|List of states|
|Capital:||Salt Lake City|
|Official language :||English|
|Residents:||3,101,833 (2017 estimate) (13 U / km²)|
|Member since:||4th January 1896|
|Time zone:||Mountain: UTC − 7 / −6|
|The highest point:||4126 m ( Kings Peak )|
|Average Height:||1920 m|
|Deepest point:||610 m Beaver Dam Wash|
|Governor :||Spencer Cox ( R )|
|Post / Office / ISO||UT / / US-UT|
Utah ( English pronunciation [ ˈjuːtɑː ] ) is a state of the United States of America . The capital of Utah is Salt Lake City . The abbreviation is UT, the nickname of the state is The Beehive State (English beehive , beehive ',' bee state ',' beehive '). The nickname is explained by the fact that the founding Mormons made the beehive as a symbol of industry to a symbol of the state or territory. Other state symbols are the seagull as the state bird, the cherry as the state fruit, and the allosaurusas a state fossil and the Colt M1911 as a state weapon. Utah was the first state in which a weapon received this status.
The name Utah is derived from the Indian people of the Ute , who still live in Utah today, along with a few other peoples. The Mormons wanted the state to be Deseret ; However, this religiously based name, which comes from the Book of Mormon , was not accepted by the US government because of the separation of church and state .
Utah's neighboring states are Nevada , Idaho , Wyoming , Colorado , New Mexico, and Arizona . The southeast corner of the state forms with the areas of Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona the only quadrangle of the United States, the point Four Corners , after which the adjacent region is named.
Utah is the border between two geographic provinces: the Colorado Plateau in the east and south and the Basin and Range Province in the west of the state. The Wasatch Mountains form the border between these major regions. In the east and northeast, the Rocky Mountains barely reach Utah. In the northeast, in the Uinta Mountains , Kings Peak (4123 m) is also the highest of the mountains in Utah .
Utah's share of the Colorado Plateau can be divided into several sections. In the north, below the Uinta Mountains, lies the Uinta Basin . It is shaped by the upper reaches of the Green River . To the south is the Canyon Lands section , in which the Colorado River flows and the Green River flows into it. To the west of this is the High Plateaus section with several layers of the Grand Staircase . To the southeast is an area known as Utah's Dixie , which is drained by the Virgin River . The Mormon pioneers coined the name because they were able to grow cotton in this climatically mildest region of Utah .
The Basin and Range part of Utah consists of the completely flat Great Salt Desert and a multitude of small and tiny clumps as well as the ditches between them . The region's two easternmost valleys, the Salt Lake Valley and the Utah Valley , together form the Wasatch Front below the Wasatch Mountains. They are the only parts of the state that are densely populated and are home to approximately 80% of Utah's total population.
Extension of the national territory
The area of 219,887 km² extends over 435 kilometers from east to west between 109 ° W and 114 ° W, as well as 565 kilometers from south to north between 37 ° N and 42 ° N. 3.25 percent of the national territory consists of water, The Great Salt Lake has the largest share .
Utah has an extreme steppe climate, i. In other words, there are relatively hot summers around 30 ° C and cold, snowy winters often below 0 ° C. The annual rainfall ranges from 200 to 700 mm and is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year. The region around Salt Lake City ( ) is a popular winter sports area; The 2002 Winter Olympics were held here.
Average monthly temperatures for Salt Lake City
Utah has 3.101 million inhabitants (extrapolation from the US Census Bureau 2017), of which 89.1% are white, 0.9% black and African-American, 1.9% Asians, 1.1% Indians, 0.7% Hawaiians and 4, 5% of other parentage. 1.8% said they belonged to two or more races . Of the total population, 11.2% are Hispanic community.
Utah has the highest fertility rate of any state in the United States (2.29 children per woman in 2015). Utah's population is living longer than the American average and has a lower percentage of overweight people.
Over 80% of the population of Utah lives in the metropolitan area " Wasatch Front " below the western flank of the Wasatch range . The settlement strip extends from Ogden in the north to Provo in the south and to the Salt Lake Valley and the Utah Valley . The rest of the state is extremely sparsely populated.
Age and gender structure
The age structure of Utah is composed as follows:
- up to 18 years: 792,172 (31.1%)
- 18–64 years: 1,533,931 (60.1%)
- 65 years and over: 223,960 (8.8%)
The median age is 28.4 years. 50.3% of the population is male and 49.7% is female.
Ethnic population composition
In 2014, 24.9% of the population were of English descent, making them the largest group. This is followed by the groups of German (11.3%), American (6.0%), Irish (5.7%) and Danish (5.0%) groups.
In 2012, about 62% of the population were Mormons ; however, since religious affiliation is not recorded in American censuses, precise data are not available. This makes Utah one of only five US states in which a single religious group has an absolute majority. The others are the majority Catholic states of Massachusetts , Rhode Island and New Mexico , as well as Mississippi , where Baptists make up the majority of the population.
The Hispanic community in Utah has more than tripled since the 1990s, from around 85,000 (1990) to 201,000 (2000) to 286,113 in 2006. It already represents 11.2% of the population.
As early as 1847, Utah was colonized by the followers of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (" Mormons ") in sometimes unusual ways. To bring Church members to Utah, the Perpetual Emigrating Fund ( PEF ) was established in 1850 . Financed by donations, the funds in this fund should be used to bring people still living in the east of the USA, but especially new converts from Europe, to Salt Lake City . Depending on the needs of the individual, the PEF assumed part or all of the costs for the trip to Utah, whereby the respective church member contractually undertook to repay this money upon arrival.
By the end of the year, the PEF was running out of money, so Governor Brigham Young , who is also President of Latter-day Saints Church of Jesus Christ, revived an old plan. This stipulated that the immigrants should be pulled into the valley of the Great Salt Lake in handcarts instead of covered wagons pulled by horses or oxen , which should bring savings of 6 pounds per person. The European emigrants , most of whom came from poor backgrounds in British cities, were supposed to take the ship to New York City , Boston or New Orleans and from there take the train to Iowa City , where the handcarts would be waiting for them. After all, the emigrants would have to walk to Salt Lake City by cart (loaded with 50 kg of luggage) within 90 days.
The first handcart pioneers (about 800 total) to arrive in Iowa City in April 1856 were split into three treks. They reached Salt Lake City with minimal losses in late September to early October 1856. The last two handcart divisions did not start until the end of June in Iowa City and were surprised by an early and suddenly violent onset of winter about 300 miles from Salt Lake City in Wyoming . In view of the devastating weather conditions and the difficult route, the emigrants were finally brought to Salt Lake City in November in an almost spectacular rescue operation for the time. Of the original 1,076 people in the two departments, between 200 and 220 died. Despite this catastrophe, there were five more treks with handcarts in the following four years, but these went smoothly due to better organization.
In the Utah War of 1857/58, however, the political power of the Mormons was smashed. After the Mountain Meadows massacre on September 11, 1857, access to Salt Lake City was blocked by the US Army. With the help of Colonel Thomas L. Kane, who both knew the Mormons and had a good reputation with the government, Governor Brigham Young was persuaded to give in in the months that followed. In the spring of 1858, US associations advanced near Salt Lake City, but undertook to remain outside the city. Brigham Young passed his role as governor to Alfred Cumming on April 12, 1858 . In 1861, the new Nevada Territory was formed from the western part of the area and parts of the east were ceded to the Colorado Territory and the Nebraska Territory . In 1868 additional areas went to the state of Nevada and the Wyoming Territory (see maps).
Utah Territory 1851 and the proposed state of Deseret
On January 4, 1896, Utah became the 45th state to become a fully qualified member of the United States. Several earlier attempts to be recognized as a state had failed because of conflicts between Latter-day Saints' Church of Jesus Christ and the American federal government , most notably disputes over Mormon polygamy . It was only when the leadership of the Church of Jesus Christ LDS officially abolished it in 1890 that the road to the state was clear. However, even in today's Utah constitution, there are still numerous provisions that were once made out of fear of a Mormon-dominated state. The preamble to the Utah constitution invokes God, but the rest of the constitutional text affirms the right to religious freedom, the separation of church and state and, last but not least, forbids the dominance of the state by a single church. Government support for churches or church schools is also prohibited in Utah. It also emphasizes that the public school system should be free from sectarian control, which is also a clear reference to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints . Finally, polygamy is also prohibited by a constitutional provision (not only on the level of simple law), although this provision can only be changed with the consent of the US federal authorities.
|2016||45.54% 515,231||27.46% 310,676|
|2012||72.79% 740,600||24.75% 251,813|
|2008||62.25% 596,030||34.22% 327,670|
|2004||71.54% 663,742||26.00% 241,199|
|2000||66.83% 515,096||26.34% 203,053|
|1996||54.37% 361,911||33.30% 221,633|
|1992||43.36% 322,632||24.65% 183,429|
|1988||66.22% 428,442||32.05% 207,343|
|1984||74.50% 469,105||24.68% 155,369|
|1980||72.77% 439,687||20.57% 124,266|
|1976||62.44% 337,908||33.65% 182,110|
|1972||67.64% 323,643||26.39% 126,284|
|1968||56.49% 238,728||37.07% 156,665|
|1964||45.14% 180,682||54.86% 219,628|
|1960||54.81% 205,361||45.17% 169,248|
Utah is a stronghold of the Republican Party , which is due, among other things, to the rural housing structure and thus to the reflection on family and church values, as the Republicans usually see themselves as representatives of these values. However, this has only been the case since the 1960s; previously, like most minorities, the majority of the Mormons supported the Democratic Party . With Mitt Romney and Mike Lee both US senators from Utah Republican. In the 116th Congress House of Representatives , the state is represented by three Republicans and Ben McAdams as the only Democrat.
Culture and sights
The following national parks are located in Utah:
Arches National Park
Bryce Canyon National Park
Canyonlands National Park
Capitol Reef National Park
Zion National Park
Monument Valley is not a national park and is administered by the Indians who live there.
Cedar Breaks National Monument
Dinosaur National Monument
Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument
Natural Bridges National Monument
Rainbow Bridge National Monument
Timpanogos Cave National Monument
The capital, Salt Lake City , hosted the 2002 Winter Olympics . Salt Lake City is home to the Utah Jazz basketball team , which plays in the North American professional league NBA . In addition, the Utah Grizzlies, an ice hockey franchise in West Valley City that plays in the ECHL . Previously, a team of the same name played from 1995 to 2005 in the International Hockey League (1995-2001) and the American Hockey League (2001-2005). This team, which also had an identical team logo except for the colors, was based in Salt Lake City. Real Salt Lake , a soccer club based in Sandy, south of Salt Lake City, became champions of Major League Soccer , the top division of North America, in 2009 . It was the first national title for a Utah team in over 40 years.
The major state colleges are the University of Utah , Utah State University , Southern Utah University, and Weber State University . The main private university is the ecclesiastical Brigham Young University . Other colleges are included in the Utah Universities List .
The real gross domestic product per capita was USD 51,243 in 2016 (national average of the 50 US states: USD 57,118; national ranking: 29). The unemployment rate was 3.2% in November 2017 (national average: 4.1%).
Because of the largely desert-like landscape in Utah, arable farming is only possible in the vicinity of the mountains with irrigation or " dry farming " ( wheat , sugar beets , potatoes , fruit ). It is farming operation ( cattle , sheep ). Of importance are the mining ( copper , oil , uranium , gold , salt , silver , lead , iron , natural gas , metals) as well as the aviation industry , and the tourism . The capital, Salt Lake City, was named No. 1 by the US magazine “ Fortune ” in 1990. 1 US City in which to do business ”because it has well-trained and motivated employees.
- US Census Bureau _ Census of Population and Housing . Retrieved February 28, 2011
- Extract from Census.gov . Retrieved February 28, 2011
- Excerpt from factfinder.census.gov.Retrieved October 3, 2015
- The Public Use File natality - 2015 Update. Retrieved December 2, 2018 .
- Adult Obesity in the United States . In: The State of Obesity . ( stateofobesity.org [accessed December 2, 2018]).
- USCensus Utah Selected Social Characteristics
- Archived article of "The Salt Lake Tribune" ( Memento of November 4, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Constitution of Utah: Article I, Section 4.
- Constitution of Utah: Article I, Section 4 and Article X, Section 13.
- Constitution of Utah: Article X, Section 1.
- Constitution of Utah: Article III.
- David Leip: Dave Leip's Atlas of US Presidential Elections. Retrieved November 28, 2018 .
- US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic Analysis: Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved August 27, 2017 (American English).
- Unemployment Rates for States. Retrieved January 8, 2018 .
- Official website of the State of Utah (English)
- Literature about Utah in the catalog of the German National Library
- Utah Office of Tourism (English)