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The basketball field at a home game of Alba Berlin in the O2-World Berlin
Basketball game on an outdoor court in Beijing

Basketball is usually in the Hall -operated ball sport in which two teams try to pass in the respective opposing basket toss. The baskets are 3.05 meters high on the two narrow sides of the playing field. A team usually consists of five field players (although there are also other variations such as the increasingly popular 3 on 3 variant) and up to seven substitutes who can change as often as they want. Every hit in the basket from the game counts two or three points depending on the distance. A free throw hit counts one point. The team with the higher number of points wins.

Basketball was originally invented as an indoor sport for YMCA students in 1891 by the Canadian doctor and educator James Naismith and quickly spread worldwide through the YMCA. The sport has been an Olympic sport for men since 1936 and for women since 1976 . Today the sport of basketball has a high status globally, especially in the United States , China , the Philippines , Lithuania and southern Europe and is also in some other countries such as B. Canada , Australia and large parts of Latin America as well as Central and Eastern Europe are popular. By far the most popular and professional league in the world is the North American NBA . Every four years a basketball world championship takes place in a different country , which is organized by the world basketball association FIBA .

According to FIBA, around 450 million people play basketball around the world. The most successful athletes are among the highest paid professional athletes internationally.


The invention of the game of basketball

James Naismith (far right) coaching the University of Kansas team, 1899

Basketball is one of the few sports invented by an individual. The Canadian doctor and educator James Naismith developed the ball game in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1891 as an indoor sport for his students. Naismith had recognized that the emphasis on combat in other ball sports comes from the fact that everything takes place on the same level (e.g. in American football ). He was looking for a less combative sport with a low risk of injury to distract the 18 students in the class over the winter. That's why he moved the baskets (Engl. Baskets ) to a different level, 1½ meters above the players. The caretaker Pop Stabbins attached peach baskets to the 10 foot high balconies (gallery) of the YMCA Training School in Springfield. The suspension height, which was then more randomly determined, corresponds to 3.05 meters and is still valid internationally today. The balls were taken out with a stick; it was not until 1906 that the net, which is still common today, was introduced.

To prevent spectators from influencing basket throws from the gallery, a board was installed behind each basket. The Lyons school secretary helped Naismith create the 13 basic rules that have remained almost unchanged to this day. The first official basketball game took place in Springfield on January 20, 1892. In the two halves of the game, with a half-time break of five minutes, usually only a single goal was scored. Despite this low hit rate, basketball prevailed in the United States.

Women's basketball was introduced at Smith College the following year . Senda Berenson Abbott had a major impact on women's basketball at this time by changing the basic rules developed by James Naismith and adapting them to women. On March 22, 1893, the first women's basketball game took place at Smith College. Senda Berenson then published a magazine specializing in women's basketball.

Formation of the first teams

The Buffalo Germans , winners of the Pan American Championships in 1903

In the years that followed, panel balls , which were similar to today's volleyballs, were initially played. Since back then the rule still applied that a ball that landed outside the field of play would come into the possession of the team that reached it first, the players often jumped into the stands regardless of the spectators. So that the ball couldn't get out of bounds in the first place, people started to fence the basketball court with a cage made of chicken wire. This "basketball cages" gave the sport its nickname " cage game " ( English for cage match ). Barney Sedran, a New York Whirlwinds player, described how uncomfortable it was to play in the cages: "Most of us had constant cuts and the court was covered in blood."

At the beginning of the 20th century, the first famous teams were formed that were later inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame . The Buffalo Germans were among the strongest teams at the YMCA. In 1904, the Germans demonstrated basketball in Exhibition Games at the III. Olympic Games in St. Louis . It is doubtful whether basketball was an official Olympic competition at all, after all, there were no national teams at the Olympic Games, which ran for several months, on the fringes of the world exhibition ; this was only supposed to happen in Berlin in 1936. In addition to the Germans, the Original Celtics were one of the most influential teams from the second decade of the 20th century . In the 1920s, the Celtics were supplemented by other teams such as the New York Renaissance or the Cleveland Rosenblums . In 1925 the American Basketball League (ABL for short) was founded, which changed the game of basketball in some areas. The chicken wire or metal wire was abolished and replaced by ropes. Furthermore backboard was (Engl. Back-board ) officially introduced behind the baskets.

College basketball

Kent Benson , a basketball player from Indiana University Bloomington in Hookshot (Engl. Hook shot )

Soon after the invention of basketball in 1891, the sport caught on in colleges and universities in the United States. The first basketball game between two college teams took place on April 8, 1893 in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania . The Geneva College was on that day against the New Brighton YMCA win. The first basketball games were initially played with seven or nine players per team. On January 18, 1896, the first game with the current game system of only five players took place in Iowa City , the University of Chicago won this game with 15-12 points against the University of Iowa .

Over the next several years, college basketball became increasingly popular within the United States. The most recognized universities (such as Columbia University ) and colleges had sponsored and supported their teams. Due to the numerous college teams, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA for short) was founded in Chicago in 1906 . After the Amateur Athletic Union tournament moved to Denver, Dr. Naismith, therefore, in 1937 with Emil Liston and other citizens of the sister cities on the Missouri, the forerunner of the NAIA tournament of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics in Kansas City, Missouri. College basketball had been a lucrative long-runner in Madison Square Garden since the early 1930s , and so the National Invitation Tournament (NIT) was created in 1938 , which was held there and which was to remain the most important college invitation tournament until the 1970s. The first NCAA Division I men's basketball championship tournament was played in Evanston, Illinois , in front of 5,500 spectators in 1939 . The University of Oregon defeated the opposing team from Ohio State University in the finals with 46-33.

One of the most memorable college basketball games, the Secret Game , took place on a Sunday morning on March 12, 1944, between the white team from Duke University and the black team from North Carolina Central University (NCCU), then North Carolina College for Negroes ( NCC), held in Durham, North Carolina . It was not until March 31, 1996 that the general public became aware of this game when Scott Ellsworth, a historian and Duke graduate, published an article in the New York Times in which he et al. a. noted that the game has become "symbolic of how resistance to Jim Crow occurred outside the traditional civil rights movement,". In 2015 he brought the story of this game under the title The Secret Game. A Wartime Story of Courage, Change, and Basketball's Lost Triumph as a book.

College basketball lost a great deal of credibility and popularity between 1948 and 1951. This was mainly due to numerous scandals and rule violations. The worst was the so-called point shaving scandal, in which the players of numerous teams who had played in Madison Square Garden were involved. The players had taken bribes in order to manipulate the distribution of points on which the bets were made. The colleges included Manhattan College , City College , Bradley University, and the University of Kentucky . A total of 32 people were convicted and all players were banned for life. Less than ten years later, there was a match fixing scandal involving twenty colleges. In 1981, Henry Hill , the template for the Mafia film Goodfellas and involved in the Lufthansa robbery in December 1978, admitted to paying players from Boston College in the 1970s to manipulate the point differences between the results of numerous games. The next point shaving scandal, in which even coaches are said to have been involved, occurred shortly afterwards at Tulane University . Three students were sentenced to prison terms and the university president disbanded the basketball team - for three years.

The (forbidden) compensation of college players in the multi-million dollar college basketball business is also a topic again and again, most recently in 2017 in the exploitation of this ban in the scandal surrounding the suspended Louisville head coach Rick Pitino , the Adidas manager Jim Gatto and bribes to and Escort services for high school players. Not to mention academic fraud and fake grades.

The Women's Basketball has evolved late at colleges and universities. In 1926 the Amateur Athletic Union organized the first basketball championship for women. And from the 1930s onwards, professional teams like the African-American Philadelphia Tribune Girls or the All American Red Heads of the Hall of Fame , which existed until 1986, staged more and more basketball challenge games between women and men, but they did the rules prescribed for men's basketball have always been used. In 1971, a year before Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendment against sexual discrimination, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women was founded at the college level , in which Delta State University and the Mighty Macs of Immaculata College (now the university) were very successful celebrated and of which the finals were shown on television from the mid-1970s. In the final AIAW season, 1981/82, both NCAA and NAIA Division 1 competitive championships that exist to this day, causing the organization to lose massive influence until it disbanded in 1983. The last professional league for women was the NBA-operated Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA for short), which was founded in 1996 and which still exists today during the NBA's summer recess.

The making of the NBA

On May 6, 1946, the Basketball Association of America (BAA for short) was founded. Walter Brown, then president of the Boston Bruins, and Edward Gottlieb are among the founding members of this league. The Philadelphia Warriors (later: Golden State Warriors ) won the first finals series of the league with 4–1 wins against the Chicago Stags . In 1949 this league was merged with the " National Basketball League " (short: NBL) and renamed the " National Basketball Association " (short: NBA). The most famous players of the 1940s were Bob Davies and George Mikan .

The American entrepreneur Fred Zollner , as the owner of the Fort Wayne Pistons (later: Detroit Pistons ), introduced many changes in the basketball field. Since 1952, his team was transported to the basketball games in a team plane. He helped the BAA and the NBA financially and was involved in important rule changes (e.g. throwing clock ). On October 1, 1999, he was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame as a sponsor .

Basketball today

Basketball made great progress in global perception in 1992, when professionals were first admitted to the Olympic Games in Barcelona and the American national team (also known as the “ Dream Team ”) began its legendary triumph. In the years that followed, basketball's presence in the media increased. Well-known basketball players like Michael Jordan represented this sport in well-known advertising campaigns or on the covers of various magazines.

The sport of basketball is widespread in many countries around the world. Most European countries have their own basketball league and in many countries more and more training camps are taking place that teach the normal player the basic principle and how to play. In addition to the championships and games, there are also numerous events (e.g. the “And1 Mixtape” tour) that are sponsored by companies and serve as entertainment.

Basketball international

Tibor Pleiß , German international, during a game between Saski Baskonia and Montepaschi Siena.

At the beginning of the 20th century, basketball was introduced in different countries around the world. The first game on French soil took place in Paris as early as 1893. In 1902, the rules written by James Naismith were translated into German for the first time. Four years later, basketball was introduced in Italy. In 1913, the sport of ball was warmly received and celebrated in Puerto Rico . In the years that followed, basketball was presented in many other countries (including 1916 in Bulgaria and 1917 in Albania and Greece ).

In 1923, the first national men's championship took place in the Soviet Union. By the late 1920s, basketball was enjoying increasing popularity. In 1930, from December 6th to 14th, the first men's continental championship took place in South America, in which Uruguay was able to prevail against Argentina . The first step towards the international acceptance of this sport was taken in 1930 when the International Olympic Committee (IOC for short) adopted basketball as an Olympic sport. In 1932, eight national associations founded the FIBB , the world basketball federation in Geneva , and from 1935–1986 the Fédération Internationale de Basketball Amateur [FIBA] (see Associations and Leagues ). The World Basketball Federation controls the international championships and the Olympic tournament and determines the international rules. In 1958 FIBA ​​introduced the European Cup for national champions (men) and in 1959 for national champions (women).

From 1932 basketball found its way into Germany, first by Hugo Murero at the Heeressportschule Wünsdorf, then in Breslau and Gera and from 1933 in Bad Kreuznach by Hermann Niebuhr . He got to know basketball as a teacher at the German School in Istanbul. In 1935 he founded the first basketball department at "Vfl 1848 Bad Kreuznach" . Also in 1935, a selection of German universities took part in the basketball tournament of the Academic World Games in Budapest. In 1936, Germany only took part in the first Olympic basketball tournament in Berlin at the last minute; all three games were lost. In 1939 the first German men's championship took place in Hamburg. The title was won by the Luftwaffe Sport Club (LSV) Spandau. Germany played 19 international matches between 1936 and 1942 and won 4 matches.

In the Third Reich, basketball was subordinate to the specialist department 4 handball / basketball of the German, later National Socialist Reichsbund for physical exercises. After the end of the Second World War, the first basketball games took place in autumn 1945. After two predecessor organizations, the " German Basketball Association " (DBB) was founded on October 1, 1949 in Düsseldorf as an independent organization in the Federal Republic. This national association has been responsible for organizing the German basketball championship ever since. In the GDR there was first the basketball section, from 1958 the German Basketball Association. In 1953, both associations sent an all-German team to the men's European championship in Moscow. With the establishment of the Basketball Bundesliga (BBL for short) in 1966, a professional basketball league was introduced in Germany for the first time. In 1993, Germany won the European Championship against Russia in Munich, 71:70.

Basketball was officially played at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin . The game was divided into two halves of 20 minutes each and played on tennis courts on the Reichssportfeld . In the final, the American national team beat Canada 19: 8. In 1950 the first official " Men's Basketball World Cup " took place in Buenos Aires , Argentina . The Argentine basketball team was able to prevail in the final against the USA.

Three years later, the first official “ Women's Basketball World Cup ” took place in Santiago de Chile . Here the team from the USA was able to assert itself against the hosts. Since 1976 (Montreal) women have been playing for Olympic medals.

The sport of basketball is now one of the most popular sports in the world and has played in numerous regions of the world, including European countries such as B. Spain , the Baltic States, the states of the former Yugoslavia , Greece , Turkey and Israel , but also in some South American countries (e.g. Mexico , Brazil , Venezuela , Puerto Rico and Argentina ) and some countries in Southeast Asia (especially China , the Philippines and Taiwan ) as well as in Australia and New Zealand . At the men's basketball world championship 2006 in Japan, the Spanish basketball team won 70:47 against the team from Greece. At the previous basketball world championships, countries such as Serbia and Croatia , Yugoslavia or, for women and men, Russia and the Soviet Union were very successful. The US national team became world champions in 2010 and 2014 , and Spain for the second time in 2019 .


Cue ball


The cue ball has been developed and improved over the past hundred years. In the first two years of basketball, panel balls were used . These panel balls were comparable to current volleyballs. From 1894 to the 1940s, laced basketballs were used in competitions and games. Here the “typical” shape of the basketball lines could already be recognized.

The current basketball consists of synthetic material or leather as well as nylon threads.

In competitions for men, the official match ball has a circumference of 749 to 780 millimeters (size 7) and a weight of 567 to 650 grams.

Since the 2004/05 season, the German women's basketball leagues have been playing with a ball that has a circumference of 724 to 737 millimeters (size 6) and weighs 510 to 567 grams.


In the first half of the 20th century, players wore wool jerseys and trousers. In addition, wearing knee, elbow and shin guards was compulsory during the game. This was mainly due to the tough style of play and the poor condition of the arenas. In the 1960s, players' clothing changed significantly. The jerseys became more comfortable and free, and the trousers were replaced with comfortable short shorts.

The basketball shoes have changed since then. At first, the players wore impractical leather shoes. In the 1980s, the first stars were contracted by sporting goods manufacturers such as Nike , Adidas , Puma or Converse .


Dimensions of the board
Important terms related to the basketball field

The object of the game is the game ball dribbling (the ball to the ground tap) or to move by passing game in the opponent's half of the field and throw there in the opponent's basket. The basketball must fall from above into the basket, which hangs at a height of 3.05 meters. The ball can also be played over the board. A successful basket throw, lay-up or dunk is usually scored with two points. A throw from beyond the three-point line counts three points, a free throw one point. The winner of the competition is the team that has scored more points than the opponent after the end of the game. In the event of a tie, extra five minutes is played. This is repeated until there is a winner.


Basketball games are always played on a rectangular playing field with a hard surface. For the main official FIBA competitions , the dimensions of the playing field must be 28 meters by 15 meters. It is divided by various circles, lines and zones that have their own function. Here are the most important of them:

  • The touchlines and end lines (called the "baseline") define the playing field. If the ball touches any of these lines or the area outside of these lines, it is out. The same applies if the player who is holding or just touching the ball touches the line or the area outside with any part of the body.
  • The center line divides the playing field into two equal halves. If the team in possession of the ball has brought the ball into the attacking half, the so-called "apron", when attacking, the center line is treated as an out-line (see "return leg").
  • Around the center of the center line, the center circle is drawn with a radius of 1.80 meters, which is used to execute the jump ball at the beginning of a game.
  • A rectangle, the so-called “zone”, is drawn under the baskets. The zone is u. a. It is important that players of the attacking team are not allowed to stay in it for more than 3 seconds continuously.
  • This rectangle is followed by a semicircle which, together with its line to the zone, the so-called “free throw line”, is important for the execution of free throws.
  • The so-called "three-point line", which forms a large semicircle (radius from the basket: 6.75 m) with flattened sides outside the zone, marks the distance from which a successful throw on the basket is rated with three points.
  • The no-charging semicircle under the basket marks an area in which fouls of the category jostling / pushing ( charging ) by an attacking player are not punished.


Two teams with five field players each play on the field. The starting formation of a team is also known as the Starting Five (German: Startende Fünf or shorter first five ). It doesn't always have to be the five best performing and best players on the team. However, it is imperative to have a strong and well-balanced bank. Bank players are often seasoned players or role-players who are supposed to provide the necessary - and needed at that moment - impulses in the game in critical situations. This can e.g. B. can be achieved through three-point throws, fast play, ball protection, special defensive tasks or simply a strong rebound presence. There is no limit to the number of times players can be switched. A change is possible during any game interruption.


Position designations in basketball
Guards Basketball half-court 1. Point Guard
2. Shooting Guard
Forwards 3. Small forward
4. Power forward
center 5. Center
unofficial position titles: Combo Guard | Swingman | Point forward
see also: Tweener | Backcourt | Front court | Starting Five | Sixth Man

In the history of basketball, the players were divided into attackers ( forwards ) and defenders ( guards ). With the increasing popularity of the sport and the introduction of new rules, special tasks have developed for the five players.

The starting line-up of the five active field players usually consists of a physically large player, the center , two forwards and two guards . But there are also various other variations possible, e.g. B. the use of three guards (the so-called " small ball ", since guards are usually the smaller players), as often practiced by the Detroit Pistons under Chuck Daly , or playing with two centers, as the Houston Rockets in the middle The 1980s did and the San Antonio Spurs still do. In German basketball, however, it often happens that this system is modified a bit, it is usually played with two centers, two wingers (forwards) and one support player (guard).

The center is usually the largest and physically strongest player on a team. He mostly acts in the zone and has to get as many rebounds as possible. The Guards (point guard) are divided into "shooting guard" and "point guard". The shooting guard specializes in throwing from distance (three-point throw) , while the point guard, as playmaker (see terms ), decides on his team's move.

The forwards (wingers) are also divided into two further positions: "Small Forward" and "Power Forward". The biggest difference between the two positions is the size of the players. Both forwards are attacking players who act like the center in the zone and try to get as many hits as possible in the attacking area.

The positions are numbered from the smallest player to the largest player, from # 1 (point guard) to # 5 (center).


NCAA college league referee

A game is generally led by two referees. In the NBA , the NCAA and many "higher" national and international leagues and competitions, however, three referees are used. All referees have equal rights and only have different areas of observation and responsibilities that change constantly. The position of the ball on the playing field is decisive here. In the two-referee technique , a referee is the front referee . His position is behind the baseline of the defending team. His colleague, as the following referee, takes a position behind the attack about three meters from the ball, where he has to be in the area from the left sideline to about the middle of the field.

In addition to the referees, there is also a jury at the so-called address table. This is where timekeepers sit (the time is stopped at every whistle), 24-second timekeepers (you only have 24 seconds for an attack) and scorer (all points and fouls are recorded in the cover sheet). In Austria the terms are differently clerk , clerk's table and game report . In Switzerland, the scorers at the clerk 's desk write the match sheet .

time management

A basketball game usually consists of quarters. In the associations that are part of FIBA, each quarter lasts ten minutes. In the NBA, twelve minutes are played per quarter. If there is a tie at the end of the fourth quarter, there are extensions of five minutes each ( overtime ) until a team has been determined as the winner. Originally, you played two halves of twenty minutes each. The new timing is a takeover from the NBA , in which four quarters have been played for a long time. An exception is the American college league of the NCAA , which still plays two halves. Unlike z. In football, for example, only the playing time is counted here; if the game is interrupted, the time is stopped as soon as the referee interrupts the game (e.g. in the case of fouls or balls). The actual duration of a game is usually 80 to 100 minutes. After every quarter and every extra time there is a break of two minutes, the half-time break after the second quarter lasts fifteen minutes (FIBA).


Two points are usually calculated for a successful throw. A throw in which the throwing player is behind the so-called three-point line earns his team three points. The three-point line is 6.75 meters (since 2010/11 season) from the center of the basket (NBA: 7.24 m).

In the event of a foul during an attempt to throw the basket, the fouled player receives the same number of free throws as points would have been possible with a successful throw. The free-throw takes place from the free-throw line , which runs parallel to the end line at a distance of 5.80 meters. A successful free throw always counts one point. If a player is fouled immediately during a throw attempt and the attempt is successful despite the foul, these points are regularly counted and the player also receives a bonus free throw. So he has the opportunity to score 3 (or 4) points.


In attack (Engl. Offense ) there are numerous variations. So-called systems are often played. These are variants of a well-rehearsed move in which each attacker has a certain route. The aim is to enable a player to throw freely by placing blocks etc.

Against a zone defense, the attacking team will try to create an outnumbered situation on one side. Or it tries to lure many defenders to one side in order to get a free player on the other side.

Against a man defense, the attacker can try to keep as far away as possible from the player carrying the ball. In this way he binds his own defender and enables the ball carrier to have a 1-on-1 situation.

One example is "isolation", where the ball carrier announces the move and all players push their husbands outside so that the ball carrier can only move to the basket against his direct opponent ("one against one").


The player Oscar Torres blocks the opponent's ball.

The system (Engl. Defense defense -related) basic distinction is the zone of the man defense. Zone defense is a spatial cover . Put simply, each defender has to defend a certain area (e.g. front right). The advantage is a very compact center. It therefore becomes more difficult for the opponent to score points near the basket. The disadvantage is the defense of long range throws (e.g. threesomes). In addition, the opponent can attempt to create an outnumbered situation on one side by skillfully overlaying them.

In man defense, each attacker is assigned a defender. Accordingly, a free throw from outside becomes more difficult. However, the center is not full of defenders, which makes the move to the basket easier.

Finally, there are mixed forms, which, however, are rarely practiced. For example, you could play a zone with four men, while one person defends the opposing team player. This is useful when the opponent has an outstanding player.


  • Assist : pass submission to a player who successfully throws the ball into the basket; the number of assists of each player is always recorded in statistics.
  • Crossover : Dribbling movement that begins with a cross step and a hand change at the same time
  • Double-double : At the end of a game, a player has a two-digit value in two statistical categories (e.g. templates and rebounds).
  • Triple-double : At the end of a game, a player has a two-digit value in three statistical categories (e.g. templates, rebounds and points).
  • Dunk : When a player pushes the basketball through the ring from above with one or two hands, this is known as a "(slam) dunk". In the NBA, the Slam Dunk Contest was introduced, in which selected players artistically “dunk” the ball into the basket (in German this is called “stuffing”).
  • Lay-up : called lay up in English, one of the throwing types in basketball
National player Per Günther with a lay-up
  • Rebound : A rebound consists in a rebound of the ballbeing caughtby a defender (defensive rebound) or an attacker (offensive rebound) ; the number of rebounds is recorded in statistics.
  • Steal : When a player takes the ball away from an opponent, this is known as a " steal ".
  • Turnover: Loss of ball of any kind e.g. B. by a step error or bad pass.
  • 3-point game : If a player is fouled during a successful 2-point throw and then converts the bonus free throw, it is called a 3-point game (two points for the basket + one point for the free throw).
  • 4-point game : If a player is fouled during a successful 3-point throw and then converts the bonus free throw, it is called a 4-point game (three points for the basket + one point for the free throw).
  • Playmaker (engl. Playmaker ): As a playmaker or point guard is usually the point guard called the team.
  • Zone (basketball) : The marked area that extends directly under the basket to the free-throw line. The zone is also called paint (because it is usually color-coded) or key (because its shape looked like a key when viewed from above until it was widened in the 1960s).
  • Fast break: A quick attack ( similar to the fast-paced counter- attack of handball), which is characterized by a fast ball presentation and a quick finish (throw on the basket).

Rules of the game

The jump ball in the center circle opens the game.

The rules of the game described in the following section refer to the official FIBA ​​rules. Differences to rules in other leagues, such as the NBA or NCAA, are not always taken into account here.

Jump ball

According to the FIBA ​​rules, every game begins with a jump ball in order to decide the first ball possession. One of the referees throws the ball up in the center circle between two opposing players, the players then try to pass the falling ball to a teammate. In the following quarters, possession of the ball changes and is indicated by a directional arrow at the judge.

In the NBA, the jump ball is also used in other game situations, for example after a double foul with free throws, generally when possession of the ball is unclear. The jump ball is then not executed in the center circle, but in the circle (see playing field ) which is closest to the last game situation.


Main article: Foul (basketball)

A distinction is made between personal, technical, unsportsmanlike (previously intentional) and disqualifying fouls. Technical fouls exist for technical errors, administrative offenses and indiscipline by players and coaches. Offenses of this type are, for example, complaining, too many players on the field, hanging on the ring, disturbing the opponent with gestures and facial expressions (e.g. clapping or screaming during the throw attempt) or violently swinging the elbows, even if there is no contact.

Unsportsmanlike fouls are imposed when the contact is very hard or the player has no prospect of playing the ball and contact occurs (e.g., stabbing in the back with both hands). Since 2008, contact from the side and from behind has also been rated as an unsportsmanlike foul in a fast break .

Disqualifying fouls are pronounced because of gross unsportsmanlike conduct (assault, insult, etc.). A foul in which the opponent is injured leads to an unsportsmanlike or disqualifying foul depending on its severity.

In 1998 the “advantage-disadvantage principle” was included in the basketball rules, e.g. B. Touching the opponent with your hands does not have to be a foul. The referees must decide whether the player who caused the contact has an unfair advantage (see “Fouls” or Article 33.10 of the 2008 Official Basketball Rules).

Defender fouls

The referee points up with his fist and with the other hand at the fouling player.

The defender commits a foul by holding, blocking, pushing, jostling, tripping, and obstructing the movement of an opponent by extending his hand, arm, elbow, shoulder, hip, leg, knee or foot. If the defended attacker does not have a ball, a certain amount of pushing and pulling is permitted.

If the defended attacker has the ball, the defender's options are limited. The attacking player must not be pushed unless he is specifically looking for physical contact. In this case, the attacker must not be hindered with legs or arms, but only with the body. Good defenders are so fast that they can push the attacker away without using their arms, perhaps even make them run backwards.

Attacker fouls

An attacker with the ball commits a foul if there is contact with a defending player who is in a legal defensive position or who is moving backwards (offensive foul) and the attacker gains an unfair advantage as a result. Typical offensive fouls are illegal contact with the elbow, pushing the opponent away with the forearm or if the attacker walks shoulder first into the opponent.

An attacker without the ball commits a foul if he sets a "moving block" (English: illegal screen or moving pick ). Standing blocks, on the other hand, are allowed in basketball (in contrast to football, where the so-called "letting go" is considered a foul). Another difference to a defender's foul is that no free-throw penalties are imposed for offensive fouls (foul by the team in charge of the ball) (exception: unsportsmanlike offensive foul). However, they are among the team fouls.

Consequences of the fouls

Free throw Dirk Nowitzki (2005)

A disqualifying foul or two unsportsmanlike fouls will result in disqualification. The disqualified person must leave the hall immediately or wait for the game to end in the team cabin. Five personal or technical fouls result in loss of eligibility for the game in progress (NBA: six fouls). Two technical fouls against a coach, one technical foul against a coach and two technical fouls against the bank, or three technical fouls against the bank result in the disqualification of the trainer.

It should be noted that these are personal punishments. Nothing changes in the number of players on the field.

Basically, a foul in the unsuccessful basket attempt leads to two or three free throws, depending on the position of the fouled. If the basket is successful with a foul - that is, the attacker is fouled during the basket throwing action - the fouled person receives the points and an additional bonus free throw.

A foul without attempting a basket does not lead to free throws. Exception: From the 5th team foul (all personal and technical fouls of all players in a team per quarter, foul limit), there are basically two free throws per defender foul (previously there were 1 + 1 free throws in this situation, i.e. only if the first one Hit, there was a second).

Time violations

24-second rule

The original 24-second clock (shot clock) in Syracuse , New York

Each attack may last a maximum of 24 seconds (e.g. in Germany , the USA ; 30 or 45 seconds are only allowed in a few countries), which are counted down on a throwing clock . The time is restarted when the referee whistles "intentionally playing the ball with his foot". In addition, the time starts again after every ring contact of the ball with now 14 seconds. Finally, there is also a rally (the defender takes the ball and becomes the attacker, a so-called “steal”) and a foul by the defending team to restart the 24-second clock. On the other hand, a ball-out decision without a change of possession does not lead to a restart. The following peculiarity leads to spectacular scenes: A basket counts if a player throws the ball before the 24-second clock has expired. The signal sounds while the ball is in the air (a ball thrown in the last second of the game also counts, although it does not reach the basket until after the playing time has elapsed). In American college basketball, you have 35 seconds to attack, which results in fewer points than in professional basketball.

8-second rule If a team receives the ball or there is a throw-in, it must bring the ball into the opposing half within eight (24 seconds) seconds. If you do not succeed, there is a throw-in for the opponent at the center line.

3-second rule During an attack, the players of the attacking team may not remain in the opposing zone (in the free-throw area) for longer than three seconds, regardless of whether the respective player is in possession of the ball or not. It should be noted here, however, that no referee stops the three seconds with the clock. They are counted (like the 8 seconds) "in the head" or decided by feeling. This rule is seldom reprimanded at a high level.

The referees are now instructed not to punish the 3-second violation if an attacker stands in the zone for more than three seconds but does not actively intervene in the game during this time. If a player receives the ball after standing in the zone for three seconds or more, it is a violation. Forbearance is exercised if a player is in the zone for two seconds but immediately throws onto the basket or starts to lay up.

5-second rule A player may only hold the ball for a maximum of five seconds before taking the throw-in. In the game, he must throw a basket after five seconds, start dribbling or release the ball if he is closely guarded. If one of these rules is violated, the opposing team receives the ball by throwing it in at the nearest out-line.


A decision is made when the ball or the player in contact with the ball touches the ground on or outside the outline. On the other hand, the ball is not out of bounds if it is outside the out line in the air. A player jumping within the field of play can fit him back into play as long as the player or the ball does not touch the ground.

Return leg

The Argentine Luis Scola and the Lithuanian Paulius Jankūnas at an international match.

In the event of an attack, the match ball may not be returned by any player in the team in charge of the opposing half (apron) to his own half of the field (backcourt). If this does happen, it is a rule violation, the so-called " backcourt violation ". Every movement of the ball over the center line is counted as a return game, so it does not matter whether you passed or dribbled. When dribbling, the ball is only in the apron when both the ball and both feet of the dribbling person are in contact with the apron. An offense against this is punished with a throw-in by the opposing team from the sideline; this next to the point where the player touches the ball in the backcourt.

Exceptions: It is not a return leg if a defender taps the ball back into the attacking team's backcourt (when the ball is “tapping” the ball does not change possession) or the ball is passed into the backcourt by an attacking player and intercepted by an opposing player (throw-in Logically omitted here, as possession changes anyway). It is not considered a second leg if a player jumps off in advance and plays the ball in flight back into the apron. Furthermore, a defender may jump off in advance, catch the ball and land in his backcourt. On the other hand, he is not allowed to tap or pass the ball to a teammate in this situation.

Step error

The player in possession of the ball must dribble (tap the ball on the ground) if he is to move. If he does not do this, a decision is made on a step error (traveling) and the opponent receives a throw-in on the sideline. According to the FIBA ​​rules you have to dribble first, the NBA rules allow you to take the step first and then the dribble.

After he stops dribbling and is still moving, i.e. H. while running, he may have two more ground contact with his feet before he passes or throws onto the basket. The standing leg may be raised for the purpose of passing or throwing, but not being put back on (e.g. with a broken star step ).

Double dribbling

As soon as an attacker picks up the ball after dribbling (tapping the ball on the ground), he may not start again to dribble. An offense gives a throw-in for the opponent from the sideline. Another version of this is carrying : in this case, while dribbling, the player turns his hand over so the hand is under the ball. The consequences are the same as with normal double dribbling. The so-called "fumbling" does not count as dribbling. The ball taps on the floor, but due to the lack of ball control, there is no violation of the rules.


It is only allowed to block the ball in the green flight phase, after that it would be goaltending .

It is only allowed to catch or block a ball that has been thrown at the basket by an opponent while it is in the upward movement. If he has reached the apex of his flight or is already descending and completely above ring level, the ball must first touch the basket before it can be freely played again. The only difference is when the ball obviously misses. In the beginning this rule did not exist and so very tall players started to stand under their own basket and intercept all throws.

Another form of goaltending is to block the ball after it hits the board and it is completely above ring level. If a ball hits the board while being shot, it is not free unless it is obvious that it is missing. In contrast to the throw without a board, it does not matter whether it is still in the upward or downward movement.

A player will goaltending a free throw if he touches the ball on its way to the basket before it hits the ring.

Reaching into the net or hitting the board by a defender, who thereby prevents a basket, can also be referred to in the broader sense as goaltending .

The consequence of goaltending is that the attacking team counts the basket attempt as a basket success.

The attacking team can also get goaltending whistled, the conditions are the same. This is called offensive interfence .

Foot game

A foot game is the deliberate touch of the ball with the foot, knee or leg. If the foot game is committed by a defensive player, the shot clock is set to 14/24 seconds if more than 10 seconds have passed (14 in the run-up, 24 in the backcourt). If no more than 10 seconds have passed, you continue to play with the existing time. If, on the other hand, an offensive player commits the foot game, the opposing team receives the ball and the full 24 seconds of a new attack.

Development of the basketball rules

Basically, the FIBA ​​rules are valid worldwide. The NBA has its own rules that have also developed historically and that are geared towards the special US American requirements of professional sport (e.g. interruptions in the game for TV commercials). In international tournaments (e.g. Olympic Games) that are organized under the control of FIBA, all NBA professionals must adapt to the FIBA ​​rules.

Timeout during a FC Barcelona game
  • 1895: The free-throw line was officially set at 4.6 meters from the basket. Before that, the free-throw line was often set 6.1 meters from the basket.
  • 1896: A hit was reduced from three to two points. Free throws have been reduced from three to one point.
  • 1911: Players were disqualified after their fourth foul.
  • 1914: The bottom of the net was opened, allowing the ball to fall through.
  • 1922: Running with the ball without dribbling (traveling) meant that the opposing team got the ball.
  • 1924: The fouled player had to take the free throw himself. Before that, each team had a free throw specialist who threw free throws.
  • 1931: The size of the basketball was reduced from 813 to 787 millimeters (circumference).
  • 1935: The size of the basketball was reduced one more time (between 749 and 768 mm).
  • 1936: The offensive player was not allowed to stand in front of the free-throw line for more than three seconds (with and without the ball).
  • 1945: Five personal fouls lead to the player being excluded. Unlimited substitute players have been introduced.
  • 1948: FIBA ​​introduced the three-second rule at the London conference
  • 1949: Coaches were allowed to talk to players during timeouts.
  • 1956: FIBA ​​introduced the 30-second rule
  • 1957: The free throw line was officially set at 4.6 meters from the board.
  • 1984: FIBA ​​introduces the three-point line (distance 6.25 m).
  • 1985–1986: The NCAA finally set the attack time for the men at 45 seconds.
  • 1993–1994: The attack time was reduced from 45 to 30 seconds.
  • 1994: The 1 and 1 rule for team fouls was abolished. Two free throws are always awarded.
  • 2000: The attack time was reduced from 30 to 24 seconds.
  • 2002: The changing ball possession was introduced instead of jumping balls.
  • 2008: Special rule for 24 seconds as well as change to the second leg rule (both FIBA)

Rules of the game of FIBA ​​and other leagues

In addition to the leagues that play according to the international FIBA ​​rules, there are slightly different rules, especially in the North American league. These deviations mostly resulted from the reason to make the game more attractive for the audience or have grown over time.

The following table shows the main deviations of the most important North American leagues from the FIBA ​​rules:

3-point line (from the center of the ring) 6.25 m or
6.75 m curve /
6.60 m straight line
7.24 m (23 ft 9 in) arch /
6.70 m (22 ft) straight
6.25 m 6.02 m (19 ft 9 in)
Free Throw Line (from the center of the ring) 4.225 m 4.191 m (13 ft 9 in) 3.96 m 3.96 m
Playtime 4 × 10 min 4 × 12 min 4 × 10 min 2 × 20 min
Time to attack 24 s 24 s 24 s 30 s (men)
30 s (women)
Field size 28 m × 15 m 28.65 m × 15.24 m (94 ft × 50 ft) 28 m × 15 m 25.6 m × 15.24 m
Circumference of the ball 75-78 cm 75 cm 72.4-73.2 cm 75-76.2 cm (men)
72.4-73.62 cm (women)
Weight of the ball 567-650 g 625 g 510-565 g 565–625 g (men)
510–565 g (women)
The Italian basketball player Sara Giauro with a three-point throw .

FIBA strives for uniform rules worldwide. This should be done gradually. To this end, it decided on May 25, 2008, among other things, the following rule changes: Valid from October 1, 2008:

  1. Visible T-shirts may no longer be worn under the game clothing.
  2. If a player falls and then slips the ball across the floor, this is not a violation of the rules.
  3. When dribbling, the ball is only in the apron when both the ball and both feet of the dribbling person are in contact with the apron.
  4. It is not considered a second leg if a player jumps off in the apron, gains new team ball control in flight and then comes up in the backcourt.
  5. It is considered to disturb the ball if a player reaches through the ring from below and touches the ball.
  6. An unsportsmanlike foul occurs when a defender makes contact with the opponent from behind or from the side, who would otherwise have a free path to the basket in the event of a rapid attack.
  7. A technical foul can be called when a player swings his elbow violently without touching the opponent.

The following rules apply to international FIBA ​​competitions from October 1, 2010 and to the highest competitions of the national FIBA ​​associations from October 1, 2012:

  1. The three-point line will be moved from 6.25 meters by 50 centimeters to 6.75 meters.
  2. The zone is marked rectangular and no longer trapezoidal.
  3. As a supplement to the 24-second rule, there is the FIBA ​​14-second rule. This refers exclusively to throw-in situations in the opposing half (apron) (such as after a foul by the defending team or after "deliberately playing the ball with the foot"). If, at the time the game is interrupted, 13 or fewer seconds are available to attack the basket according to the 24-second rule, the attacking team has 14 seconds to attack the basket (the 24-second clock is set to 14 seconds, instead of 24 seconds). However, this rule does not apply to situations like Aus.

Associations and Leagues


The five continental associations of FIBA.

The World Basketball Federation was founded on June 18, 1932 in Geneva under the name "FIBA" (Fédération Internationale de Basketball Amateur) . The founding members were Argentina , Greece , Italy , Latvia , Portugal , Romania , Switzerland and Czechoslovakia ; since 2002 FIBA ​​has had its headquarters in Geneva .

Two years earlier, the sport of basketball was officially recognized by the International Olympic Committee . Since 1950 there has been a FIBA ​​tournament for men every four years. In 1953 this event was also introduced for women.

In 1989 the World Basketball Federation approved the use of professional players. Since then, international basketball players such as Dwyane Wade and Tim Duncan have represented their national team at the Olympic Games .


NBA teams, conferences and divisions
Western Conference
  • Northwest
  • Southwest
  • Pacific
  • Eastern Conference
  • Atlantic
  • Central
  • Southeast
  • One of the more well-known late professional basketball leagues before the emergence of the NBA was founded by three companies ( General Electric , Firestone , Goodyear ) in 1937 under the name " National Basketball League " (NBL for short). This league was dissolved in 1949 and united with the "Basketball Association of America" ​​(short: BAA) to the " National Basketball Association " (short: NBA). This BAA, in which well-known players like Bob Davies played, had opened up new and larger arenas for basketball in the founding year 1946. The NBA is usually viewed as a continuum of the BAA without special mention.

    The NBA is currently the most popular professional basketball league in the world. Thirty teams from a total of six divisions (Atlantic, Central, Southeast, Northwest, Pacific, Southwest) play in the main round ( regular season ) for a place in the playoffs. In the playoffs, the eight best teams from the Western and Eastern Conference compete against each other in a knockout system (see National Basketball Association ).

    In the course of increasing equality, the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA for short) was founded on April 24, 1996 .

    German associations

    The seat of the German Basketball Federation ( DBB ) is in Hagen (Westphalia). The President of the DBB has been Ingo Weiss since 2006.

    Regional associations (the regional associations can be divided into districts and districts depending on their size):

    • Lower Saxony Basketball Association V.
    • Basketball Association Rhineland-Palatinate V.
    • Basketball Association Saarland e. V.
    • Basketball Association of Saxony e. V.
    • Basketball Association Saxony-Anhalt e. V.
    • Basketball Association Schleswig-Holstein e. V.
    • Thuringian Basketball Association V.
    • West German Basketball Federation e. V.

    International associations

    Dirk Bauermann , coach of the German national team from 2003 to 2011


    Basketball hoop on an outdoor court

    Different variations and modifications of basketball are known, among other things: basketball , Korfball , mini basketball , netball , basketball show, water basketball, slam ball


    The so-called streetball is a modification of basketball. It has been enjoying increasing popularity as a recreational sport since the 1990s. In contrast to classic basketball, three against three is usually played on one basket and takes place outdoors, although the rules also differ from "normal" basketball. Due to the lower number of players per team, more emphasis is placed on direct duels and thus on ball handling skills.

    Unicycle basketball

    Unicycling basketball is mainly played at competitions organized by the International Unicycling Federation (IUF for short). Participants must throw the basketball into the opponent's basket on their unicycle as often as possible. In this variant, the same rules are used as in normal basketball.

    Wheelchair basketball

    Israel national wheelchair basketball team

    Wheelchair basketball was invented in the United States in 1946 because some basketball players wanted to play their sport despite war injuries. The International Wheelchair Basketball Federation is the international umbrella organization. Wheelchair basketball has been a Paralympic sport since the 1960 Paralympics in Rome. The German wheelchair basketball players are organized in the German Wheelchair Sports Association (DRS).

    Beach basketball

    Beach basketball, which was initially developed in the United States as a training variant of basketball, has been enjoying growing popularity for several years. In Germany, unlike in the United States, the game is played on two baskets on a smaller playing field. The German championship in beach basketball is held annually in Cuxhaven .

    Pop Culture


    Michael Jordan plays a leading role in the film Space Jam

    The first film with a basketball theme was released in 1979 under the title The Fish That Saved Pittsburgh . Well-known basketball players such as Julius Erving and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar played the leading roles in this comedy . In 1987 the film was free throw (eng. Hoosiers ) released in theaters. Well-known actors such as Gene Hackman, Barbara Hershey and Dennis Hopper played the main roles in this sports drama. The film is about a hopeless high school crew who, with the help of coach Norman Dale (played by Gene Hackman), become favorites for the title. The film was positively received by the press and was nominated for an Oscar in two categories.

    The great success of the American basketball team at the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona and the winning streak of basketball legend Michael Jordan with the Chicago Bulls resulted in a boom in basketball-themed films in the 1990s. In 1992, the comedy White Boys Can't Bring it , starring Wesley Snipes and Woody Harrelson , was released in cinemas.

    Two years later, two more films and a documentary with a basketball theme are released in cinemas. In the drama Above the Rim , Tupac Shakur plays the role of the ruthless gang leader Birdie, who wants the hopeful young player Kyle on his team. The film Blue Chips is about coach Pete Bell (played by Nick Nolte ) and his basketball team who want to become the winning team by breaking the rules. Basketball players Bob Cousy and Shaquille O'Neal played a supporting role in this film.

    The documentary Hoop Dreams is about two Afro-American boys who want to escape their bad life in the ghetto to become professional basketball players. This documentary has won numerous awards and was nominated for an Oscar in 1995. In the mid-1990s, other well-known basketball films such as the comedy Eddie and the animated film Space Jam appeared . In 1998 the director David Zucker released the comedy Die Sportskanonen . In this film, friends Joe Cooper and Doug Remer invent the sport "Baseketball", a mixture of baseball and basketball.

    The movie Game of Life achieved great popularity among basketball fans . The film was shot by the director Spike Lee and featured well-known actors such as Denzel Washington and Milla Jovovich . In 2005 the film Coach Carter was released in German cinemas, which is based on a true story.

    Video game

    A redemption arcade game in Tokyo

    In 1979, the first basketball video game for the Atari was released. At that time the game could be played with a so-called trackball against the computer or another player. In 1989 the game developer Electronic Arts founded a series that compares two different teams. The first part of this series was published under the title Lakers versus Celtics for the PC and Sega Mega Drive. In this game you could play for the first time NBA stars like Larry Bird , Kareem Abdul-Jabbar or Magic Johnson . Encouraged by the great success, Electronic Arts published the sequel Bulls versus Lakers and the NBA Playoffs in 1991 . The sports game had 16 original teams from the playoffs from the previous season and could be played with another player.

    A year later, Team USA Basketball was launched worldwide. The player could choose from a total of fourteen international teams (including Australia, Angola, China) and compete against other teams. The following year, game developer Midway released the hugely popular and successful basketball game NBA Jam . The principle of the game was very different from the other basketball games that rely on a realistic style of play.

    In 1995 the game developer Electronic Arts released the first part of the NBA Live series for the Super Nintendo , Sega Mega Drive and the PC. The series offered original licenses from the NBA and a graphics engine adapted to the systems . Over the next several years, NBA Live became one of the most popular basketball video game series in the world. In addition to the NBA Live series, EA Sports also publishes NBA Street . In addition to the original licenses, this series offers an unrealistic style of play that is very reminiscent of the NBA Jam series. After the 2009 version NBA Live 10, the series was discontinued and EA began developing a new basketball simulation that was to be called NBA Elite . After several postponements of the release date, development was completely stopped, so there was no version of EA for the 2010/11 season.

    Since 2005 there has been another game series produced by 2K Games . It is called NBA2K and has developed into the biggest competitor of the EA Sports series since the start. In addition to a realistic simulation, the game also offers all the licenses of the NBA as well as a mode that allows users to create their own professional player. The latest version is called NBA 2K18 .

    See also

    Wiktionary: Basketball  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations
    Commons : Basketball  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
    Portal: Basketball  - Overview of Wikipedia content on basketball


    Web links

    Wiktionary: Basketball  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations

    Individual evidence

    1. FIBA: Presentation: Quick facts ( Memento from January 26, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on July 25, 2010.
    2. Biography of Senda Berenson Abbott (English) ( Memento from February 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ).
    3. From Berenson to Bolton, women's hoops has been rising for 100 years; history of women's basketball
    4. Posted by Barney Sedran: John Hareas: 100 years basketball. Bielefeld 2005, p. 19 under the point The cages .
    5. ( Memento of February 10, 2007 in the Internet Archive ): read under the heading "Basketball History Impact".
    6. Short biography Scott Ellsworth ( Memento from January 12, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
    7. Thr Secret Basketball Game of 1944 . Link to the original article: JIM CROW LOSES; The Secret Game
    8. Howard P. Chudacoff: Changing The Playbook. How Power, Profit, and Politics Transformed College Sports. Urbana, Chicago, and Springfield, 2015: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-08132-3 (pages 12f and 110f, in English).
    9. Mark Tracy, Rebecca Ruiz: In College Basketball Scandal, Follow the Money ... and the Shoes . On: The New York Times website; New York, September 27, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
    10. ^ Mark Tracy: NCAA Coaches, Adidas Executive Face Charges; Pitino's Program Implicated . On: The New York Times website; New York, September 26, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
    11. ^ Hermann Niebuhr and VfL 1848 Bad Kreuznach
    12. Instructions of the national table officials (OTN) ( Memento of May 2, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), Swiss Basketball
    13. a b c DBB Rulesletter 1/2008 ( Memento from January 8, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
    14. a b c Official rules of FIBA
    15. DBB Rules Letter. (PDF) (No longer available online.) In: Deutscher Basketball Bund, April 2016, p. 1 , archived from the original on August 29, 2016 ; accessed on August 29, 2016 .
    16. a b Ross Little: Interpretation of the Official Basketball Rules 2000 (Article 36: 3-second rule). ( Memento of August 8, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), translated and provided with an introduction by Axel Beckman. Archived on August 8, 2007 from basketball umpire website; Zornheim, April 24, 2003. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
    17. Official NBA rulebook
    18. ^ Reneé Brown, Wade Morehead, Dee Kantner, Tom Tedesco: Official Rules of the Women's National Basketball Association 2006. ( January 10, 2015 memento on the Internet Archive ) Archived January 10, 2015 from the Women's National Basketball Association website; New York, NY January or March 2006. Retrieved February 2, 2019 (in English).
    19. Official NCAA rulebook (PDF; 1.9 MB)
    20. Official FIBA ​​rules (PDF; 2.5 MB)
    21. regional associations. In: German Basketball Association, accessed on August 29, 2016 .
    22. rules. In: German Basketball Association, accessed on August 29, 2016 .
    23. ^ Technical Committee for Wheelchair Basketball. (No longer available online.) In: Wheelchair basketball department in the German Wheelchair Sports Association e. V., archived from the original on August 29, 2016 ; accessed on August 29, 2016 .
    24. Rules & Tournament Course. In: German Basketball Association, accessed on August 29, 2016 .
    This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on May 29, 2007 .