Royal Dutch Shell
|Royal Dutch Shell plc
|legal form||public limited company|
|founding||2005 (original founding of the Shell Group: 1907)|
London , United Kingdom (Headquarters in The Hague , Netherlands )
Charles O. Holliday ( Chairman )
Ben van Beurden ( CEO )
|Number of employees||86,000 (2020)|
|turnover||180.5 billion US dollars (2020)|
|Branch||Mineral oil company|
|As of March 30, 2021|
The Royal Dutch Shell ( RDS ), also simply called Shell , is one of the world's largest oil and natural gas companies. The group is active in more than 140 countries. Shell employed around 86,000 people worldwide (as of 2020). In 2020 the company achieved total revenue of 180.5 billion US dollars with a loss of 21.7 billion US dollars. Around one million investors invest in around eight billion stocks. A 2019 study found that, as a supplier of products, Royal Dutch Shell had been involved in emissions of 31.95 billion tonnes of CO 2 equivalent since 1965. This puts the company in seventh place among the companies listed in the study. The company is the Royal Dutch Shell plc in the commercial register in London on this day. The head office is located in The Hague .
The Shell brand and group of companies goes back to the founding of a curiosity shop in 1833 in the East End of London by Marcus Samuel . Much of his trade was based on decorative shells, which were popular for ornamenting boxes or as collector's items in Victorian England and which he imported from the Far East .
His two sons, the eponymous Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted , and Samuel Samuel , continued the business. The import of mussels was further developed into an import-export trade, which was transformed into the transport of kerosene for lighting purposes. Finally, in 1890, the decision was made to build tankers for the transport of oil under the company name The Shell Transport and Trading Company plc (London). This transport business was further supplemented by extraction (oil source fund in Borneo, 1897) and refining of oil. Marcus Samuel jun. kept the established company name of the father out of sentimentality. Furthermore, he traditionally used the scallop as a logo.
The NV Koninklijke Nederlandsche Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Petroleumbronnen in Nederlandsch-Indië was founded in 1890. King Wilhelm III. had taken a 25% stake in it and therefore allowed the corporation to be renamed under the title Royal . The ownership shares were 60:40 for the Dutch company. Both companies bundled their business, but remained individually as holding companies. The Dutch company was renamed the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company . In July 2005, both companies were to Royal Dutch Shell plc combined, a public limited company under English law, which listed on the London, Amsterdam and New York listed is. The company's headquarters are in The Hague.
In April 2015, Royal Dutch Shell agreed to take over the UK BG Group for £ 47 billion. As Shell announced in February 2016, the takeover of BG Group has been completed.
In 2005 Shell had a profit of 25.3 billion US dollars and sales totaled 379 billion US dollars.
In 2007 Shell was able to increase its profit to 31.3 billion US dollars, an increase of 23% over the previous year. Sales increased to 356 billion US dollars, an increase of 12%.
In 2011, sales rose to $ 470.17 billion, the highest ever ($ 368.08 billion in 2010). Net income was $ 30.92 billion.
As a result of the sharp drop in the oil price in 2015, the Shell Group's sales for 2016 fell to 233.6 billion US dollars. Profits dropped to $ 4.8 billion.
Shell is active in five business areas worldwide:
- Exploration and production of oil and natural gas
- Processing and distribution of mineral oil
- Transport and marketing of natural gas / electricity
- Renewable energy
Shell is involved in exploration and production projects in over 45 countries. The production of crude oil, natural gas and other hydrocarbons amounts to around 3.8 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (one barrel corresponds to 159 liters). The share of natural gas in total hydrocarbon production is now almost 50 percent. Shell is one of the largest distributors of fuels and lubricants in the world and one of the best-known brands. Around 25 million petrol station customers around the world use Shell services every day . In 2018, Shell operated a Migrolino at 65 filling stations in Switzerland .
Shell also invests in renewable energies . Shell is expanding in the field of photovoltaics through its subsidiary Solar Frontier (until 2010 Showa Shell Solar). Shell also plans and operates wind farms, primarily in the USA. Furthermore, the research and development of fuels from biomass is to be expanded further, in this segment Shell is the world's largest buyer and user. Shell is also involved in the hydrogen economy . Shell says it will invest around USD 30 billion in 2012, 80% of which will be invested in the search for and extraction of energy and the development of new oil and gas sources.
Group structure / company holdings
- Royal Dutch Shell plc, The Hague, Netherlands
- Deutsche Shell Holding GmbH, Hamburg
- Shell Germany Oil GmbH, Hamburg
- euroShell Deutschland GmbH, Hamburg
- CARISSA Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg
- German Society for Petrol Station and Car Park Interests mbH, Hamburg
- IVV - Industrie-Versicherungsvermittlungs-Gesellschaft mbH, Hamburg
- Shell Aviation Services GmbH, Hamburg
- Shell Global Solutions (Deutschland) GmbH, Hamburg
- Shell Germany Oil GmbH, Hamburg
- Shell Chemie Beteiligungsgesellschaft mbH
- Shell Germany Lubricant GmbH
- Shell Direct GmbH
- Shell Direct Services GmbH
- Shell Energy Germany GmbH
- Shell Energy Services GmbH
- Shell Erdgas Beteiligungsgesellschaft mbH
- Shell Erdgas Marketing GmbH & Co. KG
- Shell Renewable Energies GmbH
- Shell Exploration et Production du Maroc GmbH
- Shell Real Estate Company Wesseling GmbH & Co. KG
- Shell Verwaltungsgesellschaft für Erdgasbeteiligungen mbH
- Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria (SPDC), the largest oil company operating in Nigeria, a consortium of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC, 55% of the shares) with Elf Petroleum Nigeria Limited (10%) and the Nigerian Agip Oil Company (NAOC , 5%) under the operational management of Shell (30%).
- Shell Nigeria Exploration and Production Company (SNEPCO)
- Shell Nigeria Gas (SNG)
- Shell Nigeria Oil Products (SNOP)
- The New Motion Germany GmbH
- Deutsche Shell Holding GmbH, Hamburg
Shell in Germany
Royal Dutch (Shell) has been present in Germany since 1902. Until 1947, the history of Shell in Germany is the history of Rhenania-Ossag Mineralölwerke AG (since 1947 Deutsche Shell AG).
In 1980 Shell operated 2,795 petrol stations in West Germany (market share: 10.8 percent), 1,422 of which were self-service.
In 2002, the downstream business (refineries, logistics, filling stations) of RWE Dea was brought into a joint venture with Shell under the name Shell & DEA Oil GmbH and taken over by Shell on July 1, 2002. At the end of 2003 it was renamed Shell Deutschland Oil GmbH .
In August 2002, after the merger, around 40 petrol stations were transferred to Westfalen AG for anti-trust reasons , and more to Classic and Q1 . From 2004 onwards, all but one of the DEA petrol stations in Shell were re-flagged. The last DEA filling station has not been in Haltern am See since 2017 , but in Lichtenfels (Upper Franconia) . Through this use, Shell secures the trademark rights to DEA.
Shell is active in Germany in the business fields of mineral oil processing and sales, exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil, natural gas marketing, chemicals and renewable energies. The core business is operated by Shell Deutschland Oil GmbH (management: Chairman Fabian Ziegler, Ralf Voigt, Marion Bönsch). Some business activities are carried out through separate companies. The research activities are integrated into Shell Global Solutions, the global Shell research network.
Shell in Germany operates its own refinery and is also involved in two others. With a refining capacity of 35.3 million tons, the company is the leading refinery operator in Germany.
On the Grasbrook in the Port of Hamburg, Shell operates a lubricants plant with a capacity of up to 400,000 tons per year. This makes the "Shell Grasbrook Lubricants Center" one of the largest lubricant plants in Europe and within the Shell Group worldwide.
As part of the company-wide research activities, Shell has been running a research laboratory in Hamburg since 1956. This laboratory works primarily in the field of fuels (including special fuels for Formula 1) and lubricants for large engines (shipping, power generation).
Shell is represented nationwide with a nationwide network of around 2000 petrol stations (including branded retail stations). Heating oil and other mineral oil products are sold across Germany through a network of branches and brand dealers, including the subsidiary Shell Direct GmbH.
The demand for natural gas is steadily increasing as more and more households and commercial consumers choose natural gas. Shell operates the natural gas business in Germany mainly through Shell Energy Deutschland (natural gas marketing; based in Hamburg). Customers include municipal utilities, regional natural gas distributors and industrial companies. Overall, Shell has a stake of around 15 percent in the German natural gas market. Shell has a 50% stake in BEB Erdgas und Erdöl . Their natural gas transport business was sold to the Dutch Gasunie with effect from July 1, 2008. On September 1, 2011, BEB's natural gas storage business was sold.
Shell is also active in Germany in the areas of aviation (aviation fuels), shipping and bitumen.
Shell has its solar business in early 2006 silicon sold base in Germany. According to a Shell press release dated February 2, 2006, Shell has decided to sell the production, sales, marketing and research and development of silicon-based solar cells to Solarworld AG, Bonn. Shell manufactured silicon-based solar cells with a total output of around 80 megawatts per year. The production facilities in the USA (in the states of Washington and California) and in Germany will be transferred to Solarworld. Solarworld will also take over the 579 employees who work in this area.
From August 2005 to November 2009 Shell Deutschland Oil (Peter Seifried, Klaus Bortel, Amrin Senger) held a minority stake in CHOREN Industries GmbH , Freiberg . With this commitment, Shell and CHOREN set the course for the construction of the world's first commercial plant for converting biomass into high-quality synthetic fuel ( BtL fuel) under the “SunFuel” brand. This relatively small facility was completed in 2009.
Josef Waltl was appointed chairman of MWV Germany ( Mineralölwirtschaftsverband eV) in 2006 . In January 2017, Shell was in second place with 1,929 street petrol stations, only Aral had a larger petrol station network.
Since July 13, 2017, customers at participating Shell petrol stations in Hamburg and Berlin have been able to pay for their fuel directly at the petrol pump with their smartphone for the first time. Shell is cooperating with the established payment service provider PayPal . After the test phase in Hamburg and Berlin, the SmartPay function within the ShellApp has been available at more than 1,500 Shell stations since March 22, 2018.
In February 2019 it was announced that Sonnen GmbH was taken over by Shell and is still awaiting approval from the antitrust authorities.
Shell in Austria
The Shell Group began to gain a foothold in Austria as early as the 1920s. The Shell Petroleum AG was founded in 1924 as a subsidiary of the former Royal Dutch Shell founded. Shell became active in Austria as early as 1923 through cooperation with the Vienna - Floridsdorfer Mineralölabrik stock corporation founded in 1886 , owner of the "Factory for petroleum products" which has existed locally since 1864 . That AG was at that time in a serious economic crisis due to the indirect consequences of the First World War - above all an interrupted supply of raw goods from Galicia . At that time, Royal Dutch Shell ensured their continued existence by delivering crude oil from Romania, where the multinational oil company had already bought in. This trade relationship was finally followed in 1929 by the complete purchase and renaming of the company as a stock corporation of the Shell Floridsdorfer mineral oil factory . In the course of regional expansion, the development of oil in Austria began. For this purpose, Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij NV , a subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell at the time , together with Socony-Vacuum Oil , a predecessor of today's Exxon Mobil , founded the still existing Crude Oil Recovery Corporation (RAG).
Second World War
When Austria was annexed to Germany in 1938 , the Austrian Shell companies were legally incorporated into the German group. During the war, the Shell refinery in Floridsdorf was part of the strategically important infrastructure. Although it was therefore increasingly the target of Allied bombing, it was able to maintain its operation for a comparatively long time - until spring 1945. This was made possible, among other things, by the use of around 250 Hungarian Jewish forced laborers who were held prisoner by the SS in a Floridsdorf labor camp for this purpose .
After the end of World War II, following occupation of Austria had for the industry far-reaching consequences. Based on the decision of the Potsdam Conference of August 1, 1945, the Soviet Union took over numerous Austrian companies in 1946 as part of the USIA . The oil industry in the East became part of the newly founded “Soviet Mineral Oil Administration”, or SMV for short.
Since Royal Dutch Shell in the east of Austria was powerless against the Soviet nationalization in the east after the war, the reconstruction of the Austrian subsidiary began in the west of Austria, which did not belong to the Soviet occupation zone - now under the name Shell Austria AG .
In 1955, due to the nationalization laws of 1946 and 1947 that had become effective through the State Treaty, the oil industry belonging to the SMV was transferred to the possession of the Republic of Austria and assigned to the Austrian Mineral Oil Administration . In the Vienna Memorandum of May 10, 1955, a multilateral agreement with the Western occupying powers, the Republic of Austria undertook to return those nationalized domestic oil companies that were in French, Canadian, American or Dutch-English hands before the start of the war.
Shell Austria operated the Floridsdorf refinery until 1970 , after which it was shut down and in 1971 the company relocated to the oil port industrial area of Wiener Lobau , where the main Austrian plant and warehouse was located until it was closed in 2010.
Nigeria: financing of civil war and arms trade, cooperation with military regimes
In the 1950s, Shell began oil production in Nigeria against the will of the Ogoni people against their will. The resulting massive environmental pollution robbed the Ogoni of their livelihoods, resulting in thousands of deaths. The renowned Ogoni writer Ken Saro-Wiwa wrote the book Flammen der Hölle (allusion to the flaring of natural gas) in which he wanted to make the crimes of the oil company public and founded the MOSOP ( Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People ). In 1990 the group turned on the controversial mobile police unit against protests in the village of Umuechem, killing eighty people and destroying 495 houses. In 1993 mass protests erupted , General Abacha's government executed 2,000 people and an estimated 80,000 people were displaced. In 1995, Saro-Wiwa and eight other MOSOP leaders were sentenced to death and executed in an apparently mock trial. Neither numerous appeals and protests by human rights organizations, heads of state and government of other countries, nor the silent diplomacy of international organizations such as the EU , the UN or the Organization for African Unity were able to persuade the Nigerian government to pardon the convicted.
The English edition of "National Geographics" from February 2007 provides new information about the catastrophic situation of the people in the oil country Nigeria. Despite a ban by the Federal High Court of Nigeria in 2005, more than 3.5 million tons of hydrocarbons , mainly natural gas , were released in 2006 , flared day and night by Shell Petroleum Development Company ( SPDC ). The possibility of complying with the legal ban from 2008 onwards has not yet been confirmed by Shell and the law has been challenged. On this occasion, Shell had to accept the “ Public Eye Award ” in its original form in 2005 as a negative prize .
Rapid population growth, domestic political problems and ethnic conflicts as well as social and economic hardship continue to cause unrest in the oil-producing areas. The main point of contention is the fair distribution of oil revenues by the Nigerian central government and the use of the funds in the regions and at local levels.
In 1996, Ken Saro-Wiwa's family members filed human rights abuse lawsuits against Shell in the United States. In 1998, a US federal judge dismissed the lawsuit, and the professional court reopened the case in September 2008 and referred the case to the New York Supreme Court. On March 26, 2001, it announced the start of the proceedings, which were postponed again in February 2010.
In December 2010, diplomatic correspondence published by Wikileaks revealed new indications that “Shell had infiltrated all ministries relevant to its business in Nigeria”. Shell then called the reports untrue and refused to comment on them.
After Shell's Nigerian subsidiary (SPDC) was convicted of pollution in Nigeria in 2010, it tried unsuccessfully to challenge the verdict in the 2010s. In August 2021, the Shell subsidiary agreed to a settlement on a fine of almost 95 million euros. Shell insisted that the oil leaks were caused by sabotage during Nigeria's civil war from 1967 to 1970 . In another case, in January 2021, a Dutch court had ordered Shell to pay compensation for oil leaks in two villages in Nigeria. Farmers from villages in the Niger Delta, who filed their lawsuit in 2008, had sued.
Shell came under fire in 1995 when it wanted to sink the oil platform " Brent Spar " in the Atlantic. Greenpeace criticized this sinking through various actions between April and June 1995 . On June 16, the environmental protection organization gave incorrect figures for oil residues, while it had previously based its actions on correct figures. Numerous organizations even called for a boycott against Shell. Due to great public pressure, Shell abandoned its plans on June 20 and decided to dismantle the Brent Spar on land.
In Ireland, Shell (in cooperation with StatoilHydro and Marathon ) is planning to build an onshore refinery for natural gas from the Atlantic against the will of the local population. The residents of the remote area fear the destruction of their environment and their livelihoods. One group is resisting the project under the name Shell to sea . In May 2007, local resident and activist Willie Corduff was awarded the Goldman Environmental Prize for his work.
In early 2012, Shell announced that it would be drilling for oil in the Arctic . According to Greenpeace , the consequences of an oil spill in the sensitive ecosystem are hardly controllable. The NGO thinks that the company has learned nothing from Brent Spar and is therefore protesting in a worldwide campaign. This representation corresponds to the incident at the beginning of January 2013, in which the Kulluk platform ran aground. For this, Shell received the audience award of the Negativawards Public Eye Award 2013. In the same year, the Peng Collective hijacked a Shell event in Berlin and staged an oil fountain.
In 2012, the US company Accufacts Inc. investigated an incident from 2008 in which the water and soil around the city of Bodo was contaminated by Shell. According to Shell, a total of 1640 barrels of oil had spilled that year. Accufacts Inc., on the other hand, found that between 1,440 and 4,320 barrels of oil leaked per day over a period of several weeks. In 2015, the company had to pay 70 million euros in damages for the 2008 oil spill. Around a third of the amount will be paid to the Bodo municipality, the rest directly to the 15,600 fishermen and farmers affected. In 2017 Shell was charged with participating in the murder of 9 environmental activists in the 1990s. The charges are based on internal notes received by Amnesty International .
In February 2021, the UK Supreme Court granted Niger Delta residents the right to sue Royal Dutch Shell in UK courts for pollution. An appeal court in The Hague , the Netherlands, had previously ruled that Shell had to compensate around 40,000 affected people in Nigeria for oil spills that occurred in 2004 and 2005. The group itself took the view that it was not liable for Nigerian subsidiaries in Europe. Saboteurs are responsible for environmental pollution from large-scale oil leaks.
A court in The Hague has ordered Royal Dutch Shell to reduce its emissions by 45% in the future compared to the reference year 2019 in proceedings brought by Friends of Earth and 17,000 Dutch co-plaintiffs. The oil company is responsible for 1% of the climate-damaging emissions worldwide.
- List of oil companies
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- Shell in Germany
- Shell gas stations
- BEB Erdgas und Erdöl GmbH
- Overview of historical road maps, including Shell