|List of states|
|State motto:||Ad Astra per Aspera (On rough paths to the stars)|
|Residents:||2,853,118 (2010 census) (13 U / km²)|
|Member since:||January 29, 1861|
|Time zone:||Central: UTC − 6 / −5
Mountain: UTC − 7 / −6
|The highest point:||1,231 m (Mount Sunflower)|
|Average Height:||610 m|
|Deepest point:||207 m Verdigris River|
|Governor :||Laura Kelly ( D )|
|Post / Office / ISO||KS / / US-KS|
Kansas ( Engl. Pronunciation [ kʰænzəs ] ) is a Midwestern situated State of the United States . Its name is derived from the word Kansa and means "people of the south wind" in the Sioux language . Kansas has been dubbed Sunflower State (Sunflower State) .
Kansas is bordered by Nebraska to the north, Colorado to the west, Oklahoma to the south, Missouri to the east and occupies 15th place in the list of the largest states in terms of area. The east-west extension is 640 kilometers, the north-south extension 336 kilometers. As the geographic center of the 48 contiguous states (excluding Alaska and Hawaii) of the USA (precisely in Osborne County ), Kansas is equally far removed from the Pacific and the Atlantic. The largest rivers are the Kansas River , Arkansas River , Republican River , Smoky Hill River, and Missouri River , which forms the state's northeast border.
The western two-thirds of Kansas are part of the Central Plains , a large plain that is mostly prairie and was once inhabited by large herds of buffalo . Today, cattle are mainly raised and wheat is grown there. Because of the moderate amount of precipitation, agriculture is usually artificially irrigated. The eastern third of the state is hilly, partly forested and has more rainfall. The highest point in Kansas is Mount Sunflower in Wallace County (1231 m). The capital of Kansas is Topeka and the largest city is Wichita .
Kansas is divided into 105 counties .
1900–1990 2000 + 2010
Kansas has 2,853,118 residents (as of April 1, 2010 Census), of whom 83.8% are white , 5.9% are African-American , 2.4% are Asian-American and 1.0% are American . Hispanics or Latinos made up 10.5% regardless of race . According to the 2014 American Community Survey , 786,373 residents have German ancestors . With around 27% of the total population, people of German origin are by far the strongest population group in the state.
The religious communities with the largest number of members in 2000 were the Catholic Church with 405,844, the United Methodist Church with 206,187 and the Southern Baptist Convention with 101,696 followers.
Kansas City , located in Kansas, is separated from its sister city of the same name in the neighboring state of Missouri , which has about 480,000 inhabitants, about three times the population, by the Missouri River .
Kansas has a continental climate with cold winters, hot summers, and little rainfall. The average annual amount of precipitation in the east of the state is sometimes more than 1000 millimeters, but on average it levels off at around 750–1000 mm / year. The west of the state is much drier . The average annual amount of precipitation there is around 400–500 mm. Very occasionally less than 50 millimeters are measured per year. Temperatures in Kansas can change rapidly, the west has blizzards in winter , and the state is part of Tornado Alley , the area of the United States that has the highest number of tornadoes . After Florida and Oklahoma, Kansas is the state with the most tornadoes per year and area, which repeatedly cause severe damage and claim fatalities. In 1966 a tornado of the highest level F5 on the Fujita scale devastated parts of Topeka and killed 17 people, another F5 tornado even killed 83 people in Udall in 1955. In 2007, an F5 tornado devastated around 95% of all houses in the small town of Greensburg (1500 inhabitants). Despite early warning, eleven people died.
After the last ice age , today's grasslands emerged and the forests retreated into the river valleys. Between 10,000 and 9,000 BC The first Paleo-Indian inhabitants of Kansas can be proven. It was cooler at that time, even if there were no glaciers here, mammoths and mastodons did not disappear until around 8000 BC. Chr.
This Paleo-Indian period was followed by the Archaic period (7000 BC to the birth of Christ). Around 5000 BC The warming was most severe and the large mammals disappeared. The residents switched to smaller animals and a higher proportion of vegetable food. At the same time, the settlements became more permanent and the way of life more stationary. The growing population used new grinding techniques, and around 3500 BC. Clay objects were created. The atlatl, the spear thrower , also spread.
In the subsequent Woodland period (up to around 1000), societies with greater social differentiation continued to grow. Now pottery, like pots and jugs, was created. Bows and arrows replaced the atlatl. Corn cultivation was taken over from the south before 1000 AD. The building of mounds , especially in the east and north of Kansas, for the burial of members of the upper classes was particularly formative . The Hopewell culture along the Missouri was particularly influential.
Between 1000 and 1500 most of the residents lived from bison hunting on the one hand , and on the other hand they cultivated maize, pumpkin and beans, but also continued to collect wild fruits and roots. The atlatl was less and less in use. The sound processing has been significantly improved. Rectangular earth houses spread in the north, while houses made of grass and clay were more prevalent in the south. The villages were inhabited almost permanently, while the population continued to grow. Trade with the pueblo peoples in the southwest increased sharply.
European artifacts appeared during the protohistoric period between 1500 and 1800. The archaeological sites can now be associated with contemporary tribes such as the Pawnee , Kansa , Wichita and Apache . Most of the groups continued to live from bison hunting and agriculture, although some groups were more prone to nomadism, such as the Apaches in the west. The El Cuartelejo site is believed to be traced back to fugitive Pueblo Indians who came from New Mexico . It is the northeasternmost site of this culture. Spanish artifacts such as chain mail have also been found in Kansas, for example in the so-called Wichita grass lodge villages .
First contacts with Europeans
The Spanish conquistador Francisco Vásquez de Coronado was the first European to reach the area in 1541. The Europeans introduced horses , which led to the immigration of nomadic Indians (including Kansa , Wichita , Osage , Kiowa , Apaches , Comanche ) who displaced long-established tribes.
French explorers and some American expeditions visited the later Kansas, z. B. the French missionary Jacques Marquette and the cartographer Louis Joliet around 1673. In 1744 the French built a trading post in Kansas, near Forth Leavenworth . In 1803 the area became the property of the United States through the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition traveled through the area, and in 1806 the Pike Expedition as well . Since then, the US government has tried to relocate Indians to land west of the Mississippi , including Kansas, which some did voluntarily, but was enforced with pressure and violence, especially from the Indian Removal Act of 1830. During this time, tribes like the Kickapoo , Sauk , Fox , Shawnee , Ottawa , Iowa, and Peoria were pushed to Kansas. Kansas was not open to European settlement until 1854, and some reservations still exist today.
Territorial time and state establishment
The time to the founding of the state was as Bleeding Kansas ( Bleeding Kansas known). On May 30, 1854, the " Kansas-Nebraska Act " was passed into law. With this, Nebraska and Kansas were attached to the United States as " territories ". The territories belonged to the USA, but were not yet federal states with corresponding rights. Settlers opened up the Kansas Territory quickly, partly on their own, partly with the help of settlement companies (e.g. the New England Emigrant Aid Company , which founded several cities). The non-Native American population grew rapidly, to 140,000 in 1865 and to one million in 1880. Life in the Kansas Territory was unsafe as supporters and opponents of slavery ( abolitionists ) fought for the majority in the future state and guerrillas raged (see Jayhawkers ). On March 30, 1855, the "Border Ruffians" (dt. Approximately: "Border Ruffians") from Missouri invaded Kansas and forced the election of a slavery-friendly government. In the period that followed, violent clashes occurred again and again. B. the attack by abolitionist John Brown on advocates of slavery in 1856, in which he and his sons murdered several people. In the intense political debate between forces for and against slavery, a total of four draft constitution for the future federal state were voted on. On January 29, 1861, Kansas was admitted to the Union as the 34th state, with the prohibition of slavery in the constitution (as "Freestate").
Civil War to World War I
The population of Kansas was u. a. split over the slave issue in the civil war . However, the Union advocates dominated the institutions, so that the state participated in the war on the Union side. During the Civil War (1861–1865) there were no major battles in Kansas, but there were clashes between groups from Kansas and Missouri. The largest incident was the Lawrence massacre in 1863 , led by the advocate of slavery and guerrilla leader William Clark Quantrill . There were also military actions against Indians who raided settlements and military posts in retaliation against their expulsion and oppression until a few years after the Civil War. By the early 1870s, the situation in Kansas had stabilized and the railway lines began to be expanded westward. Initially, numerous smaller railway companies were founded (e.g. Leavenworth, Pawnee, and Western ), which built short railway lines in the east. Soon, however, larger companies were also pushing the railway lines eastwards through the entire state. The Union Pacific Railroad expanded numerous lines and in 1880 also bought the Kansas Pacific Railway . The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway built a line to Colorado between 1868 and 1873, the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad completed their main eastward line in 1880, and the Missouri Pacific Railroad in 1890. Connections south to the Gulf of Mexico were also established started (e.g. by the Missouri River, Fort Scott and Gulf ). An important business for the railroad residents was the loading of cattle that were herded from Texas along the Chisholm Trail to the nearest train station in Kansas for transportation to markets to the north and east. The station, which was the nearest end of the railway line, developed into a boom town until the expansion of the railway line reached a more conveniently located city. Abilene was the main loading station before 1871 , then Newton further west for a year , later Ellsworth , but also Wichita and finally Dodge City in the southwest of the state (1875 and 1885). At that time, Dodge City became the prototypical cowboy town that u. a. was attended by gunslingers Wyatt Earp , Doc Holliday , Bill Tilghman, Luke Short and Bat Masterson . The boom ended with the ban on imports of cattle into Kansas in 1885.
Kansas decided in November 1880 as the first state to ban the serving of alcoholic beverages ( Prohibition ), the ban came into force in May 1881. Officially was the alcohol ban until 1948, with the exception of beer with a low alcohol content, which could have been sold for the 1937th This also made Kansas one of the last states to incorporate the end of prohibition at the federal level (through the 21st Amendment to the Constitution of 1933) into the state's laws. During the 1880s and 1890s Kansas had a successful Populist Party , elected primarily by farmers in the Midwest who wanted more support from the state. In 1892, the Populist Party's candidate Lorenzo D. Lewelling was elected governor (with the support of the Democrats ) and the party ruled the Kansas Senate . As early as 1899, however, a republican regained the post of governor.
Since the First World War
During World War I Kansas played no particular military role, but trained soldiers at Camp Funston. 2500 Kansans were killed in World War I, but more than 5000 died from the Spanish flu . It is believed that Kansas was the state of origin of the Spanish flu, which spread around the world. Soldiers who were relocated from the Fort Riley military base to various theaters of war are said to have carried an influenza virus into the world. Like all states, Kansas was hit by the economic crisis of the 1930s , which also coincided with a drought in the Midwest. The drought caused not only bad harvests, but also dust storms, which is why the Midwest was also called the Dust Bowl . Many farmers had to give up their farms at this time and left Kansas.
During World War II , numerous German prisoners of war were interned in prisoner-of-war camps in Kansas. The largest of the 14 camps in Kansas between 1943 and 1946 were Camp Concordia and Camp Phillips. Due to the great distance from coasts and national borders, but also due to the good treatment of the prisoners, there were hardly any escape attempts. Some of the prisoners worked on farms and some made friends with Americans. In some areas with prisoner-of-war camps, there were German-speaking Americans who were able to converse with the prisoners of war. Economically, World War II had a major impact on Kansas as the aircraft industry that grew in the Wichita area became important. In addition, ammunition was produced in Kansas and more soybeans were grown to secure the food supply in the USA.
In the 1950s, Kansas received national attention twice, rather indirectly. Dwight D. Eisenhower , who grew up in Kansas, was President of the United States from 1953 to 1961, and in 1955 the Kansas State School Board, Topeka, appeared as a defendant in the Supreme Court . This racial segregation lawsuit in schools was a class action, but was launched under the name of the Kansas plaintiff listed first in the indictment as Brown et al. vs. Board of Education of Topeka known. After the lawsuit went through multiple instances, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.
At the turn of the 21st century, Kansas made headlines in the debate surrounding the role of evolution in school teaching. After a conservative majority had been elected to the state School Board , it decided in 1999 to remove all references to evolutionary theory from the curriculum. However, this regulation was abolished in 2000 by a new majority in the School Board. Something similar was repeated a few years later: in 2004 there was again a conservative majority on the School Board , which scheduled a public hearing on the subject the next year and in 2006 introduced new guidelines for biology teaching, according to which both the theory of evolution and other explanatory models should be taught . However, the majority on the school board changed again, and the decision was reversed. While Kansas has received international attention for this debate, similar debates are taking place in other states.
From 2010, under Governor Sam Brownback , Kansas introduced austerity policies. Tax rates for companies have been cut to zero for small businesses, and income tax has been cut lower than ever before. The state administration was reduced and limited its services. In March 2017, the Kansas Supreme Court ruled that education spending was unconstitutional for failure to complete mandatory schoolwork. In June 2017, both Republican-dominated Houses of Parliament forced Brownback to raise taxes of 1.2 billion over two years against his first veto.
|2016||35.74% 427,005||56.16% 671,018|
|2012||38.00% 439,908||59.59% 689,809|
|2008||41.55% 514,765||56.48% 699,655|
|2004||36.62% 434,993||62.00% 736,456|
|2000||37.24% 399,276||58.04% 622,332|
|1996||36.08% 387,659||54.29% 583,245|
|1992||33.74% 390,434||38.88% 449,951|
|1988||42.56% 422,636||55.79% 554,049|
|1984||32.60% 333,149||66.27% 677,296|
|1980||33.29% 326,150||57.85% 566,812|
|1976||44.94% 430,421||52.49% 502,752|
|1972||29.50% 270,287||67.66% 619,812|
|1968||34.72% 302,996||54.84% 478,674|
|1964||54.09% 464,028||45.06% 386,579|
|1960||39.10% 363,213||60.45% 561,474|
Kansas, a stronghold of partly socialist-tinged agrarian populism in the 1890s , is today a reliable part of the Republican power base between the Rocky Mountains and the Midwest . The state parliament in Kansas has two chambers , ( Senate and House of Representatives ), both of which are currently heavily dominated by Republicans. The two incumbent Senators of the state in the US Congress are Republicans Pat Roberts and Jerry Moran . Also, three of the four members of the House of Representatives in the 116th Congress are Republicans, while the Kansas City borough is Democratic. Until January 2011, the Democratic Party with Mark Parkinson provided the governor ; but he did not run for re-election and was replaced by Republican Sam Brownback . After his resignation, Jeff Colyer took over the office, who was replaced by the Democrat Laura Kelly in January 2019 .
In the US presidential election, Kansas provides six electors to Electoral College . In the 2004 presidential elections , Republicans dominated 103 of the 105 counties (exceptions were Wyandotte Counties and Douglas Counties, and Crawford Counties in 2008). In 2004 the Republican candidate George W. Bush received 62% of all votes, the Democrat John Kerry 36.62%, and the independent candidate Ralph Nader only 0.79%. In the 2008 presidential election , Republican John McCain won 56.8% of the vote, Democrat Barack Obama won 41.4% of all votes, with two extreme values: in the rural west of the state, 85% of voters voted for John McCain and in the two Democratic strongholds of Douglas and Wyandotte Counties, about 65% for Barack Obama. Examples of the large proportion of voters with a culturally conservative attitude may be given by the treatment of natural history lessons (see History - 20th Century to Today ). In addition, like many other states, Kansas banned same-sex marriage through a 2005 amendment to the state constitution . The governor in 2008 the construction of new coal power plants having regard to the climate by a veto blocked.
After the temporary freeze of executions , there were several attempts in Kansas from 1976 to reintroduce the death penalty . Corresponding bills failed in 1979, 1980, 1981 and 1985 because of the veto of the Democratic Governor John W. Carlin . Only a fifth draft came into effect in 1994 with the approval of Carlin's successor and party colleague Joan Finney . This made Kansas the penultimate state to reintroduce the death penalty. In 2010 the Kansas Senate passed a bill converting the death penalty to life imprisonment with no prospect of early release by a majority of only one vote. Ten people were sentenced to death in Kansas in January 2016. No prisoner has been executed so far. Governor Sam Brownback is critical of the death penalty. ("I am not a supporter of a death penalty, other than in cases where we cannot protect the society and have other lives at stake.")
Kansas reintroduced the death penalty in 1994, but to date (February 2020) there has been no execution (the last was in 1965). Thus, Kansas is one of only two US states that reintroduced the death penalty after 1976 but have not made use of it since (the other, New Hampshire, abolished the death penalty in 2019).
The real gross domestic product per capita (English per capita real GDP) was USD 52,715 in 2016 (national average of the 50 US states: USD 57,118; national ranking: 27). The unemployment rate was 3.5% in November 2017 (national average: 4.1%).
Important industries are
- Agriculture (especially wheat cultivation, maize, cattle farming)
- Aircraft construction
- Mining (crude oil, natural gas, salt, gypsum, lead and zinc ore)
- Helium production
Kansas is the largest producer of wheat in the United States ("bread basket of the nation"), has the largest natural gas field in the world and is the second largest producer of beef in the United States.
German-speaking immigrants in Kansas
Origin of the German speakers
The proportion of German-born residents in Kansas is 27 percent, well above the US average of 14.4 percent. The proportion of those residents whose ancestors spoke a variety of German is even higher, as German speakers also immigrated from regions that were not recorded as “German” in the statistics. These include immigrants from Austria and the Empire of Austria , Switzerland , Alsace , from language islands in Eastern Europe , especially from the Volga region and Bukovina , as well as Pennsylvania German speakers who had previously lived in other areas of the USA.
Waves of immigration
German speakers had already come to Kansas with the first non-Indian settlers. 115 settlers born in Germany appear in the census of 1855. The largest number of German speakers immigrated to Kansas between 1870 and 1930, when the immigration of German speakers to the USA was already declining. Several thousand Mennonites and the first Amish arrived in the 1870s when the railroad routes expanded west and the railroad companies sold land. Settlers were particularly drawn to the cattle loading stations on the Chisholm Trail . So z. B. Abilene , near whom Pennsylvania Dutch-speaking German Baptists settled, and Newton , around whom the greatest concentration of Mennonites west of the Mississippi settled. The Mennonites mostly speak Plautdietsch , a variant of Low German . Also through the western expansion of the railway lines, Volga and Bukovina Germans reached the area around Hays , who mostly speak variants of Bavarian or Palatine dialects . In the 1990s, Kansas once again experienced a minor wave of immigration from German speakers. About 5,000 Plautdietsch-speaking Mennonites from Mexico settled in southwest Kansas (in the Dodge City area) as new slaughterhouses and meat processing plants offered jobs.
Numerous places in Kansas were founded by German-speaking immigrants or were later mainly inhabited by them. These include B. Eudora (East Kansas), which was founded by the German New Settlement Association, or Hays (West Kansas), which after the arrival of many Russian Germans during the railway construction in the 1870s, has mostly residents of German-speaking origin and is now the “capital of Germans in Kansas ”( German Capital of Kansas ). In many places (see list of cities in Kansas ) you can read the German-speaking origin of the settlers from the name, e.g. E.g .: Bern ( Bern German ), Hanover and Bremen ( Low German ) in northeast Kansas, Dresden ( Saxon ) and Stuttgart ( Swabian ) in north-central Kansas, Elbing ( East Low German ) in southwest Kansas, or Strasbourg ( Alemannic ), from the only the cemetery still exists. Other names also reveal a German-speaking background, such as the Russian-German settlements of Liebenthal , Pfeifer and Schoenchen southwest of Hays in western Kansas, Humboldt in southeast Kansas, which was named after Alexander von Humboldt , and Windthorst in southwest Kansas, named after the Roman Catholic center politician Ludwig Windthorst (a now deserted place, whose Catholic church still exists). The place Hollenberg on the Oregon Trail in northeast Kansas was named after the Low German Gerat Hollenberg, who founded the nearby city of Hanover and a station of the Pony Express .
German-language press in Kansas
Almost everywhere in the USA, where many German speakers settled, German-language newspapers emerged, which mostly disappeared with increasing assimilation of the immigrants. Kansas launched over 120 German-language newspapers, of which more than fifteen were available throughout the state between 1885 and 1910. One of the largest and most influential was in Atchison appearing Kansas newspaper (according entitled "An organ for free word, free soil and free men") who, during the territorial period began against slavery and the member of the New England Emigrant Aid Company Karl Friedrich Kob (also: Charles Kob) was published. Kob also published a guide for settlers in Kansas in German (in 1857 under the title Guide for Settlers in the Kansas Territory ).
Loss and preservation of German dialects
Many settlers who had lived in other states (e.g. Pennsylvania Dutch ) had learned English before settling in Kansas and then soon gave up their German dialect, with the exception of segregated religious groups such as conservative Amish and Mennonites. As a general tendency it can be stated that immigrants who did not belong to any of these groups mostly no longer used their German dialects as an everyday language around the time of the First World War . Today no speakers, or only older speakers, are proficient in this category of German dialects. The language is preserved in groups in which the German dialects are linked to religious identity . The conservative Amish ( Old Order Amish ) and Mennonites still speak Pennsylvania Dutch or Plautdietsch as their mother tongue and the number of Amish in Kansas is increasing.
- Thomas Frank: What's the Matter with Kansas? - How Conservatives won the Heart of America . Owl Books, New York 2004, ISBN 978-0-8050-7774-2 .
- Samuel A. Johnson: The Battle Cry of Freedom. The New England Emigrant Aid Company in the Kansas Crusade. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence 1954.
- Robert W. Richmond: Kansas. A Land of Contrasts. Forum Press, Saint Charles 1974.
- James R Shortridge: Peopling the plains: who settled where in frontier Kansas. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence 1995.
- Donald Ricky: Encyclopedia of Kansas Indians , Somerset, St. Clair Shores 1999.
- Robert J. Hoard / William E. Banks (Eds.): Kansas Archeology. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence 2006.
- John D. Reynolds / William B. Lees: The Archeological Heritage of Kansas: A Synopsis of the Kansas Preservation Plan. Edited by Robert J. Hoard and Virginia Wulfkuhle, Kansas State Historical Society 2004.
- Waldo R. Wedel: Central Plains Prehistory. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press 1986.
Germans in Kansas
- William D. Keel: Deitsch, Däätsch, Düütsch and Dietsch: The Varieties of Kansas German Dialects after 150 Years of German Group Settlement in Kansas. In: Preserving Heritage: A Festschrift for C. Richard Beam, ed. by Joshua R. Brown and Leroy T. Jr. Hopkins. Vol. 2. Lawrence: University of Kansas, Society for German-American Studies 2006, pp. 27-48. Text online
- Jörg Meindl: Pennsylvania German in Kansas: Language Maintenance or Loss? In: German Diasporic Experiences: Identity, Migration and Loss. Edited by Matthias Schulze, James M. Skidmore, David G. John, Grit Liebscher, and Sebastian Siebel-Achenbach Wilfrid Laurier University Press, Waterloo, in press, pp. 431–441.
- Patrick O'Brien, Thomas D. Isern, R. Daniel Lumley: Stalag Sunflower: German Prisoners of War in Kansas. In: Kansas History, Vol. 7, Autumn 1984, No. 3, pp. 182-198.
- Gordon Scott Seeger: Socio-Economic Influence on Low German in North-Central Kansas: From Immigrant Language Lost to Heritage Language Revived. Ph. D. Dissertation. University of Kansas, Lawrence 2006.
- Eleanor L. Turk: Germans in Kansas. In: Kansas History. Spring 2005, pp. 44–71 Text Online (PDF; 1.2 MB)
- Kansas Government
- Kansas State Historical Society
- Linguistic Atlas of Kansas German Dialects
- Old West Kansas
- Geographical data at netstate.com
- US Census Bureau _ Census of Population and Housing . Retrieved February 28, 2011
- Extract from Census.gov . Retrieved February 28, 2011
- Extract from census.gov (2000 + 2010) ( Memento of May 3, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Retrieved on April 2, 2012
- USCensus Kansas Selected Social Characteristics
- Archived copy ( Memento of September 7, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Data from Oregon State University ( Memento from June 26, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- National Climatic Data Center, February 2008
- Data on tornadoes in Kansas at tornadochser.com ( Memento from March 27, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Kansas State Historical Society on Settlement
- Kansas State Library on Reservations ( November 17, 2007 memento on the Internet Archive )
- Shortridge: Peopling the Plains , p. 72
- NPS, The American Civil War, About the Civil War. In: nps.gov. Retrieved January 7, 2018 .
- Richmond, pp. 41-96
- Richmond, pp. 102-112
- Richmond, p. 121
- Kansas Tax page on Prohibition ( January 17, 2007 memento in the Internet Archive )
- Richmond, pp. 174-184
- Richmond, pp. 205-214.
- Kansas State Historical Society for the Dust Bowl Pictures of the Dust Bowl at Kansas State University ( Memento from October 14, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
- O'Brien, Isern and Lumley, pp. 183-191
- Richmond, pp. 258-259
- Information at the National Park Service Memorial
- http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/doc/422131765.html?FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Nov%209,%202005&author=Nicholas%20Riccardi&pub=Los%20Angeles%20Times&edition . =A 14 & desc = THE% 20NATION
- Report on the debate in the New York Times 2006
- Report on the Ohio debate at CBSnews 2006
- New York Times: Brownback Tax Cuts Set Off a Revolt by Kansas Republicans , June 7, 2017
- David Leip: Dave Leip's Atlas of US Presidential Elections. Retrieved November 28, 2018 .
- Kansas 2004 election results and 2008 election results, New York Times
- Article in Christian Century from May 2005
- Article in Environment News Service March 2008
- Death Penalty Information Center - Kansas
- Larry Wayne Koch, Colin Wark, John F. Galliher: The Death of the American Death Penalty: States Still Leading the Way. Northeastern University Press, Lebanon 2012, ISBN 978-1-55553-782-1 , pp. 71-85.
- US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic Analysis: Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved August 27, 2017 (American English).
- Unemployment Rates for States. Retrieved January 8, 2018 .
- The Kansas Economy at a Glance Institute for Cattle Research at Kansas State University
- American Community Survey from 2014
- See Keel 1996 and Archivlink ( Memento from June 12, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Census data from 1990
- Turk, pp. 53 and 46
- Keel 2006, p. 30
- Tourist the city of Hays
- Website of the Church of the Immaculate Heart of Mary in Windthorst
- Information on Hollenberg (English) from the Kansas State Historical Society
- Turk 2005, p. 55
- Reprint of the guidebook in the Yearbook of German-American Studies 2005. Retrieved on May 1, 2020 . (PDF)
- See Meindl, in press; Keel 1996; Seeger 2007