National Collegiate Athletic Association
|National Collegiate Athletic Association|
|founding||February 3, 1906 (Intercollegiate Athletic Association)
|place||Indianapolis ( United States )|
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a not -for-profit, tax-exempt, non-profit organization through which many colleges and universities in the United States and one university in Canada organize their sports programs. It comprises over 1,280 institutions, organizations and individuals who are committed to the interests and training of student athletes. Its headquarters are in Indianapolis .
Due to the great popularity with viewers and the corresponding marketing by the media, university sport is far more important in the USA than in most other countries in the world.
In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I , Division II and Division III was adopted by the members of the NCAA. Under NCAA regulations, Division I and Division II schools can offer athletes scholarships to practice a sport. Division III schools are not allowed to offer sports scholarships. Generally, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. In 1978, Division I football was further divided into Divisions IA and I-AA. Then the term “Division I-AAA” was briefly added to denote Division I schools that do not offer any football programs at all. However, this term is no longer officially used by the NCAA. In 2006 the divisions IA and I-AA were renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) and Football Championship Subdivision (FCS), respectively.
Origin and early years
College sports began in the United States in 1852 when teams from Harvard and Yale universities got together for a rowing competition. With rowing the dominant sport in the country well into the late 1800s, many of the initial debates about the fitness and purpose of colleges were governed by organizations such as the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports, particularly football and basketball, emerged, many of these concepts and standards were adopted. Football in particular developed into a mass sport, although the rules of the game were constantly changing and often had to be adapted for each competition.
When the son of US President Theodore Roosevelt was seriously injured playing American football at Harvard , the President met with representatives from the three most important universities of the Ivy League , Harvard, Yale and Princeton , to discuss steps in the White House on how college sports could be made safer. On March 31, 1906, as a result of these meetings, the "Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States" (IAAUS) was founded to establish rules for university sports in the United States.
The NCAA grew out of those White House conferences that President Roosevelt convened in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football that "caused many colleges and universities to end the sport." Following these White House meetings and the resulting reforms, New York University President Henry MacCracken organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes to the rules of the game in football; at a follow-up meeting on December 28, 1905 in New York, 62 higher education institutions became founding members of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS). The IAAUS was officially founded on March 31, 1906. In 1910 the IAAUS became the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).
For several years the NCAA was a discussion platform and rule-making body, but in 1921 the NCAA held the first national championship: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and other championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939.
A series of crises brought the NCAA to a turning point after World War II. The "Sanity Code" - adopted to set guidelines for recruitment and financial support - failed to contain the malaise. After the season, football games multiplied with little control and member schools became increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect viewership.
The complexity of these problems and the growing number of members and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers, who previously served part-time as a senior executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, and in 1952 a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri .
Byers wasted no time putting his stamp on the organization. A concept to control the live broadcast of football games was approved, Congress delegated enforcement powers to the Association Council, and a post-season bowl game law was passed.
With the rise of college sports, the scope of athletics programs grew, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that accommodated different focuses. In 1973 the association's membership was divided into three legal and competitive divisions - I, II and III. Five years later, in 1978, the members of Division I voted to create subdivisions IA and I-AA (renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision in 2006) in football.
Until the 1980s, the NCAA did not offer college sports for women, an organization called the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW). 1982, ten years after the passage of Title IX , the education amendment from 1972 ( Education Amendment of 1972 ) against sexual discrimination in federal funded educational institutions, and after lengthy litigation and blockades of the NCAA college football -Hochschulen against equality, the NCAA followed the Example of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and offered to hold women's championships from now on. In 1982 there were therefore two (or three) national women's championships in popular sports, but the AIAW could not stand against the financial power of the NCAA in the long run and dissolved in June 1983 after an unsuccessful monopoly lawsuit against the NCAA in a federal court.
By the 1980s, college football on television had become a major source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the University of Oklahoma Board of Directors and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed a lawsuit against the NCAA in the Oklahoma District Court . Plaintiffs alleged that the NCAA's football television schedule was fixing prices, production restrictions, boycotts and monopolies that were illegal under the Sherman Act . The NCAA argued that their pro-competitive and non-commercial justifications for the endeavor - protecting the auditorium, maintaining the competitive balance among NCAA member institutions, and creating a more attractive "product" that can compete with other forms of entertainment - made the plan reasonable. In September 1982, the district court ruled in favor of the plaintiffs that the scheme violated antitrust laws. It prohibited the association from enforcing the treaty. The NCAA appealed to the United States Supreme Court but lost to the Board of Directors of the University of Oklahoma in 1984 (If the television deals the NCAA had with ABC , CBS, and ESPN had remained in effect for the 1984 season, they would have been the Association and its members raised approximately $ 73.6 million).
The students can start for the university up to the completion of the Bachelor examination, so that they can only be financially supported for this period of mostly four years. Competition is distorted by the different quality of universities and different entry requirements. To make up for this, the NCAA has set minimum standards for high school graduation. Since this can also be very different from high school to high school, a minimum score in the SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test) is required. Due to the large number of scholarship and training opportunities, the universities of the NCAA offer more than ten times as many good athletes optimal training opportunities than is the case in Germany. For this reason, top German student athletes are increasingly deciding to start studying in the USA. Top European student athletes in particular manage to use the support from American universities for their dual careers.
In 2014, the NCAA set a record with net sales of $ 989 million. At just under $ 1 billion, it is one of the largest of all major sports organizations.
Notable court cases
- In the late 1940s there were only two colleges, Notre Dame and Pennsylvania , with a statewide television contract, a sizeable source of income. In 1951, the NCAA voted to ban all live television broadcast of college football games during the season. Shortly after the NCAA passed a television ban, public outrage forced it to retreat. Instead, the NCAA voted to limit the number of televised games for each team to halt the decline in viewership. The President of the University of Pennsylvania, Harold Stassen , defied the monopoly and renewed the contract with ABC. Eventually, the University of Pennsylvania dropped its lawsuit after the NCAA denied Pennstate University's request that the US attorney general assess the legality of the NCAA's restrictive plan and threatened to expel the Quakers from the association. Notre Dame continued televising its games until 1953 by circumventing the ban by filming their games and broadcasting them the next evening.
- In 1957, the Colorado Supreme Court dismissed a family suit of late Trinidad College football player Ray Herbert Dennison. Although he suffered a fatal concussion while playing a game against Fort Lewis A&M College on the field, Dennison was not entitled to any compensation as he was under no contract to participate in football. In addition, the court found that "the college received no direct benefit from the activities because the college was not in the football business and did not benefit from this area of recreational activity."
- In 1977 the US Congress, partly triggered by the Tarkanian case, initiated an investigation against the NCAA and forced the NCAA's internal files to be made publicly available in connection with the Tarkanian case.
- In 1998, the NCAA agreed to settle a $ 2.5 million lawsuit filed by former UNLV basketball coach Jerry Tarkanian . Tarkanian sued the NCAA after he was forced to resign from the UNLV , where he served as head coach from 1975 to 1992. The lawsuit alleged the agency selected him and fined the university's basketball program three times during that period. Tarkanian said, “You can never, ever make up for all the pain and agony you have caused me. All I can say is that they hit me for 25 years ”. The NCAA said it regretted the long struggle and that it now understood Tarkanian's position more clearly and that the case had changed the enforcement process for the better.
- In 1999 the NCAA was sued for discrimination against women athletes under Title IX for systematically granting men more exemptions to participate in college sports than women. In National Collegiate Athletic Association v. Smith, the US Supreme Court ruled that the NCAA was not subject to this law without considering the validity of the discrimination complaint.
- In 2007, the White et al. class action lawsuit filed against the NCAA by former NCAA students Jason White, Brian Pollack, Jovan Harris, and Chris Craig. They argued that the NCAA's current restrictions on a full scholarship or grant were in violation of state antitrust laws. They justified this by saying that in the absence of such a restriction, NCAA member schools are free to offer any financial support packages they need to recruit students and athletes. Prior to the court's decision, the NCAA agreed to establish the Former Student-Athlete Fund to “assist qualified candidates who, under the terms of the agreement with plaintiffs in a state antitrust lawsuit, receive career development costs and / or reimbursement Apply for training costs ".
- In 2013, Jay Bilas stated that the NCAA had benefited individual players by selling jerseys in their shop. Specifically, he entered the names of several top college footballers, including Tajh Boyd, Teddy Bridgewater , Jadeveon Clowney , Johnny Manziel and AJ McCarron, into the search engine of the NCAA's official online shop. The search results delivered appropriately numbered team jerseys. The NCAA then removed the team jerseys listed on their website.
- In March 2014, four players filed a class action lawsuit calling the NCAA and its five leading conferences an "unlawful cartel". The lawsuit alleges that the NCAA capped the value of athletic scholarships, "unlawfully restricted the earning power of football and basketball players while making billions on their work." Gabe Feldman, director of sports law at Tulane University , described the lawsuit as "an immediately identifiable matter for the NCAA". On September 30, 2015, the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled that limiting the remuneration to the cost of an athlete's university place was sufficient. At the same time, it ruled against a federal judge's proposal to pay student athletes $ 5,000 a year in compensation.
- In August 2015, the National Labor Relations Board overturned a prior year decision that placed Northwestern University scholarship holders as employees, giving them the right to collective bargaining for their claims. The organizing effort was an initiative of the College Athletes Player Association and Kain Colter, who worked with the support of the United Steelworkers Group. The case was eventually closed due to difficulties in implementing the judgment in public and private institutions. The NCAA made several improvements to the value of athletic scholarships and medical care in response to this initiative.
The NCAA is divided into various cabinets and committees, each made up of representatives from the individual members. These individual organs are subject to the control of the “Management Council”, which in turn consists of representatives from the schools as well as from representatives of the athletes.
The following sports are organized in the NCAA: basketball , baseball (men), softball (women), American football / college football (men), hockey (women), bowling (women), golf , fencing , lacrosse , soccer , gymnastics , rowing (Women), volleyball , ice hockey , water polo , sports shooting ( co-educational ), tennis , skiing, athletics , swimming, diving and wrestling (men).
The NCAA isn't the only college sports organization in the United States. The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) is another organization. The Canadian counterpart to the NCAA is the Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS).
President of the NCAA
- Walter Byers 1951–1988
- Dick Schultz 1988-1993
- Cedric Dempsey 1993-2002
- Myles Brand 2003-2009
- Jim Isch (interim) 2009-2010
- Mark Emmert since 2010
Over the years, the names of the individual divisions in which the various universities are divided have been renamed several times. The following list contains the names of the divisions since IAAUS was founded.
|1956-1972||University Division (Major College)||College Division|
|1973 – present||Division I.||Division II||Division III|
|1978-2006||Division IA (football only)||Division I-AA (football only)||Division I-AAA||Division II||Division III|
|2006 – present||Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (Football only)||Division I Football Championship Subdivision (Football only)||Division I.||Division II||Division III|
The NCAA currently has 90 national championships annually - 46 women, 41 men and three mixed championships for fencing, sport shooting and skiing.
Sports recognized by the NCAA include the following:
- American Football ( men ; not a NCAA-awarded championship in Division I FBS)
- Baseball (men)
- Beach volleyball (women)
- Bowling (women)
- Cross-country run
- Fencing (mixed gender)
- Hockey (women)
- ice Hockey
- Indoor athletics
- Wrestling (men)
- Rowing (women)
- Sport shooting (mixed gender)
- Skiing (mixed gender)
- Softball (women)
- Water polo
The Football Bowl Subdivision of Division I determines its own master independently of the NCAA via the "College Football Playoff"; this is not an official NCAA championship. The most recently added championship is a single, all-division championship in women's beach volleyball, which was approved by those responsible for all three divisions in late 2014 and early 2015. The first championship took place in spring 2016. The NCAA had referred to the sport as "sand volleyball" until June 23, 2015, before announcing that it would use the internationally recognized name "beach volleyball".
The NCAA awards championships in the following sports:
|Division I (M)||Division II (M)||Division III (M)||Sports||Division I (W)||Division II (W)||Division III (W)|
|1948–||1978-84; 1993-99||1984–||ice Hockey||2001–||2002–|
|1939–||1963–||1975–||golf||1982–||1996-99; 2000–||1996-99; 2000–|
|1971–||1974-79; 1980-81; 1993–||1974-79; 1980–||lacrosse||1982–||2001–||1985–|
|1965–||1985–||1985–||Athletics (indoor)||1983–||1985; 1987–||1985; 1987–|
In addition to the aforementioned sports, the NCAA organized a boxing championship from 1948 to 1960. The NCAA stopped boxing after the sporting decline in the 1950s and after the death of a boxer in the 1960 NCAA tournament.
The number of teams (school programs) participating in the individual sports in their respective division is as follows in 2019:
Sports of men
|Sports||Division I.||Division II||Division III|
Sports of women
|Sports||Division I.||Division II||Division III|
Emerging Sports for Women
In addition to the sports mentioned above, the NCAA recognizes so-called emerging sports for women. There are scholarship restrictions per sport for these sports, but currently no officially recognized NCAA championships. A member institution can use these sports to achieve the level of sport sponsorship required for their division. An “emerging sport” must achieve championship status within 10 years (at least 40 programs for team sports, except in Division III at 28) or have made steady progress toward that goal in order to remain on the list. Until then, the sport is under the supervision of the NCAA and its competent bodies. Emerging Sport status allows club teams to participate in competitions to meet the minimum number of competitions set by the NCAA.
The three sports currently considered to be "Emerging Sports for Women" are:
For every sport sanctioned by the NCAA, with the exception of FBS Division I football, the NCAA awards gold, silver, and bronze trophies to first, second, and third-placed teams. In the NCAA basketball tournaments, the two semi-finalists who fail to make the championship game will receive bronze trophies for third place (prior to 1982, the teams played a "consolation" game to determine third place). Similar trophies are given to the two semi-finalists in the NCAA football tournaments (which are played in Division I FCS and the two lower divisions) who have never played a game for third place. The winning teams remain in possession of these trophies unless it is later determined that they were won by serious rule violations.
From the 2001/2002 season and again in the 2007/2008 season, the trophies were changed. From the 2006 basketball season, the teams that make it into the last four of the Division I tournament will receive bronze trophies for the "Regional Championship" after winning their regional championship. The teams that make it into the national championship game will receive an additional trophy, which is gold-plated for the winner and silver-plated for the runner-up. From the mid-1990s, the national champions in men's and women's basketball received an elaborate trophy with a base made of black marble and a "neck" made of crystal with a removable crystal basketball after the standard NCAA championship trophy was presented.
As of December 23, 2019, Stanford , UCLA, and Southern California (USC) have the most NCAA championships. Stanford has won 126 and UCLA 118 of the total NCAA team championships for men and women, while USC ranks third with 107.
Football Bowl Subdivision
The NCAA never approved an official championship for its highest level in football, now known as Division I FBS . Instead, several external institutions award their own titles. The NCAA does not host a championship tournament or game for Division I FBS Football. In the past, teams that ranked # 1 in a number of end-of-season media polls, most notably the AP Writer and Coach Poll, were awarded the National Championship.
Since 2014, the College Football Playoff - an amalgamation of the conferences and independent schools that compete in Division I FBS and six bowl games - has agreed on the four best teams (based on a thirteen-member committee that selects and appoints the teams) in two semi-finals, with winners advancing to the finals of the College Football Playoff National Championship , which is not officially approved or recognized by the NCAA. The winner of the game receives a trophy; since the NCAA does not award a national championship for FBS Division I football, this trophy does not represent the NCAA as it does in other NCAA national college sports championships.
See also: NCAA Division I.
- FBS conferences in football are marked with an asterisk (*).
- FCS conferences in football are marked with two asterisks (**)
- Conferences that do not promote football or basketball are shown in italics .
- America East Conference
- American Athletic Conference (The American) *
- Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) *
- Atlantic Sun Conference (ASUN)
- Atlantic 10 Conference (A-10)
- Big East Conference
- Big Sky Conference **
- Big South Conference **
- Big Ten Conference (Big Ten or B1G) *
- Big West Conference
- Big 12 Conference (Big 12) *
- Coastal Collegiate Sports Association (CCSA)
- Colonial Athletic Association (CAA) **
- Conference USA (C-USA) *
- Horizon League
- Ivy League **
- Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference (MAAC)
- Mid-American Conference (MAC) *
- Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC) **
- Missouri Valley Conference (MVC or The Valley)
- Mountain Pacific Sports Federation (MPSF)
- Mountain West Conference (MW) *
- Northeast Conference (NEC) **
- Ohio Valley Conference (OVC) **
- Pacific-12 Conference (Pac-12) *
- Patriot League **
- Southeastern Conference (SEC) *
- Southern Conference (SoCon) **
- Southland Conference **
- Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC) **
- The Summit League (The Summit)
- Sun Belt Conference (SBC) *
- West Coast Conference (WCC)
- Western Athletic Conference (WAC)
- NCAA Division I Independents
Conferences that exclusively promote FCS Football
Conferences that exclusively promote ice hockey
- Atlantic Hockey
- Big Ten Conference
- College Hockey America
- ECAC hockey
- Hockey East
- National Collegiate Hockey Conference (NCHC)
- New England Women's Hockey Alliance (NEWHA)
- Western Collegiate Hockey Association (WCHA)
- California Collegiate Athletic Association (CCAA)
- Central Atlantic Collegiate Conference (CACC)
- Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA)
- Conference Carolinas (CC)
- East Coast Conference (ECC)
- Great American Conference (GAC)
- Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (GLIAC)
- Great Lakes Valley Conference (GLVC)
- Great Midwest Athletic Conference (G-MAC)
- Great Northwest Athletic Conference (GNAC)
- Gulf South Conference (GSC)
- Lone Star Conference (LSC)
- Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association (MIAA)
- Mountain East Conference (MEC)
- Northeast-10 Conference (NE-10)
- Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference (NSIC)
- Pacific West Conference (PacWest)
- Peach Belt Conference (PBC)
- Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference (PSAC)
- Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference (RMAC)
- South Atlantic Conference (SAC)
- Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SIAC)
- Sunshine State Conference (SSC)
- NCAA Division II Independents
- Allegheny Mountain Collegiate Conference (AMCC)
- American Collegiate Athletic Association (ACAA)
- American Rivers Conference (ARC)
- American Southwest Conference (ASC)
- Atlantic East Conference (AEC)
- Capital Athletic Conference (CAC)
- Centennial Conference (Centennial)
- City University of New York Athletic Conference (CUNYAC)
- College Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin (CCIW)
- Colonial States Athletic Conference (CSAC)
- Commonwealth Coast Conference (CCC)
- Empire 8 (E8)
- Great Northeast Athletic Conference (GNAC)
- Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference (HCAC)
- Landmark Conference (Landmark)
- Liberty League (Liberty)
- Little East Conference (LEC)
- Massachusetts State Collegiate Athletic Conference (MASCAC)
- Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association (MIAA)
- Middle Atlantic Conferences (MAC) - An umbrella organization of the following three conferences:
- Midwest Conference (Midwest or MWC)
- Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (MIAC)
- New England Collegiate Conference (NECC)
- New England Small College Athletic Conference (NESCAC)
- New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference (NEWMAC)
- New Jersey Athletic Conference (NJAC)
- North Atlantic Conference (NAC)
- North Coast Athletic Conference (NCAC)
- North Eastern Athletic Conference (NEAC)
- Northern Athletics Collegiate Conference (NACC)
- Northwest Conference (NWC)
- Ohio Athletic Conference (OAC)
- Old Dominion Athletic Conference (ODAC)
- Presidents' Athletic Conference (PAC)
- Skyline Conference (Skyline)
- Southern Athletic Association (SAA)
- Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SCIAC)
- Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference (SCAC)
- State University of New York Athletic Conference (SUNYAC)
- St. Louis Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SLIAC)
- University Athletic Association (UAA)
- Upper Midwest Athletic Conference (UMAC)
- USA South Athletic Conference (USA South)
- Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (WIAC)
- NCAA Division III Independents
Conferences that promote football only
- Commonwealth Coast Football (CCC Football) - Founded in 1965 as the New England Football Conference and taken over by the Commonwealth Coast Conference after the 2016 football season, with the Football League remaining legally a separate organization.
- Eastern Collegiate Football Conference (ECFC)
Other conferences that only promote a single sport
- Central Intercollegiate Bowling Conference (CIBC) - Bowling
- Continental Volleyball Conference (CVC) - Volleyball (men only )
- ECAC East - ice hockey
- ECAC Northeast - Ice Hockey (Men only)
- ECAC West - Ice Hockey
- Midwest Collegiate Volleyball League (MCVL) - Volleyball (men only )
- Midwest Lacrosse Conference (MLC) - Lacrosse (men only)
- Midwest Women's Lacrosse Conference (MWLC) - Lacrosse (women only)
- Northern Collegiate Hockey Association (NCHA) - ice hockey
- Ohio River Lacrosse Conference (ORLC) - Lacrosse
- United Volleyball Conference (UVC) - Volleyball (men only )
Ski Conferences (cross-divisional)
- Eastern Intercollegiate Ski Association
- Central Collegiate Ski Association
- Rocky Mountain Intercollegiate Ski Association
Inclusion and diversity campaign
The one-week program took place from October 1st to 5th, 2018. The aim was to use social media platforms to promote diversity and inclusion within intercollegial sport. There has been a recurring controversy in the history of the NCAA about diversity within college sports, and this campaign is the NCAA's most direct approach to addressing these issues.
Inclusion statement from the NCAA
As a core value, the NCAA believes in diversity, inclusion and gender equality among its student athletes, coaches and administrators, and is committed to it. It seeks to create and maintain an inclusive culture that promotes the equal participation of students and athletes and the career opportunities of coaches and administrators from different backgrounds. Diversity and integration improve the learning environment for all student athletes and increase the quality within the association.
The Inclusion Unit will offer or enable programs and educational measures that cover the basics of a diverse and inclusive culture, taking into account all dimensions of diversity, including, but not limited to age, skin color, gender, class, national origin, religion, gender identity, disability , Gender expression, geographic origin, income, marital status, parental status, sexual orientation and work experience.
As a core value, the NCAA believes in and is committed to diversity, inclusion and gender equity among its student-athletes, coaches and administrators. We seek to establish and maintain an inclusive culture that fosters equitable participation for student-athletes and career opportunities for coaches and administrators from diverse backgrounds. Diversity and inclusion improve the learning environment for all student-athletes and enhance excellence within the Association.
The Office of Inclusion will provide or enable programming and education, which sustains foundations of a diverse and inclusive culture across dimensions of diversity including but not limited to age, race, sex, class, national origin, creed, educational background, religion, gender identity , disability, gender expression, geographical location, income, marital status, parental status, sexual orientation and work experiences.
This declaration was approved by the NCAA Board of Directors in April 2010 and amended by the NCAA Supervisory Board in April 2017.
Gender equality and Title IX
Although there are no specific criteria regarding the state of gender equality at universities, a sports program is considered gender fair if both the sports program for women and men reach a consensus.
Based on Title IX , which was added to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in 1972, sex discrimination was criminalized. This plays a role for university sport insofar as it helps to maintain gender equality and inclusion in university sport. The NCAA makes many resources available to provide information and to enforce this change.
The NCAA has placed these core values at the center of its decisions about awarding championship candidates. In April 2016, the Board of Directors announced new requirements for the host cities, which include the protection of all persons involved in the event from discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. This decision was prompted by the passage of laws by several states that allow discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity in connection with religious beliefs.
The LGBTQ community has been publicly observed and controversial, but the NCAA endeavors to encourage the inclusion of these groups. The NCAA provides many resources related to college community education on this topic and their guidelines to promote diversity.
Title IX protects the transgender community within college sports and on campus. While the topic is controversial, the NCAA's current policy for the participation of transsexual students and athletes is testosterone- dependent. Transgender students are only allowed to compete on a male sports team if they have undergone medical treatment with testosterone for gender change, and transgender students are only allowed to compete in a women's sports team if they have completed testosterone suppression for a calendar year to have. Transgender men are no longer allowed to compete in a women's team and transgender women are no longer allowed to compete in a men's team without converting it into a mixed team.
In 2010, the NCAA Board of Directors announced its support and commitment to diversity, inclusion, and gender equality among students, athletes, coaches, and administrators. The statement includes the NCAA's commitment to ensuring that all students have equal opportunities to achieve their academic goals and that coaches and administrators have equal opportunities for professional development in a climate of respect. In 2012, the LGBTQ Subcommittee of the Association-wide NCAA Committee on Women's Sports and the Committee on Equal Opportunities and Minority Interests commissioned the Champions of Respect document, a document that provides resources and advocacy that promote the integration and equality of LGBTQ students, athletes , Coaches, administrative employees and all other people who are involved in university sports. This document uses guidelines from the women's sports foundation It Takes a Team! to deal with LGBTQ equality issues in university sports. The document provides information on specific issues LGBTQ athletes face, the similarities and differences between these issues in women's and men's teams, policy recommendations and best practices, and legal remedies and legal proceedings.
The NCAA expressed concern about the Indiana Religious Freedom Restoration Act, which allows companies to discriminate against people based on their sexual orientation. This bill was proposed shortly before the establishment of Indianapolis as the venue for the 2015 Men's Basketball Final Four tournament. The bill contradicts the NCAA's core values of inclusion and equality and forces the NCAA to consider moving events out of Indiana. Under pressure from across the nation and fear of economic loss from the ban on hosting NCAA events, Indiana Governor Mike Pence revised the bill so that corporations cannot discriminate based on sexual orientation, race, religion, or disability . The NCAA accepted the revised bill and continues to host events in Indiana. The bill came into force on July 1, 2015.
On September 12, 2016, the NCAA announced that all seven scheduled championship events for the 2016/2017 academic year will be withdrawn from North Carolina. This decision was in response to the state's enactment of the Public Facilities Privacy and Security Act (HB 2) on March 23, 2016. This law requires people to use public toilets that match their sex assigned at birth and prevents them the cities to pass laws that protect against discrimination against gays and transgender people. The NCAA Board of Trustees decided that this law would make maintaining an inclusive atmosphere in the host cities a challenge, and that the rescheduling of championship events best reflected the association's commitment to maintaining an environment that is consistent with its core values. North Carolina has lost the opportunity to host the 2018 Final Four Tournament, which was scheduled in Charlotte but has been relocated to San Antonio. If HB 2 is not lifted, North Carolina could be banned from attending the events from 2019 to 2022.
Origin and ethnicity
The minority ethnic groups in the NCAA are protected through inclusion and diversity policies that have been put in place to increase awareness and awareness of the problems and challenges athletes of all colleges face. The NCAA provides a demographic database that can be viewed by the public.
In the past, the NCAA has used its authority in choosing venues to promote its core values. The association also bans championship events in states that display the Confederate flag and in member schools that have abusive or obnoxious nicknames or mascots based on Native American images. The board members want to ensure that everyone involved in an NCAA championship event is treated with fairness and respect.
The NCAA defines a disability as a momentary impairment that has a significant impact on a student's academic performance and requires provision. Student athletes with disabilities receive an adapted sports model as well as educational adjustments. Starting in 2015, the NCAA will host appropriate sports championships for both athletics and swimming and diving.
Over the past two decades, the hiring of international athletes has become a growing trend among NCAA institutions. For example, most German athletes outside of Germany are based at US universities. For many European athletes, American universities are the only way to pursue an academic and athletic career at the same time. Many of these students come to the United States with high academic expectations and ambitions.
College team name changes
Until 2018, the school mascots, which are based on racist and / or offensive prejudice, continued to change. Universities that are governed by the NCAA guidelines are under scrutiny for specifically mascots inspired by Native Americans. While many colleges have changed their mascots, some have received legal permission from the depicted tribe and will continue to use the mascot. The Native American mascot dispute is not fully resolved, but many issues have been resolved.
The following is a list of notable colleges that have changed Native American mascots and / or nicknames in recent history:
- Stanford - Indians to Cardinals (1972); became Cardinal in 1981
- UMass - Redmen and Redwomen to Minutemen and Minutewomen (1972)
- Dartmouth - Indians to Big Green (1974)
- Siena - Indians to Saints (1988)
- Eastern Michigan - Hurons to Eagles (1991)
- St. John's (NY) - Redmen to Red Storm (1994)
- Marquette - Warriors to Golden Eagles (1994)
- Chattanooga - Moccasins to Mocs, based on Mockingbirds (1996)
- Miami (OH) - Redskins to RedHawks (1997)
- Seattle - Chieftains to Redhawks (2000)
- Southeast Missouri State - Indians (men) and Otahkians (women) to Redhawks (2005)
- Louisiana – Monroe Indians to Warhawks (2006)
- Arkansas State - Indians to Red Wolves (2008)
- North Dakota - officially abandoned the Fighting Sioux name in 2012; Adopted the name Fighting Hawks in 2015
- Illinois - In 2007, Chief Illinoiswek was abolished as an official symbol. Sports teams are still called Fighting Illinois.
- Bradley , Alcorn State - Both schools no longer use Native American mascots, but have retained their Braves names.
- William & Mary - Adjusted tribal logo to remove feathers to meet NCAA requirements. Sports teams are still called a tribe. (2007)
- Chattanooga - removed Chief Moccanooga mascot and moccasin shoe motif in 1996; kept the term "Mocs", but transferred its representation to the official state bird.
Note: Utah, Utes, Central Michigan (Chippewas), Florida State (Seminoles), and Mississippi College (Choctaws) have all successfully appealed to the NCAA after being labeled "hostile and offensive." All mentioned in the calling positive relationships with the neighboring tribes. UNC Pembroke (Braves), an institution originally created to educate Native Americans and with strong ties to the local Lumbee tribe, has been given permission to continue using Native American imagery without the need for an appeal.
The member universities undertake to follow the rules established by the NCAA. The creation of a system to enforce the NCAA's regulations came in 1952 after careful scrutiny by members.
Allegations of rule violations are forwarded to the NCAA investigative team. A preliminary investigation will be launched to determine whether an official investigation is warranted and to classify any resulting violations as minor or major. If multiple violations are found, the NCAA may determine that the school as a whole has a "lack of institutional control". The institution concerned will be informed immediately and can testify on its own behalf before the NCAA Committee on Infractions .
Findings by the Committee on Infractions and the resulting sanctions in larger cases are communicated to the institution. In addition to other penalties, the sanctions usually include the imposition of a “suspended sentence” for a certain period of time. The institution can appeal the findings or penalties to an appeal committee. After examining written reports and oral presentations by representatives of the committee and the institution, the committee will decide on the appointment. Actions may include accepting, changing, or making your own findings and punishment of the violation committee's findings and punishment.
In cases of particularly serious misconduct, the NCAA has the authority to prohibit a school from participating in a particular sport, this penalty is known as a “death penalty”. Since 1985, any school that commits serious violations during the probationary period can be banned from the sport in question for up to two years. However, if the NCAA elects not to impose a death penalty for a repeated infraction, it must explain why it did not do so. This penalty has only been imposed three times in its current form, including when the Southern Methodist University (SMU) football team had to abandon its 1987 season for massive rule violations that occurred more than a decade ago. Also in 1988, due to the aftershocks of the sanctions, the SMU decided not to field a team, which is why the team has not recovered to this day. Since then, it has only completed four seasons with positive odds and played four bowl games (most under June Jones, the team's head coach from 2008 until his retirement during the 2014 season). The devastating effects of the "Death Penalty" on the SMU have reportedly led the NCAA to have concerns about issuing another "Death Penalty". Since the SMU case, there have only been three cases in which the NCAA has seriously considered imposing the Death Penalty on a Division I school; In 2003 it was imposed on the Morehouse College Division II men's soccer team and in 2005 against the MacMurray College Division III men's tennis team. In addition to these cases, Penn State was considered the final Division I school . The reason for this was the Jerry Sandusky incident, which nearly brought Penn State the "Death Penalty". They received a $ 60 million fine on top of other penalties. The NCAA later reversed its decision by lifting any remaining penalties.
The NCAA has a two-tier sponsorship business. AT&T, Coca-Cola and CapitalOne are corporate champions of the NCAA, all others are corporate partners of the NCAA.
|Buffalo Wild Wings||Bar and restaurant||2015|
|Enterprise Rent-A-Car||Car rental||2005|
|CapitalOne||Bank and credit cards||2008|
|Nabisco ( Ritz and Oreo )||Snacks||2017|
|Hershey's ( Reese's )||confectionery||2009|
|UPS||Package delivery and logistics||2009|
|Nissan ( Infiniti )||Cars & parts||2010|
|Wendy's||Fast food restaurant||2016|
|General Motors ( Buick )||Cars & parts||2013|
|About Eats||Software / food delivery||2018
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