|Nickname : Beantown, The Hub of the Universe, The Cradle of Liberty, City on a Hill, Athens of America (Bean City, Center of the Universe, Cradle of Freedom, City on a Hill, Athens of America)|
|Location and extent of Boston in Suffolk County|
|State :||United States|
|County :||Suffolk County|
|Time zone :||Eastern ( UTC − 5 / −4 )|
- Metropolitan Area :
|617,594 (status: 2010)
4,552,402 (status: 2010)
|Population density :||4,925 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area :||232.1 km 2 (approx. 90 mi 2 ) of
which 125.4 km 2 (approx. 48 mi 2 ) are land
|Height :||43 m|
|Area code :||+1 617, 857|
|GNIS ID :||0617565|
|Mayor :||Marty Walsh (D)|
Boston on the map of the United States
Boston [ ˈbɔstən ] is the largest city in New England and the capital of the state of Massachusetts on the east coast of the United States . The metropolis is one of the oldest, wealthiest, and culturally richest cities in the United States. Its greater area is home to both the world-famous Harvard University and the similarly important MIT , both located in Cambridge . In the cultural field, the Symphony Hall and the Boston Symphony Orchestra residing in it are world-famous. The region's economic strength is mainly determined by educational institutions, healthcare , finance and technology .
Boston (area: 233.1 km²) is located in the northeast of the United States on the North American east coast with Massachusetts Bay , whose strong division made it possible to create natural harbors . The Mystic River , Neponset River and Charles River with their mouths cut through or limit the city. The original hills in the urban area were eroded over time and deposited in the Back Bay and South End areas to wrest additional land from the Atlantic .
Expansion of the urban area
The central area of Boston forms both the core of the Greater Boston metropolitan area with 4.4 million inhabitants, which includes the cities of Cambridge , Brookline , Quincy and many suburban communities, as well as the Boston CMSA (Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area), the seventh largest in the USA (in tenth place according to other rankings). The cities of Revere , Chelsea , Everett , Somerville , Cambridge , Watertown , Newton , Quincy , Winthrop , Brookline , Needham , Dedham , Canton and Milton border Boston .
Administrative division of Boston
Boston is part of Suffolk County of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and is the capital of both . On October 4, 2002, the Boston City Council completed the redistribution of the metropolitan area, which is now divided into 23 neighborhoods: Allston , Back Bay , Bay Village , Beacon Hill , Brighton , Charlestown , Chinatown , Dorchester , East Boston , Fenway-Kenmore , Hyde Park , Jamaica Plain , Mattapan , Mid Dorchester, Mission Hill , North End , Roslindale, Roxbury , South Boston , South End , West End , West Roxbury .
Boston is known for having one of the most attractive and livable urban centers in the country. Each district has an individual atmosphere, which is determined by the local residents and their social and ethnic affiliation. Downtown is the seat of the financial district and there is also Chinatown and the municipal administrative center with the city hall, Boston City Hall . Back Bay, west of the Boston Public Garden , is one of the wealthiest neighborhoods in the United States. Beacon Hill is no less wealthy, with the State House , the seat of government of the State of Massachusetts . South End used to be home to a strong middle class company of traders and seafarers and their families. Nowadays there is an LGBT population, alongside artists, yuppies, African American and Latins. The main attractions are the restaurants there and the bohemian atmosphere. North End and East Boston have dominant Italian influence, but are also home to other ethnicities.
On the north bank of the Charles River there is an Irish district with Charlestown. This population group is also found in South Boston. Allston and Brighton are mostly inhabited by students from the nearby Northeastern University , Boston University and Boston College . Dorchester has the greatest diversity and ethnic diversity. Latinos and African-Americans, together with middle-class families displaced from more expensive residential areas, make up the largest share in the districts of Roxbury and Mattapan, which are south of the inner city.
The summer months of July and August in Boston can be hot and humid. The long-term average temperature for July is 23 ° C. During the winter months November to February the weather can be wet with lots of snow. The average temperature in January is −1 ° C.
Monthly average temperatures and rainfall for Boston, Massachusetts
¹ 1950–2010: census results; 2016: US Census Bureau estimate
The first European to settle in the area was the British settler William Blaxton in 1625 . In 1629 he sold lands to settlers. The Puritans arriving in June 1630 had property rights over the entire colony and in turn left Blaxton land for development. The English emigrants grouped themselves in a settlement on a peninsula , which was called by the indigenous Indians Shawmut and by the English first Trimountaine (actually "three mountains"). At that time the peninsula surrounded by Massachusetts Bay was only connected to the mainland by a very narrow land connection . The second governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony , John Winthrop , named the settlement Boston and founded it on September 7th July. / 17th September 1630 greg. the town. The name goes back to a town of the same name in Lincolnshire , England , where some of the Puritans came from.
John Winthrop had given a sermon known as "A Model of Christian Charity", in which he called the new city City upon a Hill and expressed that the Puritans knew they were bound to God in a special contract. The Puritan values, especially work, education and godliness, stabilized society to a high degree and are still part of the social model in Boston and New England today . As early as 1635, a few years after the settlement was founded, the Boston Latin School was the first Latin school and in 1636 Harvard University was America's first university .
On June 1, 1660, Quaker Mary Dyer was publicly executed under a law of 1658 that prohibited her belief. She is considered to be the last religious martyr in North America and the first female martyr of Quakerism .
On March 20, 1760, a city fire broke out that destroyed 174 houses and 175 shops. The fire destroyed about a tenth of the city. No personal injuries were reported.
1773 Boston Tea Party
The city became famous for the Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773. At that time, protests against an increase in the tea tax by the British Parliament sparked the Revolutionary War . A red pavement trail , the four-mile-long Freedom Trail , America's "Path of Freedom," leads to 16 historic sites in the city, including Boston Common , the Massachusetts State House and the Old State House .
1780–1890 growth and expansion
After the American Revolution , Boston became one of the richest trading ports in the world. The most important commodities were fish , rum , salt and tobacco . Since the 1820s, due to increasing immigration, the image of the population began to change significantly: Whereas until now almost exclusively Protestant descendants of English immigrants were decisive, the proportion of Catholics, especially of Irish and later also of Italian descent , has now increased significantly.
The city met the enormous space requirements that had arisen due to the growing population in an unusual way: Between 1630 and 1890, the urban area tripled not only through incorporations, but also through land reclamation , especially in the shallow waters of the Charles River and Massachusetts Bay . The earth masses required for this were obtained primarily through the gradual removal of the three hills that were originally located on the peninsula (hence the 'Trimountain'). Only in the streets of Beacon Hill can one still guess remnants of the former inclines. The Massachusetts State House there , the seat of the governor of Massachusetts , is located on the top of the reduced hill.
In 1872 the city of Boston was hit by the biggest fire in its history. The extensive debris from the burned buildings was then also used as filler material for land reclamation.
Molasses disaster in 1919
On January 15, 1919, another major disaster occurred near North End Park, in which 21 people were killed and another 150 injured. A molasses tank could no longer withstand the pressure of its contents due to a faulty construction and burst, whereupon 14,000 tons of molasses poured into the streets of Boston and drowned 21 passers-by.
Since the early 20th century
In the 1920s and 1930s the city of Boston went through a structural change that was characterized by the withdrawal of old industries, which had to do with the high wage structure compared to other areas in the USA. The production factor labor had become too expensive for many industrial companies, so that they had to migrate. As a result, the city responded with various initiatives that have come to be known as Urban Renewal . These initiatives included various urban development programs carried out by the Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) after it was initiated in 1957. Much credit was lost in the early projects, as urban regeneration activities in many cases were at the expense of below-average income groups. This policy led to the displacement of large parts of the population from the core city. In later projects this policy was changed and the so-called linkage principle was introduced as a kind of social balance. This principle, which has been continued to this day, is characterized by a financial balance between structurally strong and weak core city areas. A fee is imposed on the developers of lucrative construction projects, which is then used for the revitalization of decaying residential and commercial areas.
With the economic growth that began in the 1970s, which was supported in particular by the medical sector, the economic dynamic developed positively for the first time in more than 30 years. During this time, the Boston-based Massachusetts General Hospital , Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Brigham and Women's Hospital were among the nation's leading medical institutions, including in terms of medical innovation. But the general science sector, which has always been important for Boston’s economic growth, also increasingly attracted students during this period.
Car traffic, which has been increasing steadily since the 1920s, also led to new problems. These were not easy to solve, especially in Boston, as the city center was one of the oldest and most densely built up in the whole of the USA. However, it was precisely this fact that the responsible local politicians saw as part of the problem at the end of the 1940s. In the years that followed, an approximately four-kilometer, six-lane urban motorway was laid as an elevated road across the heart of the city. However, this only solved the traffic problems for a short time and had also caused the inner city to be fragmented. In the 1980s, the largest road construction and revitalization project in the United States, known as Big Dig , was initiated in order to mitigate the urban development consequences of the road breakthrough and at the same time solve the traffic problems . Due to its size, this project was not completed until 2007.
Eventually, in the early 21st century, Boston grew into an international, intellectual, and technological center. The city also played an important national role in political science. However, there was also a loss of importance for regional institutions in the financial sector and within the journalistic sector. The Boston Globe newspaper was taken over by the New York Times and the Boston-based insurance company FleetBoston Financial was taken over by Bank of America . Other problematic developments were gentrification processes , that is, social displacement from residential areas. Since the 1970s, these have been accompanied by rising property and apartment prices. In 2004, the greater Boston area had the highest national cost of living, and the state of Massachusetts was the only state in the United States with a population decline.
Another trend in urban development since the beginning of the second half of the 20th century is the revitalization of derelict port areas. Projects that were and are being promoted in Boston in this area are the so-called Harborwalk , a continuous walkway along the so-called waterfront in the North End , which also connects to the city center through crossings, the revitalization of Kai Rowes Wharf through a mixed-use complex, the revitalization the Fort Point Channel area and the construction of the Boston Exhibition and Convention Center as well as the revitalization of the Charlestown Navy Yard (largest contiguous revitalization area in the USA).
The city's political system is characterized by a strong executive system. The mayor, whose regular term of office is four years, has extensive decision-making powers. The election takes place in two rounds: an impartial first election and a second November election between the two candidates of the first election with the most votes. Marty Walsh has been mayor of Boston since January 2014 . He replaced Thomas Menino , who had been in office since 1993 and had been confirmed five times .
The city parliament (City Council) is rebalanced every two years. One representative is sent from each of the nine wards or neighborhoods. There are also four candidates chosen by the entire city population. The school committee is appointed by the mayor, as are the individual department heads in the city administration.
In addition, other authorities have a major influence on urban development. The Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation , the Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport) and the Boston Redevelopment Authority , which have a particularly large influence on life in the city of Boston, should be mentioned here.
As the capital of the US state of Massachusetts, Boston also has supraregional government functions. Numerous politicians, including several US presidents (for example, John F. Kennedy was born in the neighboring town of Brookline in Boston ), Boston and the state of Massachusetts also have a strong political weight in the federal policy of the United States . This significant influence is also reflected in various US government agencies in Boston. This includes the John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building and the Thomas P. O'Neill Federal Building and, more recently, the John Joseph Moakley United States Courthouse , the headquarters of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit
In 2006, the City of Boston, or its electoral office, was reprimanded by the Massachusetts State Secretary of the Interior for not placing enough ballot boxes to properly conduct an election.
The city of Boston has become known for its very low crime rate in recent years. This is also attributed to the close cooperation between the city police and the local action groups in the city districts, which make a significant contribution to preventing young people from sliding into crime.
Boston is the seat of a Catholic Archbishop ( Archdiocese of Boston ).
Flag and seal
The city seal was adopted in 1823. It is legally regulated that the seal should look like this: Round in shape, representing part of the city, the motto: "SICUT PATRIBUS, SIT DEUS NOBIS" (God be with us as he was with our fathers) and the inscription " BOSTONIA CONDITA AD. 1630 CIVITATIS REGIMINE DONATA AD. 1822 “(Boston founded in 1630 AD received city rights in 1822 AD). The flag has a light blue background and the city arms in the middle. A legal regulation protects the flag.
According to estimates by the United States Census Bureau in 2015, the population was 46.2 percent white and 24.7 percent African American; 9.1 percent were of Asian origin. 22.1 percent of the population were Hispanics . The median income per household was 2,015 at 55,777 US dollars . 21.5 percent of the population lived below the poverty line.
Economy and Transport
The metropolitan area of Boston generated an economic output of 422.7 billion US dollars in 2016 and thus ranked ninth among the greater metropolitan areas of the USA and is also one of the most powerful economic regions worldwide. The unemployment rate was only 2.9 percent (as of May 2018).
According to statistics from 2016, Boston was the US region with the greatest income inequality. The top 5% earned an income of $ 266,224, while the bottom 20% earned an average of $ 14,942. The difference between individual ethnic groups is even more serious. The average white household has a net worth of $ 247,500; the average black household has $ 8.
In a ranking of the cities with the highest quality of life in the world, Boston was ranked 35th out of 231 cities surveyed in 2018 and second in the United States.
General economic structure
The economic structure of Boston is significantly shaped by the higher educational institutions located here. These facilities are not only among the largest employers in the city, but are also a focal point for the settlement of many high-tech companies, for example from the IT and biotechnology sectors. In the greater Boston area, many manufacturing companies from the defense sector also play a major role.
According to a 2003 report by the Boston Redevelopment Authority, more than 135,000 students are enrolled at the total of 32 universities (including other higher education institutions). These contribute 4.8 billion US dollars a year to the economic growth of the city of Boston. At the same time, the city of Boston ranks first of all US cities in the acquisition of research funds in the health sector.
In addition, tourism now plays a central role in the economic growth of the city of Boston. In 2005, an estimated 17.6 million people visited the state capital of Massachusetts. This large number of visitors was divided between the types of classic tourism, business travelers and trade fair and congress visitors. This generated an estimated 9.8 billion US dollars for hotel accommodation, meals, entertainment and leisure activities and the use of transport. Other important branches of the economy are the financial sector, in particular the insurance sector, printing and publishing (for example The Boston Globe ). In addition, there are now four exhibition and convention centers in Boston. These include the Hynes Convention Center in the Back Bay district and the newly built World Trade Center Boston on the waterfront in the South Boston district. Due to the seat of government of the State of Massachusetts, the political and business-related services, such as business and political consultants as well as lawyers, are strongly represented in Boston.
Leading companies headquartered in Boston include Gillette , a subsidiary of Procter & Gamble , and Teradyne , one of the world's leading manufacturers of test systems for microprocessors and other electronic components. In addition, the management consultancy The Boston Consulting Group comes from Boston and is still headquartered here like the Wayfair e-commerce mail order company. The real estate REIT American Tower , which owns cell phone masts, is also headquartered in the city. The pharmaceutical industry is represented by the pharmaceutical manufacturer Alexion Pharmaceuticals , which relocated its headquarters to Boston in 2018. Other companies are located in the area around the city. Reference is made here in particular to so-called Route 128 .
Importance of the financial sector
The so-called FIRE sector (abbreviation for Finance, Insurance and Real Estate) is of particular importance for the economic development of the city of Boston in addition to the education sector. This influence results in particular from the influence of the financial sector on employment, training, economic development and housing construction. The availability of capital within the region plays a special role in these areas.
The financial sector employs an estimated 111,000 people in the city of Boston. This is considered to be one of the financial centers in the northeastern United States. The company Fidelity Investments with 11,250 employees in 2001 was the top dog among the financial institutions of the city, followed by the company John Hancock Financial with 4,793 employees, which is now the Canadian company Manulife Financial was acquired.
The city's enormous financial power is also reflected in the architecture. The Prudential Center was completely refurbished several times during construction and is now one of the most expensive and heaviest buildings in the world.
In a ranking of the most important financial centers worldwide, Boston ranks 10th and third within the United States behind New York and San Francisco (as of 2018).
Transportation and traffic systems
Boston is the location of an international airport. The General Edward Laurence Logan International Airport , shortly Logan International Airport , is by passenger numbers from 27.7 million to no. 19 of US airports, but at number one in the New England states . The seaport is named after the container handling the number 12 on the Atlantic coast of the United States. Both the airport and the port are owned by the Massachusetts Port Authority (massport), a company independent of the City of Boston.
The mass transit system is operated by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) . The system consists of S (commuter rail) and four subway lines (subway - blue , green , red , orange ), the Boston trolleybus (which is integrated into the Silver Line network) as well as local bus lines and regional express Fines. In common usage, the Bostonians public transport system is simply as The T referred. Major train stations in Boston are South Station and North Station . South Station is served by the American railroad company Amtrak as the end point of the most lucrative route between Washington, DC , New York and Boston, the so-called North-East Corridor . Among other things, the Acela Express , a high-speed train based on the French TGV, is used here.
Individual traffic is served by various main traffic axes and as part of the so-called " Big Dig " (the big ditch; one of the most complex civil engineering projects in the world), motorways that cut through the city center were laid underground in tunnels before 2007. The so-called Massachusetts Turnpike , Interstate 90 , leads west towards the state border with the US state of New York. The Interstate 95 connects the north-south route Boston to Portland, Maine (north) or New York and Washington, DC (in the south). There is also Interstate 93 , another north-south interstate highway that runs from the southern end of the city to the north of New Hampshire.
Various well-known universities are located in and around Boston.
In the city center, these include the following:
- Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology
- Berklee College of Music
- The Boston Conservatory of Music
- Boston University
- Emerson College
- Emmanuel College
- Forsyth Institute
- Massachusetts College of Art and Design
- Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences
- New England Conservatory of Music
- New England School of Law
- Northeastern University
- Simmons College
- Suffolk University
- University of Massachusetts Boston
- Wentworth Institute of Technology
- Wheelock College
Outside the city center are:
- Babson College
- Bentley University
- Boston College
- Brandeis University
- Bridgewater State College
- Cambridge College
- Framingham State College
- Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering
- Gordon Conwell Theological Seminary
- Harvard University
- Lesley University
- Longy School of Music
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- The Art Institute of Boston
- Newbury College
- Pine Manor College
- Regis College
- Salem State College
- Tufts University
- Wellesley College
- Wheaton College
From a tourist point of view, Boston captivates above all with its historical and cultural attractions. There are also beautiful landscapes in the surrounding area and architecturally interesting districts within the city. The latter include Back Bay and Beacon Hill, among others. Recreational areas in the surrounding area include Cape Cod (approx. 85 km southeast) and Martha's Vineyard Island (approx. 130 km south). The Boston skyline also has many skyscrapers that are worth seeing .
Major tourist attractions
A red line four kilometers along the sidewalks leads to sites of the American independence movement. Starting at Boston Common , the oldest public park in the USA, it leads to Charlestown; all 16 important sites of this historical period are covered. One of the stops is the Old State House , from whose balcony John Adams proclaimed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 .
Black Heritage Trail
The Black Heritage Trail connects historically significant sites of black American history over a length of over 2.5 km. Since Memorial Day 2012, the tour starts at Faneuil Hall and leads through Beacon Hill in more than 15 locations. The sites document important stations of abolitionism and the Underground Railroad . Because of their outstanding historical significance, some of the places are grouped together as a National Historic Site and form the Boston African American National Historic Site .
Boston National Historical Park
The National Historical Park brings together sights of historical importance that clearly illustrate the importance of the city of Boston during the American Revolution. The sites include:
- The Bunker Hill Monument
- The Charlestown Navy Yard (including the USS Constitution )
- Faneuil Hall
- The Old North Church
- The Old South Meeting House
- The Old State House
- The Paul Revere House in the NRHP with the reference number 66000785
- The Dorchester Heights Monument
The first seven attractions mentioned are on the Freedom Trail.
Important museums (selection)
One of the oldest cultural institutions in Massachusetts with an important library and art collections. In addition to historical documents and photographs, testimonies to the first US presidents and numerous paintings by American artists are shown.
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum
The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum was built around the turn of the century from antique building material in the style of the historicist neo-renaissance imported from Europe.
Museum of Science
Many interactive exhibitions and experiments invite you to take part. Not only children can playfully explore the natural sciences and engineering here. Attached to the museum is the Hayden Planetarium with laser shows and current presentations. There is also the “Mugar Omni Theater”, an IMAX cinema and a butterfly garden , in which the visitor can also see the breeding of butterflies. The museum also offers additional exhibition areas where special exhibitions can be visited, such as Gunther von Hagens ' "Body Worlds 2" until the end of January 2007.
Museum of Fine Arts
The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston is one of the most important art museums in the USA. It houses an important collection of Egyptian and Nubian antiquities and an important collection of Chinese objects. Paintings by Rembrandt and El Greco can be seen, as well as works by Vincent van Gogh , Paul Gauguin , Pierre-Auguste Renoir , Édouard Manet , Edvard Munch , Alberto Giacometti , Georges Rouault and Max Beckmann .
New England Aquarium
Located right by the sea, there is a lot to see here, from penguins to sea lions to jellyfish that live in the sea. In a huge, cylindrical salt water tank, which can be seen from all sides, an artificial reef is home to several hundred different species of fish and turtles. As an "outpost" as it were, the NEA organizes a daily excursion where humpback whales, dolphins and others can be observed. From 1971 to 1985 the aquarium was home to the Hoover seal , famous as a talking animal and a scientific sensation.
This is one of the oldest buildings in the city of Boston. Built between 1740 and 1742 with financial support from the merchant Peter Faneuil .
Old South Meeting House
The 1729 building (corner of Washington and Milk Street) has seen many historically significant gatherings that ultimately resulted in the Boston Tea Party . A memorable exhibition illustrates the events of that time.
Temple of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts
It is the oldest preserved Masonic temple .
National Park Service
The National Park Service designates a National Historical Park for Boston , the Boston National Historical Park , and a National Historic Site , the Boston African American National Historic Site . There are a total of 52 National Historic Landmarks in Boston . 271 buildings and sites in the city are listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) (as of November 5, 2018).
Boston is an artistic and intellectual center. The Boston Symphony Orchestra (as well as the Boston Pops Orchestra recruited from it ) enjoy just as world renown as the universities of Harvard and MIT , which are located in the suburbs of Cambridge . The Boston Film Festival takes place annually. The city administration's long, very restrictive practice of censorship became an unofficial trademark of erotic literature and frank or controversial plays and films in the USA under the catchphrase Banned in Boston .
The city is home to various sports clubs:
- Boston Bruins ( ice hockey ) at TD Garden
- Boston Celtics ( basketball ) at TD Garden
- Boston Red Sox ( baseball ) in Fenway Park
- New England Patriots ( football ) at the former Foxboro Stadium (now Gillette Stadium )
- New England Revolution ( soccer ) at Gillette Stadium
- Boston Cannons ( Lacrosse ) at Harvard Stadium
Boston is also the destination of the Boston Marathon , which has been held continuously since 1897 and thus has a tradition that is on a par with the Olympic Games marathon . A bomb attack was committed at this event on April 15, 2013 , in which three people were killed and over 170 were injured, some seriously.
Sister cities of Boston are:
In addition to the official partner cities (English "sister cities") listed above, Boston maintains a friendship (English "less formal friendship") with the following four cities:
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