By using a base, it is easy to offer computer systems with different capacities (and at different prices). A socket also makes it easier to replace the processor in the event of a defect or an upgrade .
In the early days of microprocessor development, the same sockets were used for processors as for standard logic ICs, so-called dual inline sockets with different numbers of pins, starting with 16 connections on the Intel 4004 up to 64 pins such as e.g. B. the Motorola 68000 .
However, the increasing complexity of the CPUs, which made more and more connections necessary, and the increasing clock frequencies soon meant that this design was no longer suitable. Therefore, special housing designs and matching bases were developed, such as. B. for PGA or PLCC housings. These mostly square sockets were also used in other complex logic chips and were used with more and more pins up to the 80486 .
The 80486 processors with their 168 to 237 pins, however, showed the limits of manageability of such simple sockets, as they require enormous forces when plugging in or pulling out (about 1 to 2 N press-in force per pin), whereby the ceramic housings of the processors sometimes close Broken or circuit boards and socket were damaged. This led to the development of designs that are now used as processor sockets.
A distinction is made between:
- PGA: P in G rid A rray - the contacts (pins) are arranged in a grid;
- SPGA : S tagged P in G rid A rray - the contacts are staggered;
These processor housings are used in:
- LIF socket: L ow I nsertion F orce - the processor must be pressed into the socket with force (approx. 0.3 to 0.8 N press-in force per pin).
- ZIF socket: Z ero I nsertion F orce - the processor socket is locked and unlocked with a lever so that the processor can be inserted without any effort.
Other designs are:
- Slot : A slot is a circuit board connector into which a processor card is inserted, on which the processor core and the cache modules are soldered.
- LGA : L and G rid A rray - the base has springy contact pins which, when plugged in, tap contact surfaces, so-called lands , on the processor housing.
x86 / IA32 processors
The sockets of the Intel processors are listed below.
The sockets of the AMD processors are listed below.
The sockets of the VIA Technologies components are listed below.
|VIA Cyrix III and C3|
Intel Architecture-64 processors
The following table shows the Intel Architecture-64 processors.
|PAC418 , also slot M|
|Intel Itanium 2 , 9000, 9100 Series|
|Intel Itanium 9300, 9500, 9700 Series|
DEC and Alpha
|21164A / EV56|
|The base 499 is a processor socket for the DEC Alpha 21164A .|
|21264x / EV6x|
- List of AMD microprocessors
- List of Intel microprocessors
- List of microprocessors
- Version (technology)
- List with the most important base data and some pictures plasma-online.de