. Recently, more and more new residential buildings have been built on vacant lots in the old town.
The most important Romanesque building in the city is St. Peter's Church . The Erfurt Cathedral as well as the monastery and parish churches of the old town, such as the Predigerkirche or the Kaufmannskirche, date from the Gothic period . Secular buildings such as the Kornhofspeicher were also built at this time. The renaissance in Erfurt is characterized by the construction of representative town houses. Examples of this are the Haus zum Roten Ochsen at the fish market or the Haus zum Stockfisch in Johannesstrasse . The Kurmainzische Lieutenancy (today the seat of the State Chancellery) was built as an administrative building in two phases. It has a renaissance and a baroque part. Another important baroque building in the city is the Libra . The great Petersberg Citadel was also built during the Baroque period. The following epoch of classicism was not particularly influential in Erfurt; buildings from this period are the Kaisersaal , the Small Synagogue and the Old Central Station. In historicism , in addition to numerous residential buildings, the town hall , the court and the St. Thomas Church were built . Between the First and Second World War, for example, the Luther Church ( Art Deco ), the Thuringia Hall , the Jacobsenviertel and the Landtag were built . The entire complex of the egapark dates back to 1960 and the exhibition center , the New Theater and the Gunda-Niemann-Stirnemann-Halle from the post-reunification period .
Churches and monasteries
Because of its numerous churches and monasteries, Erfurt was nicknamed "Thuringian Rome" in the Middle Ages. Today there are 22 churches and five free-standing church towers of former churches in the old town. There are also eight other churches in the other parts of the city and 42 in the incorporated villages, which means that Erfurt now has 77 historic church buildings. There used to be up to 38 churches in the old town (including the monastery churches of the 14 Erfurt monasteries).
The city's landmark is the unique ensemble of cathedral and Severikirche on Domplatz . The churches are located on the Domberg and can be reached via the 70 cathedral steps . The cathedral's largest bell, the Gloriosa , is the largest free-swinging medieval bell in the world. Cast in 1497, the bell is 2.57 meters high, 2.54 meters in diameter and weighs 11,450 kilograms. It is still rung today on special events and church holidays.
The Barfüßerkirche was built in 1231 and once belonged to the Franciscan monastery. The church was largely destroyed in a bomb attack in 1944. In its ruin, theater performances take place in the open air every summer. A renovation is currently planned. The costs should amount to two million euros. The idea is not to restore it, as is the case with the Frauenkirche in Dresden, but rather to build a superstructure in order to preserve the remaining historical substance as a cultural heritage.
The Aegidien Church, located on Wenigemarkt , was first mentioned in 1110. It was one of the two bridgehead churches of the Krämerbrücke, but is the only one that has survived today. Access to the Krämerbrücke is through an accessible gate in the church. Its tower can be climbed and offers a unique view of the entire old town of Erfurt.
The preacher's church , built between 1270 and 1450, with the associated preacher's monastery is a three-aisled cross-rib vaulted basilica and one of the most important buildings of mendicant order architecture in Germany. Dendrological studies have shown that the roof structure , which is made entirely of wood, comes from Thuringian spruce trees that were felled between 1279 and 1285. The Predigerkloster thus has the oldest roof structure in the German-speaking area.
At 60 meters, the tallest tower in the old town is that of the Nikolaikirche in Augustinerstraße. Other well-known churches are the Peterskirche on the Petersberg , the Kaufmannskirche , the Lorenzkirche and the Schottenkirche .
The Augustinian monastery , built in 1277, is best known as an important Luther site. After completing his studies in Erfurt, Martin Luther joined the Augustinian hermits . He lived here from 1505 to 1511 and was ordained a priest in the cathedral in 1507. Today the Augustinian monastery is used as an international meeting place. In the summer months, concerts and theater performances take place in the renaissance courtyard of the monastery.
Today's house of worship for believing Jews in Erfurt is the New Synagogue , consecrated in 1952 on the southern Juri-Gagarin-Ring. The Old Synagogue (now a museum), located near the Krämerbrücke, is one of the oldest surviving synagogues in Europe, over 900 years old. The approximately 750-year-old mikvah, discovered during construction work in 2007, belongs to the old synagogue .
Erfurt has one of the best preserved and largest medieval city centers in Germany. A notable building is the Krämerbrücke , which was first mentioned in 1117 and was built of stone in 1325 after several fires. The 120 m long structure spans the Gera and is built with 32 houses. This makes the Krämerbrücke the longest fully built and inhabited bridge in Europe. Once there were bridgehead churches at both entrances, today only the Aegidien Church at the Wenigemarkt entrance remains .
In addition to the Krämerbrücke, the Lehmannsbrücke, first mentioned in 1108 and replaced by a prestressed concrete structure in 1976 , the Schlösserbrücke and the Lange Brücke were important bridges over the Gera in the Middle Ages . The Roßbrücke from 1750 is also one of the oldest preserved natural stone bridges in the city .
The Cyriaksburg , which was built in 1480 and expanded into a citadel in the 17th century, is located on the grounds of the egapark . Today it houses the German Horticultural Museum and a viewing platform on one of the two fortress towers.
The Erfurt town hall is located on the fish market between Anger and Domplatz . The neo-Gothic building was built between 1870 and 1874 and expanded in the 1930s. In the staircase it contains numerous wall paintings with scenes from Erfurt and Thuringia history. Opposite the town hall is the statue of a Roman warrior, erected in 1561, who is supposed to represent the city patron Martin von Tours . There are other buildings at the fish market that are well worth seeing, such as the Haus zum Roten Ochsen , built in 1562 and now home to an art gallery. To the left of the town hall is the Haus zum Breiten Herd with its richly decorated Renaissance facade. To the right of the town hall is the savings bank building built in 1934/35 in the New Objectivity style .
Other buildings worth seeing are the Haus zum Güldenen Krönbacken , the Haus zum Sonneborn , which today houses the registry office, the Kurmainzische Lieutenancy (now Thuringian State Chancellery) and the Engelsburg building complex , the origin of the letters of obscurity . The nearby Collegium Maius of the old university in Michaelisstrasse was reconstructed until 2011 and now serves as the administrative headquarters of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany.
The roof structure of the house at Dacheröden am Anger burned out completely on August 24, 2006. The Renaissance building was then renovated for 1.5 million euros. The house was a meeting place for scholars, writers and artists in the 18th and 19th centuries. Goethe , Schiller , Dalberg and Wilhelm von Humboldt were often guests of this house. In 1833, the successful entrepreneur from Erfurt, Sebastian Lucius, combined the two previous buildings to form what is now “Haus Dacheröden” and set up his textile company there. At Anger 25 there is a savings bank building from 1930 in the New Objectivity style.
As the site of Napoleon's Erfurt Prince Congress in 1808 and the Erfurt Party Congress of the SPD in 1891, the classicist culture and congress center Kaisersaal is one of the most historically significant buildings.
The first German-German summit meeting between Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt and Minister Council Chairman Willi Stoph took place in the former Hotel Erfurter Hof , built in 1904 . The “Willy Brandt Room” is reminiscent of the spectacular ovations for Brandt by Erfurt.
The textile office , built in 1912, was demolished in December 2014.
Recreational areas and parks
Zoo and aquarium
The Thuringian Zoopark Erfurt is located in the north of Erfurt and with 63 hectares represents the third largest zoological garden in Germany. The zoo is particularly home to large herbivores such as elephants , giraffes and rhinos as well as freshwater fish and is home to a total of 2500 animals and 326 species. The zoo park was founded in 1959 and is spread over two locations. This includes the main area on the Roten Berg and the aquarium on the Nordpark , which has been a branch of the zoo since 2003.
The aquarium housed around 300 animal species and had one of the largest collections of freshwater fish in Germany. In the center of the aquarium was a reef tank with a volume of 54,000 liters. The aquarium was closed indefinitely from March 31, 2017. The city administration justified this with "technical defects". Reopening is no longer possible because the building does not meet valid approval criteria and cannot be retrofitted. The animal population was given or sold to various interested parties.
Erfurt horticultural exhibition egapark
The Erfurt horticultural exhibition , the egapark, is located on the western outskirts of Erfurt at the Cyriaksburg citadel. In 1961 the “I. International Horticultural Exhibition (iga) of Socialist Countries ”, which was consolidated as iga. The 36 hectare area is a listed building and includes, among other things, the largest ornamental flower bed in Europe and the largest playground in Thuringia. In addition to a rose garden and a Japanese garden, there are numerous themed houses in the egapark, such as the tropical house, the butterfly house, the cactus house and the orchid house. In addition , the Cyriaksburg citadel is located on the site and houses the German Horticultural Museum. The egapark is also the site of regular major events, such as the festival of lights in August and the late summer beer market. The garden monument from the 1960s, which is unique in Germany, is to be thoroughly renovated over the next few years. Erfurt was selected to host the Federal Garden Show 2021 . It should take place on the Petersberg, in the Nordpark and in the egapark.
Parks and cemeteries
Erfurt has numerous parks, for example the city park near the main train station, the south park next to the stadium and the largest, the romantic, largely natural Venice park north of the Krämerbrücke, the north park , in which the north bath is located, which has been demolished and rebuilt Reopened in 2010. Another park is the Luisenpark , located directly on the Gera in the southwest of Erfurt. The botanical-dendrological garden is also located there as a terraced facility. Right next to the old town is the 1.5 hectare Brühler Garten . The self-contained garden is a listed building and was redesigned in 2001. In the south of the city is the 700 hectare Steigerwald , which among other things offers 36 km of hiking trails.
Part of the Erfurt parks emerged from cemeteries . Today's Erfurt main cemetery with memorials and graves of honor also has a park-like character. There are numerous other cemeteries in the districts of Erfurt , which used to be villages.
The Krämerbrückenfest , which has been held annually on the third weekend in June since 1975, is the largest old town festival in Thuringia and regularly attracts a six-figure number of visitors. Thuringian handicrafts and culinary specialties are sold throughout the old town. Cabaret and a medieval market round off the three-day festival. At the same time as the Krämerbrückenfest, the New Orleans Music Festival takes place, which presents the various musical styles from New Orleans from jazz to blues to boogie woogie and gospel on the stage behind the town hall .
Every year on November 10th, the Ecumenical Martinsfest takes place on Domplatz, which is traditionally called Martini in the city. The St. Martin (Martini) is celebrated in Erfurt a day earlier, since in addition to the death of the patron saint Martin of Tours (11 November 397), also the birthday of Martin Luther is celebrated (10 November 1483). For this reason, the Catholic and Protestant Churches celebrate the festival together. On the evening of the festive event, thousands of people from Erfurt come to the Domplatz, children bring lanterns so that the Domplatz is brightly lit. After the festive event, it is customary in Erfurt for the children to go from house to house singing with their lanterns and receive sweets in return.
The Erfurt Christmas Market takes place annually from the end of November to December 22nd and is visited by around two million people, making it one of the largest Christmas markets in Germany. It takes place mainly on the Domplatz in front of the illuminated ensemble of the cathedral and Severikirche. There are smaller offshoots of the Christmas market on the Anger, Willy-Brandt-Platz , the fish market and the Wenigemarkt .
The most famous culinary specialty of Erfurt is the Thuringian Rostbratwurst . In the city center several stalls sell Rostbratwurst which are traditionally eaten with mustard . Other specialties are the Thuringian liver sausage and red sausage , which are offered by various Erfurt butchers . The names of all three sausage products are protected as a geographical designation of origin (GIG). Furthermore, salads and soups based on broad beans and watercress are typical starters of Erfurt's cuisine and testify to the city's long horticultural tradition.
Further specialties are the St. Martin's goose together with Thuringian dumplings and red cabbage as well as the St. Martin's croissant , a sweet puff pastry that is traditionally eaten on St. Martin's Day on November 10th. In addition, the Erfurt Schittchen , a Christmas cake, is baked during Advent . The pastry was first mentioned in a document in 1329 and is considered the oldest Christmas stollen in Germany.
Music and night life
In the 17th and 18th centuries, numerous members of the Bach family worked in Erfurt , who had dominated the city's musical life for an entire century since the 1630s to such an extent that all of Erfurt's town pipers were called "Bache" in 1793 , although by then no musicians were long ago this name lived more in Erfurt. From 1678 to 1690 Johann Pachelbel was employed as an organist at the Predigerkirche. The most important figure in the city's musical life in the first third of the 20th century was Richard Wetz , who ran the Erfurt Musikverein between 1906 and 1925 and whose main compositional works were written here. One of the musicians of the post-war period is Johann Cilenšek , who also composed the majority of his works in Erfurt.
Today Erfurt has a lively music scene, with live concerts almost every weekend. Large events take place in the exhibition hall or the Thuringia hall. The house of social services (in the vernacular trade union building), the city garden, the old opera and the museum cellar are available for smaller concerts. Jazz concerts are also held on many weekends in the Erfurt jazz club on the fish market. In addition, the organize the Theater Erfurt belonging Philharmonic Orchestra Erfurt and Stadtharmonie Erfurt concerts regularly.
In the Predigerkirche there is a concert on the Schuke organ every Wednesday during the summer months. The “International Organ Concerts Dom zu Erfurt” take place in St. Mary's Cathedral on Saturdays from May to August, and continue from around the end of July on the Baroque Volckland organ in the Cruciskirche. In cooperation with the "Franz Liszt" University of Music in Weimar, the "International Bach / Liszt Organ Competition Erfurt-Weimar-Merseburg" has been held every three years since 2008, resulting from the "International Organ Competition in Erfurt Domberg-Prediger". However, the city of Erfurt remains the most important venue for this competition. In addition, the church music program includes, for example, night concerts in the Augustinian monastery and performances of large oratorios by the Augustinerkantorei and Andreas Chamber Orchestra, as well as by the Dombergchor in cooperation with various orchestras, often with the Thuringian Chamber Orchestra Weimar. The Erfurt Church Music Days in September are an ecumenical series of concerts that mainly take place on the Domberg (Catholic) as well as in the Predigerkirche (Protestant) and the Augustinian Monastery (Protestant).
Erfurt is also one of the venues for the Thuringia Jazz Mile . In addition, the Highfield Festival , one of the largest rock and alternative festivals in Germany, took place once a year between 1997 and 2009 at the nearby Hohenfelden reservoir . On the last day of school before the summer holidays, the festival Mega Rock in der Ferien took place in Erfurt from 1999 to 2012 , which appealed to the young audience with well-known pop music acts. Erfurt is also home to various singers and bands, such as Clueso , Northern Lite , Chapeau Claque , Boogie Pimps , Norman Sinn , Ryo and Yvonne Catterfeld .
In addition to live music, Erfurt's nightlife also offers a wide range of clubs and discos. The Musikpark im Erfurter Hof is a classic large-capacity disco , which caters to all mainstream genres and age groups. The Cosmopolar with a focus on house and electro music is located in the historic Hauptpost am Anger . One of the oldest discotheques is the press club on Karl-Marx-Platz with changing events. The Castel Sant'Angelo is a student club in the old town.
The city of Erfurt has several venues for large events. This includes the Thuringia Hall to the south , the exhibition grounds in the west of the city and, for open-air events, the Domplatz with the cathedral steps in the old town. There is also the Steigerwald Stadium in the south of Erfurt, which was expanded into a multifunctional event location by the beginning of 2017.
There are numerous sports facilities in Erfurt where national and international competitions take place. In addition, several nationally active clubs are based in the city. Numerous Olympic champions , world and European champions and world record holders also had their sporting home in Erfurt.
Erfurt is a stronghold of ice sports. The speed skaters from Erfurt , who have always been among the best in the world, are particularly successful . In particular, Gunda Niemann-Stirnemann , Heike Warnicke , Franziska Schenk , Sabine Völker , Daniela Anschütz-Thoms and Stephanie Beckert should be mentioned here.
In figure skating Erfurt was Stefan Lindemann international success. In addition, ice hockey teams have been based in Erfurt for decades . The currently most successful team, the Black Dragons Erfurt, play in the Oberliga Ost in the 2010/11 season .
In 2001 the Gunda-Niemann-Stirnemann Hall was completed. It has a 400 m ice rink and can be used both for competitive sports and as a leisure facility. In the hall, which has space for 4,000 spectators, the German championships, world cup races and the European championship in speed skating took place.
SC Erfurt , founded in 1895, was one of the first football clubs in Thuringia and a founding member of the DFB . Between 1903 and 1910 the club was the leading club in the Thuringian region and during these years regularly won the championship of the Gauliga North Thuringia in the Association of Central German Ball Game Clubs (VMBV). The greatest success of the SC is reaching the semi-finals of the German Football Championship 1908/09 . Like the city rivals VfB Erfurt and SpVgg Erfurt , the SC was dissolved in 1945.
The most important football club in the city today is FC Rot-Weiß Erfurt , which played in the Regionalliga-Nordost until bankruptcy in January 2020 . During the GDR era, Rot-Weiß Erfurt almost always played first class and won the GDR championship in 1954 and 1955, still as SC Turbine Erfurt . The club took part in the 1991 UEFA Cup and played in the 2nd Bundesliga in 1991/92 and 2004/05 . The club plays its home games in the city's largest stadium, the Steigerwaldstadion , which offers space for 18,599 spectators and was extensively refurbished and converted into a multifunctional venue from 2015 to 2017 for over 41 million euros . In the last second division season, an average of around 12,000 spectators attended the club's games.
At the city level, the regional league together with the Sömmerda district is the highest division. The master rises directly to the national class. The District League North and the first and second district classes are classified under the District Superior League.
In 2001, Erfurt was one of the five venues for the European Women's Football Championship . Erfurt was also one of the twelve Central German venues for the 2009 U-17 European Championship . Erfurt is the seat of the Thuringian Football Association .
Erfurt is also a stronghold in German cycling and has a cycling track in Andreasried . The track, which opened in 1925, is considered the oldest cycling track in the world that is still in use today. After the last renovation in 2009, the track is 250 m long, has space for around 4,000 spectators and is completely covered. In December 2009 the Velodrome was awarded the Silver Plaque, the highest award for sports facilities by the International Olympic Committee and the International Association of Sports and Leisure Facilities. This makes the railway one of 28 outstanding sports facilities worldwide that have received this award.
At the 2004 Olympic Games , Erfurt track cyclist René Wolff won the gold medal. In the Tour de France 2005 , Daniel Becke , Sebastian Lang and Stephan Schreck were three cyclists from Erfurt. Erfurt is also the destination of the traditional cycle race around the Hainleite , which was held for the first time in 1907 and attracts top German and international cyclists every year.
Major successes of Erfurt Sports embodied in the GDR the SC Turbine Erfurt , whose athletics section produced numerous top athletes, Olympians, European champions and world record holders ( Manfred Matuschewski , Jürgen May , Siegfried Herrmann , Klaus Richtzenhain , Dieter Fromm ). At the Olympic Games in Montreal in 1976, Johanna Klier was Olympic champion over 100 m hurdles, Sigrun Siegl and Christine Laser won gold and silver in the pentathlon. At the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow, Volker Beck won the gold medal over 400 m hurdles, Johanna Klier won silver over the 100 m hurdles.
Nils Schumann , who trained in Erfurt, achieved the greatest success after reunification in 2000 with the Olympic victory over 800 m in Sydney.
With the Erfurt LAC, the Erfurt running club and the ASV Erfurt, the city today has three clubs that are among the best 50 athletics clubs in Germany. In the club ranking of the German Athletics Association , the LAC ranks eleventh in 2007. All three clubs together would only be beaten by Bayer 04 Leverkusen in Germany. The German Athletics Championships took place in the Steigerwald Stadium in 1994, 1999, 2007 and July 2017 and the European Athletics U23 Championships in 2005 .
Erfurt was the home and training center of numerous successful athletes; Among others, the Olympic champions Johanna Klier , Heike Drechsler , Silke Renk , Sigrun Siegl , Hartwig Gauder and Nils Schumann trained here .
With Jutta Langenau from Erfurt, Erfurt provided the GDR's first female European swimming champion. Over 100 m butterfly she achieved this title in 1954 in Turin in a world record time.
The best-known Erfurt swimmer in the 1960s and 1970s was the four-time Olympic champion, multiple world and European champion and world record holder (21 times) over the back courses Roland Matthes . During this time he was a total of seven athletes of the year in the GDR. He is still considered the most successful back swimmer to date.
The Thuringian Handball Club Erfurt / Bad Langensalza has played in the women's handball league since 2005 , in which the club achieved success in the 2010/11 season by winning the German championship and the DHB Cup in women's handball . The club plays its home games in Bad Langensalza and the Erfurt Riethsporthalle. The club was created in 1996 from a merger of HC Erfurt and SV Empor Bad Langensalza .
For men, the state capital is represented by the HSC Erfurt. On January 1, 2004, the handball players broke away from SSV Erfurt Nord and formed the independent club HSC Erfurt. In 2006 a syndicate was formed with the THC Erfurt / Bad Langensalza, which was dissolved again in 2008. In the 2010/11 season, the HSC took 1st place in the Thuringian League and will play in the Central German Oberliga from the 2011/12 season.
The Erfurt TC Rot-Weiß became tennis champions of the 2nd Bundesliga North in 2005. The club's facility with six clay courts is located on Martin-Andersen-Nexö-Straße.
The SWE Volley-Team Erfurt played in the women's volleyball division in the 2010/11 season and in the second division south in the following four years . Since the promotion in 2016, the team has been back in the Bundesliga.
Economy and Infrastructure
In the Future Atlas 2016 , the urban district of Erfurt was ranked 177th out of 402 districts, municipal associations and urban districts in Germany, making it one of the regions with a "balanced risk-opportunity mix" for the future.
In 2016, Erfurt achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 8.063 billion within the city limits, making it 44th in the ranking of German cities by economic output . The share of Thuringia's economic output was 13.5%. In the same year, GDP per capita was € 38,284 (Thuringia: € 27,674 / Germany € 38,180) and thus above the regional and national average.
As of June 30, 2017, there were 109,414 jobs subject to social insurance in Erfurt and 82,419 residents of the city were employed subject to social insurance. This results in a commuter surplus of 26,995 people, which is the third highest figure in the new federal states after Dresden and Leipzig and underlines the importance of Erfurt as a work location for the whole of Thuringia. 49,586 inbound commuters were compared to 22,696 outbound commuters, of which 27,033 from Central Thuringia , 14,163 from the other Thuringian regions and 8,390 employees subject to social insurance contributions from other federal states and abroad worked in Erfurt. In contrast, 11,579 Erfurters had their jobs in the other districts of Central Thuringia, 3,906 in the rest of the federal state and 7,211 in another federal state. The average gross hourly wage in 2011 was 16.97 euros, which is the national average and 24% below the national average (in 2005 the difference was 26%). The unemployment rate was 6.8% in October 2016, which is around 1.0% above the national average. In September 2016, 21,348 people, that is about 10.14% of the 210,504 residents (main resident), were dependent on benefits to supplement their livelihood according to SGB II ("Hartz IV") . Due to the upswing since around 2005, the labor market situation has improved significantly overall.
Before the fall of the Wall, Erfurt was an important industrial location, but after 1990 many old businesses, such as the Optima office machine factory in Erfurt , had to close. This structural change brought the end of old companies and the establishment of new companies. The economic profile of the city changed from an industrial location to a service center.
One of the traditional companies is today's mechanical engineering company Schuler Pressen GmbH , whose plant in Erfurt emerged from the former branch of the Berlin-Erfurt machine factory Henry Pels & Co. on Schwerborner Strasse, founded in 1902 by Henry Pels . Initially the company produced scissors , punching machines and combined machines, and later also presses . During the Third Reich , the factory was forcibly sold to the Deutsche Waffen- und Munitionsfabriken AG by Günther Quandt as Jewish property . By 1939 the workforce had grown to 1,000. In 1946 it was converted into a Soviet joint-stock company. From 1953 the company was called " VEB Pressen- und Scherenbau Henry Pels". In 1970, this resulted in the "Combine Forming Technology", a combination of 19 companies involved in metal forming. In 1985, the Erfurt plant was one of the largest employers in Erfurt with 5500 employees. In 1990 this became the trust company Umformtechnik GmbH . In 1994 it was given a new owner, the Škoda Group from Pilsen . In 2001 Müller Weingarten AG took over the company, which later became part of the Schuler Group. The plant currently has around 500 employees and is involved in press construction for the automotive industry.
The factory for transmitter and receiver tubes founded by Telefunken GmbH in 1936 should also be mentioned . After the nationalization it was called VEB Funkwerk Erfurt and continued to build radio tubes and measuring technology. In 1978 it went up in the VEB Mikroelektronik "Karl Marx" combine and began producing semiconductors . In 1989 the plant had 8,700 employees. In 1992, among other things, the Thesys Gesellschaft für Mikroelektronik mbH was founded from VEB , which today produces semiconductor products as X-FAB Semiconductor Foundries GmbH in Erfurt-Windischholzhausen with around 600 employees. The industrial area at Urbicher Kreuz grew continuously in the 2010s. In addition to X-FAB, the Rehabilitation Center Sportklinik Erfurt and other companies were created here.
The Condomi AG factory for the production of condoms is also based on a long -established Erfurt company, the Richter & Buyer rubber goods factory , which was producing latex products as early as 1929 . After the war the company was nationalized under the name VEB Plastina . In addition to condoms, the product range also included bathing caps and baby teats. In 2005 Condomi AG was taken over by its Polish subsidiary Unimil . The Erfurt production company is currently part of the Ansell Group.
The Erfurt Malzwerke am Nordbahnhof is based on one of the largest and oldest malt factories in Germany, the Wolff Malzfabrik , founded in 1869 . Getreide AG Rendsburg has been the new owner since 1993 .
The Braugold brewery in Schillerstraße had its roots in the Erfurt breweries Büchner and Baumann , which merged with the Riebeck brewery from Leipzig to form the Riebeck brewery Erfurt in 1920 . This was nationalized in 1948 as VEB and from 1956 produced beer with the new brand name "Braugold". In 1969 the Braugold brewery became the parent company of the VEB Beverage Combine in Erfurt . Since 1990 the Braugold brewery has had changing owners. The brewing operation was stopped in 2010.
Erfurt owes its reputation as a city of flowers, among other things, to the company NL Chriesteren, which has been based since 1867 . In addition to flower and vegetable seeds, bulbs and seeds for medicinal and aromatic herbs are among the company's products, which supply gardeners and trading partners all over the world.
The largest energy service company in Thuringia is Thüringer Energie AG, which employs over 1500 people in Thuringia.
The Bosch Solar Energy AG is a wafer and solar cell producer. It was founded in 1997 in Erfurt and in 2007 had around 500 employees in Erfurt and an annual turnover of around 128 million euros. In addition, Erfurt has a high density of media companies ( Kinderkanal , MDR Thuringia, Landeswelle Thuringia and many more) as well as several larger IT service providers such as IBM Germany Customer Support Services , T-Systems , DB Systel .
With 251 employees, Milchwerke Thüringen GmbH , which belongs to the Humana Milchunion , is one of the largest employers in Erfurt. In addition to drinking milk, cheese, cream, yoghurt, quark and desserts are part of the production program. In the new federal states the products are sold under the brand name Osterland , in the old federal states the products trade under the name Ravensberger .
In terms of area, the Erfurt trade fair is the second largest trade fair in the new federal states. The exhibition grounds, which are located on the outskirts of the city next to the ega, include a multi-purpose hall, two exhibition halls and a congress center. In addition to exhibitions, conferences and congresses, the fair is also used for concerts, TV and sporting events. The multi-purpose hall has a capacity of up to 12,000 spectators.
The Helaba (Helaba) has one of its two head offices in Erfurt and employs over 200 people. In addition, the Sparkasse Mittelthüringen and Erfurter Bank eG , as regional credit institutions, have their headquarters in the city.
Siemens operates a branch and a generator factory in Erfurt with a total of almost 800 employees (as of 2015). The factory goes back to the establishment of a repair department of Thüringenwerk AG in 1945.
Since 1999 there have been efforts to cooperate between the cities of Erfurt, Weimar and Jena with the aim of coordinated economic development and tourism marketing under the brand "The ImPuls Region". Results of this cooperation are z. For example, the Central Thuringia association tariff introduced in 2006 for public transport and the tourism themed year bauhaus 2009 .
From 1882 until the end of 1993, Erfurt was the seat of a railway directorate, initially the Royal Railway Directorate and from 1920 the Reichsbahndirektion Erfurt . Today the city is still the seat of a branch office of the Federal Railway Authority and the seat of DB Regio AG - Thuringia transport company.
Long-distance trains of the ICE line 50 ( Dresden - Erfurt - Wiesbaden) and the ICE Sprinter line 15 (Frankfurt - Erfurt - Berlin) stop at Erfurt main station . In addition, three pairs of trains run on the Intercity line 51 (Cologne / Düsseldorf - Erfurt - Jena - Gera). Additional trains on IC line 51 run on Fridays and Sundays as relief traffic. The ICE trains run without exception on the new Erfurt - Leipzig / Halle (Saale) line. In night traffic, a pair of EuroNight trains runs between Moscow and Paris. With the commissioning of the new Erfurt - Ebensfeld (VDE 8.1) line on December 10, 2017, Erfurt Central Station became an important ICE hub for domestic German rail traffic. The following long-distance lines are now operating: ICE line 18 (Munich - Erfurt - Halle (Saale) - Berlin - Hamburg), ICE line 28 (Munich - Erfurt - Leipzig - Berlin - Hamburg), ICE Sprinter line 29 (Munich - Erfurt - Berlin) and ICE line 11 (Munich - Stuttgart - Frankfurt - Erfurt - Berlin). There are therefore long-distance connections to the following major cities: Berlin, Bochum, Dresden, Dortmund, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Essen, Frankfurt am Main, Graz, Halle (Saale), Hamburg, Heidelberg, Kassel, Cologne, Leipzig, Linz, Mainz, Mannheim, Moscow, Munich, Nuremberg, Paris, Salzburg, Stuttgart, Vienna and Wiesbaden.
In regional traffic there are regional express connections in the direction of Sömmerda - Sangerhausen - Magdeburg , Jena - Gera - Altenburg / Glauchau , Gotha - Mühlhausen - Leinefelde - Göttingen , Mühlhausen - Leinefelde - Kassel , Arnstadt - Suhl - Schweinfurt - Würzburg , Arnstadt - Grimmenthal - Meiningen , Arnstadt - Saalfeld / Saale and Straussfurt - Sondershausen - Nordhausen . In addition to the important connection Eisenach - Gotha - Erfurt - Weimar - Apolda - Naumburg (Saale) - Weißenfels - Halle (Saale) regional trains run to Sömmerda - Sangerhausen and Straussfurt - Nordhausen. The Arnstadt - Ilmenau or Meiningen line is operated by the Erfurter Bahn , which belongs to the city of Erfurt, or its subsidiary Süd-Thüringen-Bahn .
The districts of Vieselbach and Bischleben have additional passenger stations on the Thuringian Railway . On the line to Nordhausen there is the Erfurt-Nord train station and stations in Kühnhausen and Gispersleben , after Sangerhausen , passenger trains stop in Erfurt Ost and Stotternheim . There was also the Erfurt – Nottleben Kleinbahn with seven more stations in the Erfurt city area, which was shut down for passenger traffic in 1967. From 1976 to 1993 an S-Bahn line was operated on the 8.7 km long section from Erfurt-Berliner Straße to the main train station. The Nordhäuser and Sangerhausen train stations as the endpoints of those routes no longer exist today. So today eight of the 17 Erfurt train stations are in operation.
Erfurt is connected to the A 4 (to Frankfurt am Main in the west and Dresden in the east) and A 71 (to Schweinfurt in the south and Sangerhausen in the north) motorways , which meet at the Erfurter Kreuz in the south-west of the city. Together with the Osttangente, both motorways enclose the city and form the Erfurt Ring . The federal highways have been abolished within the ring . The federal road 7 connects Erfurt outside with Gotha in the west and Weimar in the east. The federal highway 4 only leads to Nordhausen in the north, while it has been replaced in the south by the highways 71 and 73. Other important road connections are the federal road 176 branching off at Andislebener Kreuz in the direction of Mühlhausen / Göttingen and the state roads to Buttelstedt (along the historic Via Regia ) in the northeast, Kranichfeld in the southeast and Arnstadt in the south (former B 4).
The Hannoversche Strasse has been developed as a dual carriageway, starting at Bindersleber Knie on the outskirts of the city center and ending 14 kilometers at Andislebener Kreuz. Other important streets for inner-city traffic are the Erfurter Stadtring and the Juri-Gagarin-Ring , which follow the course of the former outer and inner city walls and were built around 1900, and the north cross connection between Hannoverscher Straße in the west and the east bypass in the east. The most important radial streets are (clockwise) Magdeburger Allee , Eugen-Richter-Straße, Leipziger Straße, Weimarian Straße, Clara-Zetkin-Straße, Arnstädter Straße, Gothaer Straße, Binderslebener Landstraße, Hannoversche Straße and the Nordhäuser road .
Local public transport is carried out by the Erfurt Transport Company (EVAG), an in-house operation of the Stadtwerke. The 1883 opened as a horse track and between 1997 and 2007 significantly upgraded tram while a large part covers the transport demand since the 87.2 km long power almost opens up all urban districts. Today, only low-floor trams (type Combino and MGT6D ) are used on the six lines, which run every ten minutes between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m.
In addition to the tram network (referred to as Stadtbahn in the Stadtwerke's own representation ), a city bus network consists of 24 lines. Line 9 also runs every ten minutes, as it connects the Johannesplatz and Daberstedt quarters, which are little developed by the Stadtbahn . The other city bus routes mostly have a feeder function and connect the incorporated suburbs to the tram. Accordingly, they run less frequently.
Additional regional bus routes are operated by EVAG and numerous other bus companies. They usually lead to the bus station, which is located right next to the main train station.
In the evening network between 8:00 p.m. and 1:00 a.m., the tram lines run every 20 minutes and meet at Anger in order to be able to offer connections in all directions without waiting times . During the night (between 01:00 and 04:00) there is (limited) tram service only on weekends, also with a meeting point on the Anger.
In total, EVAG trains and buses carried almost 48.3 million passengers in 2015. Other means of transport such as the railroad only play a subordinate role in Erfurt's inner-city public transport. The Erfurt trolleybus and the Erfurt S-Bahn are no longer in operation . In 2008, around 23.8% of all trips in Erfurt were made by public transport, which means a top position among major German cities. One reason for this is, on the one hand, the well-developed network and, on the other hand, the comparatively compact settlement structure of Erfurt, which enables a high level of area coverage, as well as the hilly topography and the poorly developed network of cycle paths, which keep the proportion of bicycle traffic low compared to other large cities.
The first airfield was opened in 1924 on the Roten Berg in the north of Erfurt. As was common at the time, it had a 730 meter long grass runway and regular connections were made to Berlin, Frankfurt and Munich. Civil aviation ended with the Second World War, when the Wehrmacht air force established an air base command there. In the post-war period, the airfield was only used by sports pilots before the area was built over with the Roter Berg prefabricated housing estate in the 1970s .
Today's Erfurt-Weimar Airport is located in the Bindersleben district and has been used for civil aviation since 1956. Before the fall of the Wall, there were still regular scheduled flights to Germany and to communist countries abroad. However, these were gradually discontinued in the 1980s due to the oil crisis and low utilization.
After reunification, the airport's infrastructure was greatly expanded. The aim was to increase the number of passengers to around 800,000 passengers per year. However, despite funding of around 200 million euros, the airport was never able to establish itself firmly. The airlines Ryanair (2005), Cirrus Airlines (2011) and Air Berlin (2012), which had been acquired in the meantime, withdrew from the airport - often after the subsidies had ceased. The last remaining scheduled connection to Munich was also discontinued in the course of the insolvency of the Berlin airline Germania in 2019.
Currently (as of 2020) only charter connections are carried out, primarily to the holiday regions around the Mediterranean . In addition, the logistics companies TNT Express and Schenker AG use the airport for air freight traffic.
In 2019, Erfurt-Weimar Airport handled a total of 156,326 passengers and handled 3,297 tonnes of air freight, making it Germany's low-passenger airport.
Erfurt is on the Gera cycle path and the Thuringian chain of cities cycle path , they connect the city with Gebesee ( Unstrut cycle path ) in the north, Weimar ( Ilmtal cycle path ) in the east, the Rennsteig cycle path in the south and Eisenach ( Werra cycle path ) in the west .
In city traffic, the proportion of bicycles is around 9% (2009). There are a total of 167.4 km of cycle paths. Nevertheless, the proportion of cycle paths on the main roads is comparatively small and / or incomplete. For example, the university cannot be reached via bike paths. The condition of the cycle paths is not always satisfactory either, they are often paved and not asphalted, there are no traffic lights for cyclists at intersections and the paths lead over curbs. Trees and parked vehicles also limit visibility on and along the bike paths in many places. Most cycle paths on roads are part of the sidewalk and not the road, which increases the risk of accidents between pedestrians and cyclists.
Erfurt is the seat of the television station KiKA , in the city there are some well-known figures of children's television . In addition, the state radio station of the MDR is located in Erfurt , there is also a studio for live productions and recordings, among other things the daily local news format Thuringia Journal is produced here.
The Second German Television (ZDF) operates its state studio for Thuringia in Erfurt. From here, the employees deliver reports and backgrounds from Thuringia for all current ZDF programs.
Thüringer Allgemeine (TA) and Thüringische Landeszeitung (TLZ) report from Erfurt with their own local editorial offices. The Ostthüringer Zeitung (OTZ) operates a regional office in Erfurt. All three newspapers have belonged to the WAZ Group since 1990 through the Thuringia newspaper group (ZGT). After many years of editorial separation, they have been increasingly interwoven since 2010. The Internet offers are now congruent and articles are now also exchanged among each other in the print editions. The TA and the MDR, which have a higher circulation among the print media, claim to be opinion leaders in the region.
There are also various free city magazines with hEFt, t.akt, DATEs, Blitz and Rampensau , in which you can find event information and cultural contributions about Erfurt and Thuringia. The literary journal Wortwuchs is also published every four months.
In addition to MDR Thuringia , the Thuringian private broadcaster Landeswelle Thüringen is based in Erfurt. Radio FREI also emits Erfurt, Thuringia one of six community media as well as the only independent radio in Thuringia, which in the Federal Association of Free Radios is organized.
Since November 22, 1999, Erfurt has been the seat of the Federal Labor Court , the highest court of labor jurisdiction and thus one of the five highest federal courts in Germany. The importance of the city as the place of jurisdiction is emphasized by the fact that the Thuringian State Labor Court , the Thuringian Social Court , the Labor Court Erfurt , the Erfurt Regional Court and the District Court of Erfurt are located.
As the state capital, Erfurt is also the seat of the Thuringian state parliament and the state chancellery. In addition, numerous state offices and the State Criminal Police Office (LKA) have their headquarters there.
In addition, the Chamber of Crafts , the Main Customs Office , the Chamber of Industry and Commerce (IHK) and the Thuringian State Finance Directorate are located in Erfurt . The Bundeswehr is represented with two barracks (the Löberfeld barracks with the Bundeswehr career center and the Henne barracks , which also houses the Thuringia regional command ). Since 2013, Erfurt has been the headquarters of the logistics command of the Bundeswehr , to which around 15,000 members of the armed forces report, including around 850 in the headquarters in the Löberfeld barracks. The Federal Network Agency for Electricity, Gas, Telecommunications, Post and Railways and the Federal Office for Goods Transport each maintain a branch office. There is also a branch of the Deutsche Bundesbank.
The Erfurt Clinic is located in the north of the city in the vicinity of the University of Erfurt and represents a maximum care hospital with approx. 1300 beds. The hospital was founded in 1880 as a municipal hospital . It was the workplace of various famous doctors, such as Ferdinand Sauerbruch (as a young assistant doctor), Alfred Machol and Egbert Schwarz . From 1954 to 1993 it was the Erfurt Medical Academy , which was then wound up as a university. In 2012 the Helios Clinic employed around 1,800 people.
The Catholic Hospital is located in the south-eastern district of Windischholzhausen and is a hospital with a focus on care with around 450 beds. The hospital goes back to a foundation in the 18th century and was located in the Carthusian quarter of the old town until the end of the 20th century . The KKH had 900 employees in 2014.
In addition, around 500 registered doctors with statutory health insurance and around 230 dentists work in the city. There are also around 50 pharmacies . The State Hospital Society of Thuringia is based in the south of Erfurt.
education and Science
The University of Erfurt , which opened in 1392 and rebuilt in 1994, can be considered the oldest university in Germany today thanks to its founding privilege from 1379 and was even the largest university in the country at times. Martin Luther studied here between 1501 and 1505 and received his Magister Artium from the philosophical faculty. This university, often called Hierana ( Latin for the one on the Gera ), was closed in 1816.
The Erfurt Medical Academy, founded in 1954, saw itself in its tradition . This - renamed Medical University of Erfurt in 1992 - trained medical students in the clinical semester to become doctors and dentists until 1996, carried out recognized research work and had the right to award doctorates and habilitation. This academic institution was never transferred or incorporated into the newly founded University of Erfurt. At the end of 1993 it was abolished and the clinics and departments were transferred to a maximum care hospital (Helios-Klinikum Erfurt).
The university was re-founded in 1994 under the influence of the Erfurt University Society, which was formed in 1987 from a citizens' initiative . The Erfurt University of Education , which had existed since 1969, was merged into the newly founded university. There are currently 30 courses on offer at four faculties (Political Science, Philosophy, Education and Catholic Theological Faculty), with all courses leading to a Bachelor's or Master's degree. Around 5200 students are currently enrolled in Erfurt. Special facilities at the university are the Max Weber College for cultural and social science studies and the Willy Brandt School of Public Policy . The University and Research Library Erfurt / Gotha, which opened in 1999, had a stock of 750,000 volumes, as well as a further 550,000 volumes in neighboring Gotha , mainly from the 16th to 19th centuries. Since 2018, the University Library of Erfurt and the Gotha Research Library have been independent institutions of the University of Erfurt again.
At the University of Applied Sciences Erfurt in 2011 more than 4,600 students are studying applied computer science, architecture, civil engineering, education and upbringing of children, forestry, horticulture, building and energy technology, conservation and restoration, landscape architecture, social work, urban and spatial planning, traffic and transportation and economics. The University of Applied Sciences was newly founded by the State of Thuringia and has existed since 1991. The university follows a long tradition, as it goes back to the engineering schools for horticulture and construction founded in 1946 and 1901.
In 2007, in addition to the state educational institutions, the private Adam Ries University of Applied Sciences was founded with the dual courses of study in tourism, taxation and auditing. A Bachelor of Arts degree could be obtained. In 2013 the university was closed and replaced by a study location of the Bad Honnef Bonn International University . As the IUBH International University , the university relocated to Erfurt in 2019.
Erfurt has also been the location of two economic research institutes since 2007. The Wilhelm-Röpke-Institut and the Thuringian branch of the Hamburgisches WeltWirtschaftsinstitut were based in Erfurt. Today, only the Röpke Institute remains in Erfurt.
The Erfurt seminary is the only training facility for prospective priests from the Roman Catholic dioceses of Eastern Germany. There are currently around 35 seminarians in the house.
There are also 30 primary schools (including the Regenbogen Freie Schule Erfurt and the Montessori Integration School), 10 regular schools , 3 comprehensive schools (including the Freie Waldorfschule Erfurt), 9 grammar schools (including a mathematical and natural science special school and the Pierre de Coubertin sports high school ), 9 community schools , 16 vocational schools , 1 adult education center , 7 special needs schools (including the Christophorus School and the Christian Youth Village Erfurt - Rehabilitation Center), the Evangelical Community School Erfurt , 2 music schools and 2 painting schools (one each urban and one private).
The Association for the History and Archeology of Erfurt researches and disseminates the history of the city in cooperation with schools, universities and institutions.
Erfurt was named “City of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) ” for the years 2008/09.
City tourism is a growing industry in Erfurt - as it is in all of Germany - with Erfurt attracting many visitors, especially due to its historical cityscape. In 2012 there were around 4,800 hotel beds in the city, which were used by almost 450,000 guests. The number of overnight stays was over 700,000, with the proportion of foreign visitors being comparatively low. Important points of attraction for tourists are the Erfurt Christmas market with around two million visitors a year or the Krämerbrücken Festival in summer. With 50,000 visitors , the Old Synagogue had the highest annual number of visitors among the city's museums .
Erfurters are also known as broad beans . The legume was already grown in the Erfurt fields in the Middle Ages and was an important food for the population at that time . Legends tell that at that time the people of Erfurt always had a small supply of beans with them to eat out of their pockets on the way.
To this day, broad beans form the basis of typical Erfurt dishes, such as broad bean soup and broad bean salad. In addition, the Thuringian Steiner Spielwarenfabrik from Georgenthal produces broad beans made of plush , which have been sold successfully for several years by Erfurt Tourismus und Marketing GmbH.
Furthermore, all newborns receive a real Erfurt broad bean. Boys get a light blue and girls get a pink one. The broad beans are said to welcome the new Erfurt residents and bring good luck. You can't buy these beans. But there is the possibility to buy a green broad bean in different variants.
To people who were born in Erfurt or who worked there in particular:
Numerous artists live and work in Erfurt. Every two years the City of Erfurt's Culture Prize is awarded to artists who are “connected to the state capital Erfurt either through the person or through the work”.
The corvette Erfurt (F 262) of the German Navy of the type K130 bears the name of the city and was built between 2005 and 2007 by Nordseewerke GmbH in Emden . On February 28, 2013, the ship was put into service and assigned to the Warnemünde naval base in Rostock .
There is also an ICE-T (multiple unit 1104) from Deutsche Bahn and an Airbus A350-900 (ID: D-AIXJ) from Lufthansa with the name of the city. The name of the train and the plane was baptized in 2002 and 2018, respectively. There is also a recreation area in the city of Shawnee in the US state of Kansas , which has officially been named Erfurt Park since 2015 .
Monuments, sights and events in Erfurt repeatedly gave rise to the issue of official postage stamps. The first stamps from a private Erfurt city post office from 1888 - soon discontinued after a protest by the Reichspost - was only followed in 1955 by a special stamp from the GDR Deutsche Post with a picture of Erfurt Cathedral . The International Horticultural Exhibition (IGA), which opened in 1961, was reflected in several special stamp series with floral motifs. Three special stamps were issued in the same year on the occasion of the IV pioneer meeting in Erfurt, at which SED chief Walter Ulbricht became an honorary pioneer. In addition to listed buildings, a special stamp was also dedicated to the Erfurt Zoo in 1975. In reunified Germany, postage stamps depicting Erfurt buildings were issued in 1992, 2001 and 2004. The Erfurt treasure , discovered in 1998, found a picture of the Jewish wedding ring found on a special stamp issued by Deutsche Post AG in 2010.
Erfurt Cathedral on special stamp of the German Post of the GDR 1955
Haus zum Stockfisch (now the City Museum) on a special stamp of the Deutsche Post of the GDR 1969
Main post office Erfurt on special stamp of the Deutsche Post of the GDR 1982
Old and new city silhouette of Erfurt on three strips of the Deutsche Post of the GDR 1988
Cathedral and Severikirche on special stamp of the Deutsche Bundespost 1992 (1250th anniversary)
Erfurt Cathedral in the permanent series Sights from 2004
- Messages from the Association for the History and Archeology of Erfurt (MVGAE). Vol. 1–53 (1865–1941), Vol. 54 ff. (1993 ff.)
- Alfred Overmann : Erfurt in twelve centuries. A city history in pictures. Erfurt 1929, ; Reprint: Verl.-Haus Thüringen in the Verl. And Dr. Progress Erfurt, Erfurt 1992, ISBN 3-86087-076-9 (in Fraktur ).
- Erfurt home letter. Letter for the Erfurters in the Federal Republic with West Berlin and in western foreign countries. Issue 1–64 (1961–1992) of the association “Heimattreue Erfurter” (in Berlin-Wilmersdorf).
- History of the city of Erfurt. Edited by Willibald Gutsche on behalf of the city of Erfurt. Weimar 1986, ISBN 3-7400-0000-7 .
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- City and history. Magazine for Erfurt (SuG). Published by Stadt und Geschichte e. V., , issue 1 ff. (1998 ff.).
- Stefan Wolter : Erfurt - Life in the City of Flowers 1900–1989. Sutton, Erfurt 2000, ISBN 3-89702-241-9 .
- Steffen Raßloff : Escape into the national community. The Erfurt bourgeoisie between the Empire and the Nazi dictatorship (= publications of the Historical Commission for Thuringia. Small series 8). Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-412-11802-8 .
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- Jürgen Valdeig : Erfurt - highlights of the city's history. With a historical overview by Steffen Raßloff. Weimar 2011.
- Martin Baumann, Steffen Raßloff (eds.): City of flowers Erfurt. Waid - Horticulture - iga / egapark. Erfurt 2011, ISBN 978-3-86680-812-6 .
- Steffen Raßloff: History of the city of Erfurt. Sutton, Erfurt 2012, ISBN 978-3-95400-044-9 ; 5th edition. 2019.
- Christoph Kreutzmüller, Eckart Schörle: City air makes you free? Jewish businesses in Erfurt 1919 to 1939. Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-942271-97-4 .
- Steffen Raßloff: 100 monuments in Erfurt. History and stories. With photographs by Sascha Fromm. Klartext Verlag, Essen 2013, ISBN 978-3-8375-0987-8 .
- Rolf Schneider : Erfurt. A walk through the past and present. be.bra verlag, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-86124-689-3 .
- Steffen Raßloff: A short history of the city of Erfurt. Rhino Verlag, Ilmenau 2016, ISBN 978-3-95560-045-7 ; 2nd edition 2020.
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