|founding||July 18, 1968|
|Seat||Santa Clara , California ,|
|Number of employees||110,800 (2020)|
|sales||$ 72 billion (2019)|
|As of July 8, 2020|
Intel Corporation (from English Int egrated el ectronics , dt. " Integrated Electronics " ) is a US American semiconductor manufacturer with headquarters in Santa Clara ( Silicon Valley ), California . It was founded in 1968 by employees of Fairchild Semiconductor . The European headquarters have been in Munich since 1974 . Intel is best known for PC microprocessors , in which the company has a global market share of approximately 80%. In addition, Intel produces various other types of microchips for computers , for example chipsets for mainboards (" Intel ICH ", " Intel GMA "), WLAN and network cards as well as embedded CPUs and flash memories.
With a turnover of 64.0 billion US dollars and a profit of 11.1 billion US dollars, Intel is the 594th largest company in the world according to Forbes Global 2000 (as of fiscal year 2017). The company had a market capitalization of $ 254.8 billion in June 2018 .
Products and historical development
The creation and production of memory chips
Intel was founded as Moore-Noyce Electronics in Mountain View , California on July 18, 1968 by Gordon E. Moore and Robert Noyce after they left Fairchild Semiconductor . Andy Grove , who ran the company in the 1980s and 1990s, was hired soon after . The goal of the company was to develop memory for computers on a semiconductor basis and bring it to the market. The very large scale integration (VLSI) of transistors on silicon was still in its infancy in 1968 and Intel developed the PMOS process for the production of semiconductor circuits, i.e. a process for the production of electrical circuits with p-channel - Metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors using a gate electrode made of polysilicon (hence also called silicon gate technology ).
The first product of the company was but a bipolar 64-bit Schottky - RAM . This was introduced in April 1969 under the product name " Intel 3101 ". In July 1969, the Intel 1101, the first SRAM chip manufactured using the PMOS process, was brought onto the market. It was not until October 1975 - halfway through the originally estimated time - that the first big leap forward was achieved: Intel introduced the first DRAM memory module under the product name " 1103 " that was based on the PMOS process and offered the advantages of high integration would have. While circuits in bipolar technology were only preferred for high-speed components, MOS technology (from PMOS to NMOS and HMOS to CMOS ) developed into the preferred semiconductor manufacturing technology.
Gordon Moore recognized a trend in 1965 that later, as Moore's Law , had a decisive influence not only on the history of Intel, but also on the development of all semiconductor technology.
Until the mid-1980s, DRAM was Intel's main business. The growing competition from Japanese semiconductor manufacturers and the associated decline in sales led to a reorientation of the business model in 1983. The success of the personal computer from IBM prompted Intel to concentrate on microprocessors and to give up DRAM production.
EPROM and flash memory
At the Solid State Circuits Conference in 1971, Dov Frohman introduced the world's first EPROM (erasable (write-once) memory chip). The Intel EPROM 1702 was a great success and was required in large numbers until the mid-1980s, not least because for many years Intel was the only manufacturer who could produce EPROMs in large numbers. Until 2008, Intel was one of the largest manufacturers of flash memories together with Spansion . At the end of March 2008, Intel outsourced most of its flash production to a joint venture company with STMicroelectronics . The new company was named Numonyx . Intel is also introducing the 520 SSD series, a fast solid state disk , the successor to the hard disk drive .
The first microprocessors
The 4-bit processor Intel 4004 was introduced on November 15, 1971 as the first microprocessor in the world (at least according to Intel's interpretation) . Intel is said to have developed this on its own responsibility when the Japanese company Nippon Calculating Machine Corporation actually commissioned a specialized desktop computer chip. The Intel 8080 , introduced in 1974, is widely regarded as the first full-fledged microprocessor . It is an 8-bit microprocessor that was developed as the successor to the Intel 8008 (launched in 1972). These first microprocessors laid the foundation for many other products on a similar basis and helped Intel gain its strong market power. In addition to the less frequently used successor type Intel 8085, this series includes a whole range of suitable I / O modules , e.g. B. the Intel 8255 for parallel input and output.
Based on the developments of the microprocessors of the 80 series, Intel introduced the 8048 microcontroller in 1977 , which was replaced by the 8051 microcontroller as early as 1980 . Through a clever licensing policy (to Siemens and Philips, among others), the 8051 microcontroller became the progenitor of one of the most widespread families of microcontrollers.
The best-known series from Intel are the x86 microprocessors, the first model of which appeared in 1978 with the 8086/8088 and was built into the widespread IBM PC . Today, Intel produces chips for desktop computers ( Pentium dual core series, Celeron series, Intel Core 2 series, Intel Core i series ), for notebooks ( Pentium dual core , Core Duo , Core 2 Duo and now i3, i5, i7 and i9 models ) and for workstations and servers ( Xeon series). The large Itanium 2 server processor can only exploit its high computing power with its native IA-64 instruction set . It only executes x86 machine code ( IA-32 ) slowly via an integrated hardware emulation .
The great success of the x86 series led to a dominant position in the PC industry; at times 85% of the PC CPUs came from Intel. So there were repeated investigations by the American competition authority FTC and lawsuits from competitors. The only major competitor in this sector today is AMD ; ironically, Robert Noyce's founding capital was one of the decisive factors in founding this company. AMD has had a patent exchange agreement with Intel since 1976 , so that all technical innovations can be used mutually. In the last few years, another criterion has become important in the form of electricity consumption and waste heat.
Chipsets and graphics chips
Intel is by far the world market leader for graphics chips. Most office computers and notebooks use an Intel platform with integrated graphics ( IGPs ). With the i740 at the end of the 1990s, Intel also had a graphics chip for plug-in cards on offer, but then stopped these activities. Intel later worked again on a discrete GPU, code-named Larrabee , but its development was discontinued in December 2009.
Readable serial number in the Pentium 3
In 1999, Intel came under public criticism when the first Pentium III processors (with 450 and 500 MHz) that had just been introduced were provided with a globally unique number (“processor ID”) that could be read out by software. Critics feared that this unique serial number could serve as a basis for spying on and monitoring computer users. Due to public pressure, Intel switched off the processor ID by default and did not use it in later processor generations.
Intel Management Engine since 2008
Since 2008 all chipsets for Intel processors have been equipped with the Intel Management Engine (ME). This is a Minix- based autonomous subsystem that allows administrators full access to the computer, bypassing the operating system, even when it is turned off. It has been present and active in all Intel chipsets since 2008 until today, even if they are not equipped with Intel Active Management Technology (AMT). The Intel Management Engine (ME) cannot be deactivated by the user and contains a large number of proven security deficiencies. The exact scope of functions is kept secret by Intel, the code is obfuscated , the information required to decrypt the content is unreadable directly in the hardware. Intel firmware versions in which large parts of the Intel Management Engine are deactivated are only made available to government bodies and for military use .
Apps for smartphones and tablet PCs
With its AppUp Developer Program (IADP), Intel is trying to gain a foothold in the highly competitive smartphone market. According to Björn Taubert, Marketing Manager at Intel, the IADP "offers experienced and ambitious app developers a central channel to sell newly developed or ported Windows and HTML5 applications for a variety of end devices with up to 70 percent revenue share".
Chips for smartphones
At the beginning of January 2012, Intel presented a smartphone for the first time at the CES trade fair in Las Vegas that is equipped with its own chipset. In April of the same year, the first Intel smartphone appeared in India with the Lava Xolo X900 model. The LePhone K800 in China, produced under the Lenovo umbrella, followed at the end of May . The Orange San Diego, the third Intel smartphone worldwide, was launched on June 6th in Great Britain.
Since the takeover of Altera , Intel has also been a manufacturer of FPGAs . The products are now being sold under the name Intel-Altera. Conversely, Intel uses the technology of programmable digital technology for the further development of its own processors. So it is e.g. For example, the aim is to be able to make technical adjustments to CPUs that have already been delivered by means of software updates.
In 2003, Intel bought the high-performance computing division of Pallas GmbH, which was spun off from SUPRENUM in order to strengthen its own clustering division. In 2007, Intel took over the Irish company Havok , best known for its physics engine. In July 2009, Intel bought the software company Wind River . In mid-August 2010, Intel surprisingly announced that it would take over McAfee (a US manufacturer of antivirus and computer security software) for $ 7.68 billion.
On January 31, 2011, the sale of the previous Infineon Wireless Solutions division to Intel for 1.4 billion US dollars was completed. The newly created company has around 3,500 employees worldwide and now operates as Intel Deutschland GmbH .
At the beginning of September 2016, Intel announced that it would sell 51% of the shares in its IT security division (McAfee) to the financial investor TPG for 3.1 billion US dollars.
A good two years later, Intel expands Mobileye's business area with the acquisition of Moovit. The start-up collects data on traffic flows and offers route optimization in urban living spaces via its app. Intel pays around $ 900 million for Moovit.
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Since Intel is active in many business areas, the company also has a corresponding number of competitors.
When it comes to network chips, you compete with Freescale , Broadcom , Marvell and AMCC . In the flash area, Spansion , Samsung , Toshiba and SK Hynix are among the biggest competitors. When building processors for supercomputers and deep learning , Nvidia , IBM and AMD are among the competitors.
In the original Intel core business of x86 processors and chipsets for mainboards, a duopoly has now emerged and AMD is the only remaining competitor worth mentioning. Other companies such as Centaur Technology , Cyrix , SiS or Transmeta have either withdrawn from the market or are concentrating on niche products. In January 2006, the first Apple Macintosh with an Intel processor was presented. While earlier Macintosh models were equipped with processors from Motorola ( 68000 ) or IBM ( PowerPC G3 , G5 ), this step further strengthened Intel's market position in the PC sector.
After Intel was able to assert itself against its competitors in many areas in the past, Intel has been facing several new and very successful competitors in the processor market for several years. In contrast to the earlier years of chip production, these are not fully integrated companies, but rather companies that are highly specialized in their field. Companies such as ARM or Imagination Technologies take care of the basic architecture development of the chips. In a second stage, companies such as Qualcomm , Apple , Nvidia or MediaTek then create finished processor designs from this, which are then produced by contract manufacturers such as TSMC , Samsung or Globalfoundries .
Many of these companies are now larger than Intel in their sub-market and have jointly taken over large parts of the processor market. These companies dominate the market especially in the SoC market , for smartphones, tablets, TVs and many other electronic devices of our time. Despite enormous efforts, Intel has not succeeded in extending its quasi-monopoly of x86 processors to these market areas. Due to the declining importance of x86 PC processors, Intel's importance on the processor market is also declining.
At the turn of the year 2005/2006, Intel said goodbye to the 37-year-old company logo and the component brand “intel inside”, which had previously been affixed to third-party products that contained an Intel CPU.
As with “intel inside”, the new lettering is now framed by an oval swirl. The “e” in the lettering is no longer subscript. Depending on the situation, the company logo is supplemented by the slogan “leap ahead” (German: “One jump ahead”). The new corporate font is a modified variant of Neo Sans or Neo Tech.
With the change of the company logo there is also a change in the marketing strategy.
Intel is a sponsor in the area of esports and supports z. B. the following German clans:
Furthermore, the Electronic Sports League Cup is carried by Intel.
Intel has been advertising on the inside of the FC Barcelona jersey since December 2013 .
- In 2005 the FTC found the company guilty of abusing its monopoly position.
- In 2007, AMD commissioned Intel to review its monopoly position. According to the results of the ERS Group, Intel should have made a profit of 60 billion euros in the years 1996-2006.
- In June 2008, South Korea was fined US $ 21 million on the same grounds as the EU.
- The EU Commission has been investigating Intel for anti-competitive behavior since 2007. The competition procedure began in July 2007. In a so-called “Blue Letter” in 2008, she accused Intel of offering discounts to PC manufacturers if they only installed Intel components in their computers. Money was paid to a manufacturer for being late in bringing a series of computers with AMD chips onto the market. The European Competition Commission sentenced Intel to a fine of 1.06 billion euros in May 2009 after it became clear that the company had massively intervened in the market to the detriment of competitors through various price policy measures against middlemen and manufacturers. Intel announced a lawsuit against the fine, which, however, has little chance of success. For the first time in around 22 years, Intel boss Paul Otellini had to report a quarterly loss for the chip manufacturer in July 2009 because of the record fine. (Apart from the punishment, the group performed better than expected). Since 1999, Intel paid the Media-Saturn-Holding for an exclusive sale of Intel products. The PC manufacturers affected included Acer , Dell , Hewlett-Packard , Lenovo and NEC . They received discounts when they almost exclusively installed Intel processors. If the installation could not be completely prevented, Intel has also paid for computers with AMD processors to be introduced late. In May 2009 the EU Commission imposed a cartel fine on Intel in the amount of 1.06 billion euros. The Commission justified its decision with the fact that Intel had abused its dominant market position in processors in order to force competitors out of the market, which had harmed consumers.
- The Federal Trade Commission of the United States has also been investigating the extent to which Intel is violating applicable antitrust law in the United States since the end of 2008.
Intel has received quarterly patent fees for x86 processors from AMD since 1976 . A cross-licensing agreement from 2001 allows Intel to use the patented AMD64 microarchitecture. In return, AMD is allowed to use newer Intel technologies.
The Intel - Teaching for the Future training program aimed to provide teachers with skills for integrating digital media into their lessons. "Intel Teaching - Basic Course" was part of the worldwide campaign that Intel, together with Microsoft and leading PC manufacturers, had started at the beginning of 2000 for the advanced training of teachers of all types of schools. The basic course expired at the end of 2004. The follow-up measure "Intel Teaching - Interactive" has been available to teachers in all federal states since 2010.
In addition to his role as CFO, Robert Swan has also temporarily assumed the role of CEO since June 2018.
The previous CEOs were:
- 1968–1975 Robert Noyce
- 1975-1987 Gordon E. Moore
- 1987-1998 Andrew S. Grove
- 1998-2005, Craig R. Barrett
- 2005-2013 Paul Otellini
- 2013-2018 Brian Krzanich
Chairman of the Board:
- Arthur Rock , on the Board until 1999, temporarily (Non Executive) Chairman
- from 1975 Robert Noyce, from 1987 he was Vice-Chairman
- 1979-1997 Gordon E. Moore
- 1997-2005 Andrew S. Grove
- 2005-2009, Craig R. Barrett
- 2009-2012 Jane E. Shaw
- from 1975 Gordon E. Moore
- 1979-1997 Andrew S. Grove
- from 1997 Craig R. Barrett
- Intel Developer Forum , Intel developer conference
- other processor manufacturers: AMD , Motorola , VIA , Transmeta , ARM Limited
- Official website
- Link catalog on Intel at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
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- Error when calling the template: cite web : The url and title parameters must be present.
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- Intel Intel® Solid-State Drive 520 Series
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- Intel Teaching - Basic Course ( Memento of the original from April 10, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Intel Teaching - Interactive ( Memento of the original from September 26, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Intel CEO Brian Krzanich Resigns; Board Appoints Bob Swan as Interim CEO. In: intel Newsroom. June 21, 2018, accessed October 15, 2018 .
- Brian Krzanich , in: Internationales Biographisches Archiv 40/2013 of October 1, 2013, in the Munzinger archive ( beginning of the article freely available)