|List of states|
|State motto:||Union, Justice, and Confidence|
|Official language :||
de jure : none
de facto : English and French used by authorities
|Residents:||4,681,666 (2016 estimated) (34 U / km²)|
|Member since:||April 30, 1812|
|Time zone:||Central: UTC − 6 / −5|
|The highest point:||163 m (Driskill Mountain)|
|Average Height:||30 m|
|Deepest point:||−2.5 m New Orleans|
|Governor :||John Bel Edwards ( D )|
|Post / Office / ISO||LA / / US LA|
Louisiana [ luˌ.iː.ziˈæ.nə ] or [ luː.ziˈænə ] (in French Louisiane ) is a state in the southern United States of America . Louisiana is located at the confluence of the Mississippi River in the Gulf of Mexico and has an area of 134,264 km², of which 21,440 km² are bodies of water. Louisiana has two nicknames: Pelican State because of the heraldic bird and Bayou State because of the swamps.
Louisiana is part of the southern states and is located on the Gulf of Mexico. The location is characterized by large swamps and rivers with large deltas, which is why a large part of the area is Louisiana's wetland . In the north of the state, Louisiana borders the Driskill Mountain on the Ouachita Mountains , the only higher elevation in the state. This is also where the rivers and bodies of water are formed, some of which then flow into the Mississippi River.
Extension of the national territory
The state territory of Louisiana extends from 29 ° to 33 ° latitude (around 440 km) and from 88 ° to 94 ° longitude (around 470 km). Louisiana covers an area of 134,246 km², making it the 32nd largest state in the United States, after Mississippi and after Alabama .
Louisiana has borders with its three neighboring states. It borders Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, and the Sabine River forms the border with Texas to the west . In the south, the approximately 550 km long coastline runs with the Gulf of Mexico.
Louisiana is divided into 64 parishes (districts in other states County called). The largest parish is the Vernon Parish in the west with 3441 km². The smallest Parish is the Orleans Parish in the southeast with 468 km² .
250 million years ago, when the Gulf of Mexico did not exist, there was only one major continent, Pangea . As this slowly disputed, the Gulf of Mexico was formed and connected with the Atlantic Ocean . Louisiana slowly evolved from water to land over millions of years and grew in extent. The oldest rocks can be found in northern Louisiana, in the Kisatchie National Forest . They date from the Tertiary Age and are 60 million years old.
Between the tertiary rocks in the north and the newly added sediments on the Mississippi River Delta , a long belt runs through central Louisiana, which was formed in the Pleistocene . The formation of the belt is largely associated with the rise and fall of sea levels in the past ice ages . Since the rocks in the Kisatchie National Forest were formed much earlier than the Mississippi River Delta, the sources for rivers and canyons formed there, which is why there is higher land there than in the flat coastal regions on the Gulf of Mexico.
In the early development phase of the Gulf of Mexico, when there was no connection to the Atlantic, high evaporation rates led to the formation of numerous salt domes . There are several hundred of these salt domes in Louisiana, the most famous of which is Avery Island . Salt domes are used to mine salt and drill holes for oil and gas.
Flora and fauna
The flora in Louisiana is varied. The tree species Pinus echinata , Pinus elliottii and marsh pine are common ; Hardwoods grow on the alluvial soils of Louisiana. Important tree species, some of which are indigenous, include red cedars , red beeches and walnuts . In Louisiana, the orchids and several species of hyacinths , as well as the Isoetes louisianensis and the swallow, have been listed under "endangered status" since 2003. Tillandsia usneoides , also known as Spanish moss, is particularly widespread in the south ; it hardly occurs in the north.
Louisiana is home to a diverse fauna that has resulted from varied swamps , forests and prairies . Deer , squirrels and rabbits and bears are hunted commercially as wild animals . The muskrat , nutria , mink and opossum , as well as the bobcat and skunk, are used as natural foresters in the forests. In Louisiana, there are many different species of wild birds , such as quail , the turkeys , woodcock , and various water birds , of which the Mottled Duck and Wood Duck are located in Louisiana. The coastal beaches of the Gulf of Mexico are home to sea turtles . Whales and various species of fish are native to the coast near the coast. Many freshwater fish are found in the lakes and lagoons , including freshwater fish belonging to the genus Pomoxis , bream and crustaceans such as crayfish .
Five species of sea turtle are considered endangered: the hawksbill sea turtle , the Atlantic hybrid turtle , the leatherback turtle , the loggerhead turtle and the green turtle . In 2003 a total of 23 other animal species were still threatened in Louisiana.
In Louisiana there is a subtropical climate , which is characterized by hot, humid and rainy times, as well as mostly mild winters. The average annual temperature in Louisiana is about 20.6 degrees Celsius; in summer it is usually over 30 degrees. In winter the temperatures rarely drop below freezing point, otherwise the average mild winter temperatures are 12.6 degrees Celsius. Year-round rainfall is high , with New Orleans and Baton Rouge combined totaling approximately 3,112.2 mm of rain over a year, with an average of 8.7 rainy days per month. Despite the high number of rainy days per month, the sun shines an average of 3.9 hours per day even in January. In summer the sun shines for up to eight hours a day; the sunniest month is July. In Louisiana there is usually a humidity of over 70%.
In the summer months, Louisiana regularly hits strong hurricanes with winds of over 120 km / h.
On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the mainland at over 200 km / h. In Louisiana alone, 490 people died. The St. Bernard Parish in the southeast and the New Orleans region were particularly hard hit.
Climate diagram Baton Rouge
Source: World Weather Information; Weather24
Climate diagram New Orleans
The name was chosen in honor of King Louis XIV of France . Louisiana was explored early: the Spaniard Hernando de Soto explored the Mississippi area from 1539 to 1542, the French Robert Cavelier de La Salle continued this research in 1681, after which France claimed the area for itself and settled it permanently for the first time in 1699. ( see Louisiana Colony )
In the autumn of 1729 the Natchez Uprising ( Natchez Uprising ) led to a major rebellion by the Natchez Indians, who had allied themselves with African-born slaves, against the French colonial rulers, during which Fort Rosalie was destroyed and almost all of the French living there were killed . The uprising hit the colonists so hard that the region's economy stagnated for almost a century and a highly profitable plantation economy, such as that which emerged in other parts of the American South in the 18th century, did not emerge in Louisiana until the 19th century.
The ownership structure changed several times over the years: On the basis of the agreements in the Peace of Paris , the western part came to Spain in 1762, the eastern part to Great Britain a year later, which had to surrender it to the United States in 1783 ( Peace of Paris ). In 1800 Napoleon I bought back the Spanish share (→ Third Treaty of San Ildefonso ).
On April 30, 1803, US President Thomas Jefferson bought the French colony of Louisiana from Napoleon I for $ 15 million with the so-called Louisiana Purchase . The United States doubled its national territory in one fell swoop, because what was then Louisiana still comprised large areas of the Midwest . Louisiana was officially handed over on March 10, 1804. With the Organic Act of March 26, 1804, with effect from October 1, the Orleans Territory was created from the area south of the 33rd parallel , which essentially corresponds to today's Louisiana. The much larger part north of the 33rd parallel became the District of Louisiana, which was renamed Louisiana Territory in 1805 . On April 30, 1812, the Orleans Territory was incorporated under the name Louisiana as the 18th state of the United States. To avoid confusion, the Louisiana Territory was renamed the Missouri Territory in June 1812 .
During the American Civil War (1861-1865) the state of Louisiana belonged to the Southern Union ( Confederate States of America ).
The capital of Louisiana is Baton Rouge , the largest and most famous city is New Orleans .
In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit the southeast of the state . The city of New Orleans and surrounding areas suffered severe damage.
Louisiana is a COVID-19 pandemic hit area in the United States . It became the fifth state to be declared a disaster area in late March 2020.
1900–1990 2000 + 2010
Louisiana has 4,533,372 inhabitants (as of the 2010 Census), of which 60.3% were white , 32.0% African-American , 4.2% Hispanic or Latino , 1.5% Asian-American and 0.7% Indian . The majority of whites have French or Creole ancestors, but only 4.7% speak French as their mother tongue.
Louisiana has no official language . Because of the strong French presence at the time, official documents were issued in both English and French until the American Civil War . The constitution of 1845 and a law of 1847 ensured bilingualism. Another linguistic minority are the Isleños , who emigrated from the Canary Islands to Louisiana in the 18th century. In the meantime, however, the percentage of French speakers in Louisiana has decreased significantly. In 2010, with around 3% speakers, it ranked third behind English (91.26%) and Spanish (around 4%).
The major religious communities in 2000 are the Catholic Church (1,382,603), Southern Baptist Convention (768,587) and the United Methodist Church (160,153). There are many other denominations , mainly Protestant ones . Compared to the other southern states, there are an unusually large number of Catholics.
|2016||58.09% 1,178,638||38.45% 780,154|
|2012||57.78% 1,152,262||40.58% 809,141|
|2008||58.56% 1,148,275||39.93% 782,989|
|2004||56.72% 1,102,169||42.22% 820,299|
|2000||52.55% 927,871||44.88% 792,344|
|1996||39.94% 712,586||45.84% 927,837|
|1992||40.97% 733,386||45.58% 815,971|
|1988||54.27% 883,702||44.06% 717,460|
|1984||60.77% 1,037,299||38.18% 651,586|
|1980||51.20% 792,853||45.75% 708,453|
|1976||45.95% 587,446||51.73% 661,365|
|1972||65.32% 686,852||28.35% 298,142|
|1968||23.47% 257,535||28.21% 309,615|
|1964||56.81% 509,225||43.19% 387,068|
|1960||28.59% 230,980||50.42% 407,339|
|* George Wallace
from the American Independent Party won
with 48.32% or 530,300 votes
Louisiana, formerly famous for its (in) culture of fairly open political corruption , is one of the southern states that are less conservative overall . New Orleans and Baton Rouge are centers of democratic liberalism in this state . The rural population is just as conservative as in other southern states. After Hurricane Katrina , however, it remains to be seen whether the former liberal center of the south, New Orleans, can recover again. In the past, Louisiana was comparable to the other southern states. Democratic dominance and pro- segregation content dominated political events well into the 1980s. The development of Louisiana to the Red State took longer than in other southern states such as South Carolina , Alabama or Mississippi. Louisiana last voted in 1996 for the Democrat Bill Clinton . Since then, the state electors have gone to the Republican candidate every time. Louisiana has had eight electors in Electoral College since 2012. In 1988 there were ten.
In the US Senate , the state is represented by Republicans John Neely Kennedy and Bill Cassidy . Louisiana had two Democratic senators for decades until 2005, and since Mary Landrieu was voted out of office in 2014, both Senate seats have been in Republican hands. Louisiana's delegation to the 115th Congress House of Representatives consists of five Republicans and one Democrat.
Unlike the rest of the United States, which is governed by Anglo-American law, Louisiana is governed by continental European law based on the Napoleonic Code . A lawyer accredited in Louisiana is therefore not licensed outside of the state - and vice versa. The right to vote in Louisiana also follows the French model: in most elections there is therefore a runoff between the two leading applicants if neither of them was able to achieve an absolute majority in the first round. In almost all other states of the USA there is always a simple majority voting system, in which no absolute majority is required, but the candidate with the most votes wins immediately.
The death penalty applies to murder and treason; 28 executions have taken place since its reintroduction, the last of which in 2010 (as of July 2017).
Culture and sights
Life in Louisiana is shaped by numerous cultures, customs and traditions, including the voodoo cult . The French influence can still be felt today.
In 2002, Louisiana became the first US state to offer tax breaks to film and television productions. As more states followed suit, Louisiana increased its tax breaks. This has made Louisiana the most popular state for film and television after California and New York.
The real gross domestic product per capita (English per capita real GDP) was USD 50,219 in 2016 (national average of the 50 US states: USD 57,118; national ranking: 32). The unemployment rate was 4.7% in November 2017 (national average: 4.1%). Louisiana had the second lowest median household income of any state, at $ 43,903 in 2017.
Rich deposits of crude oil and natural gas (including offshore production) as well as sulfur and rock salt are the basis of the predominantly energy-intensive industry. In agriculture, soybeans, cucumbers, cotton, sugar cane, sweet potatoes and rice are produced on fertile soils. Meat and dairy farming, poultry farming and fishing (shrimp, oysters) and fur production through trapping (mink, otter, muskrat, opossum, nutria) are of great importance. The forests provide construction timber and the raw material for paper production. Tourism is important.
The most important branches of industry at a glance:
- Chemical and petrochemical industry (petroleum, natural gas, sulfur)
- Paper industry
- Aluminum industry
- Tourism (especially New Orleans with the largest port on the Gulf Coast)
- Cultivation of cotton, sugar cane, rice, vegetables, tobacco
- Cattle breeding (especially dairy farming)
Louisiana has been the US's second largest oil and gas producer since the late 20th century; around 2014 funding reached a peak. The drop in the price of oil has led to massive job cuts since 2014. In 2015 alone, 12,000 jobs were lost in the oil industry and 7,000 in the manufacturing industry, which is heavily dependent on cheap energy. Economic production is only possible again from around US $ 60 per barrel .
Louisiana has airports and a. in Alexandria , Baton Rouge , Monroe , Shreveport and via the international Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport , which is located in the city of Kenner near New Orleans.
Ports and waterways
The port of New Orleans is one of the most modern ocean ports in the United States, through which a large proportion of food exports take place. It is 160 kilometers above the mouth of the Mississippi. The port of Baton Rouge is the furthest inland ocean port on the Mississippi. Mainly petrochemical products are handled here on push convoys.
The most important state universities are combined in the University of Louisiana System and the Louisiana State University System . Another state college is Southern University and A&M College . The most famous private university is Tulane University . Other universities are included in the list of universities in Louisiana .
Some well-known museums are located here: Alexandria Museum of Art, Confederate Memorial Hall, LSU Rural Life Museum, Louisiana History Museum, Louisiana State Museum, National World War II Museum , New Orleans Mint, New Orleans Museum of Art, RW Norton Art Gallery , River Road African American Museum, Shaw Center for the Arts.
Louisiana in culture
- Angel Heart
- Bad Lieutenant - Cop with no conscience
- Catch Me If You Can
- Cincinnati Kid
- The yellow sail
- The verdict - everyone is for sale
- The ghost town of zombies
- Dead Man Walking - His last walk
- Déjà Vu - a race against time
- The man in the snakeskin
- The strange case of Benjamin Button
- The forbidden key
- The file
- The last Americans
- Double homicide
- Down by law
- Easy rider
- End of the line longing
- Interview with a vampire
- JFK - Dallas crime scene
- Johnny Handsome - The handsome Johnny
- Cat people
- kiss the frog
- Live and Let Die
- Lovesong for Bobby Long
- Mississippi Delta - In the Swamp of Vengeance
- Murder in Louisiana
- Pact of vengeance
- Pretty baby
- Black Angel
- The Big Easy - The great carelessness
- The Mechanic
- The Originals (TV series)
- The Vampire Diaries (TV series)
- Treme (TV series)
- True Blood
- True detective
- Undercover Blues - An absolutely cool trio
- Wild at Heart - The story of Sailor and Lula
- Welcome to the Rileys
- Twelve rounds
- Blacksad - The Silence of Hell
- Bennett H. Wall, John C. Rodrigue (Eds.): Louisiana: A History. 6th edition. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester 2014, ISBN 978-1-118-61929-2 .
- Geographical location of Louisiana. Retrieved January 29, 2017
- Paul A. Keddy: Water, Earth, Fire: Louisiana's natural heritage . Xlibris, Philadelphia 2008, ISBN 978-1-4363-6234-4 .
- Geology in Louisiana. ( Memento from January 17, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Retrieved January 29, 2017 (English)
- Flora and Fauna in Louisiana. Accessed January 29, 2017
- Climate in Louisiana. Retrieved January 29, 2017
- Weather in Baton Rouge. Retrieved January 29, 2017
- Humidity in Baton Rouge. Retrieved January 29, 2017
- Sun hours in Baton Rouge. Retrieved January 29, 2017
- Climate in New Orleans. Retrieved January 29, 2017
- The Natchez Indians Rebel; Ira Berlin: Generations of Captivity: A History of African-American Slaves , Cambridge, London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003 , ISBN 0-674-01061-2 , p. 42.
- FAZ.net March 28, 2020
- US Census Bureau _ Census of Population and Housing . Retrieved February 28, 2011
- Extract from Census.gov . Retrieved February 28, 2011
- Excerpt from census.gov (2000 + 2010) ( Memento from January 19, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Retrieved on April 2, 2012
- US Census Bureau
- Wolfgang Viereck: dtv-Atlas English language , page 160. Munich 2002
- US Census 2000
- Most spoken languages in Louisiana in 2010 , at mla.org: (To display the graphic, "State" must be clicked and "Louisiana" selected)
- The Association of Religion Data Archives Maps & Reports ( Memento from January 21, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- David Leip: Dave Leip's Atlas of US Presidential Elections. Retrieved December 2, 2018 .
- www.270towin.com .
- Alex Ben Block ( The Hollywood Reporter , March 28, 2014): How Georgia Toppled Louisiana in Attracting TV Productions , accessed March 29, 2014.
- US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic Analysis: Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved August 27, 2017 (American English).
- Unemployment Rates for States. Retrieved January 8, 2018 .
- Median household income by state 2017 | Statistic. Retrieved December 11, 2018 .
- Brockhaus. Encyclopedia in 30 volumes, 21st, completely revised edition Mannheim, 2006, s. v. Louisiana .
- Tom DiChristopher: Oil rout has Louisiana's bayou businesses singing the blues , CNBC, May 6, 2016.