Ernest Shackleton

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Ernest Shackleton (photographed by Nadar , circa 1909)
Shackleton's signature

Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton [ ˈɜɻnɛst ˈhɛnɻi ˈʃækəltən ] CVO , OBE , LL.D , OLH (born February 15, 1874 in Kilkea , County Kildare , Ireland ; † January 5, 1922 in Grytviken , South Georgia ) was a British polar explorer of Irish descent and one of the outstanding personalities of the so-called " Golden Age of Antarctic Research"". He took part in four Antarctic expeditions, three of which he was an expedition leader.

Shackleton made his first Antarctic experience as a third officer on the Discovery Expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott , from which he was sent home by the expedition leader in 1903 because of an incapacity that he denied.

Determined to eradicate this flaw, Shackleton returned to Antarctica in 1908 as leader of the Nimrod expedition . In January 1909, he and three companions set a new record in the closest approach to one of the two geographic poles of the earth, before they had to turn back at 88 ° 23′S and another 180 km from the South Pole. For this achievement, Shackleton was knighted by King Edward VII .

After the Norwegian Roald Amundsen reached the South Pole in 1911, Shackleton shifted his focus to crossing the Antarctic continent from coast to coast across the geographic South Pole. But even with this research trip, known as the endurance expedition , he failed. The expedition ship sank in the Weddell Sea after being crushed by the pack ice. Through an adventurous rescue operation, for which Shackleton is far better known than for his scientific contributions to Antarctic research, he was able to save all expedition members from death.

In 1921 the Quest expedition took him to Antarctic waters for the last time. Before the actual start of the research trip, Shackleton died of a heart attack in Grytviken on South Georgia and was buried there at the request of his wife.

Aside from his research trips, Shackleton's life was restless and unfulfilled. In his search for ways to achieve fame and fortune as quickly as possible, he failed with numerous undertakings. At the end of his life, Shackleton was deeply in debt. Although he was celebrated as a hero in the obituary by the press, his name, unlike that of his rival Scott, was soon forgotten for a long time. It was not until the turn of the millennium that Shackleton was rediscovered as an exemplary leader who was able to motivate her subordinates to extraordinary performance in extreme situations.


Ernest Shackleton was born in Kilkea House , a property near the village of Athy , as the second of ten children of landowner Henry Shackleton (1847-1920) and his wife Henrietta Letitia Sophia (née Gavan, 1845-1929). Closely related to his later life is the fact that the HMS Challenger was the first ship with additional mechanical propulsion to cross the Arctic Circle on the day after his birth . Shackleton's paternal ancestors, whose lineage can be traced back to the 13th century, were Quakers from the northern English county of Yorkshire who had lived in Ireland since 1720. There is a distant relationship to the English navigator Martin Frobisher . Shackleton's only brother Francis (called Frank, 1876–1941) was suspected in 1907 of having been involved in the robbery of the Irish Crown Jewels .

The motto of the Shackleton family, whose name is derived from that of a hamlet near the village of Heptonstall in Yorkshire, is "Fortitudine Vincimus" (in English: "by endurance we conquer", in German: "Through perseverance to victory"). The family coat of arms, which has existed since around 1600, has three gold clasps on a red background.

Often attempts have been made to infer Shackleton's characteristics and traits from his origins, but in the opinion of his biographers Margery and James Fisher this is inaccurate or at best an abbreviated representation. “Shackleton's courage and belligerence were no more typically Northern English than his charm and love of poetry were typically Irish. Studying his origins provides a background, but cannot explain it. "

Early years of life

Childhood and Adolescence (1874–1890)

Eleven year old Ernest Shackleton

In the wake of the Land War and the general decline of agriculture in Ireland in the late 19th century, Shackleton's father decided to embark on a new career path. In 1880 the family moved to Dublin , where Henry Shackleton studied medicine at Trinity College for the next four years . In December 1884 the family left Ireland and Shackleton's father opened a medical practice in Croydon, not far from London . He gave up this after only six months in order to finally settle successfully as a doctor in Sydenham .

Ernest Shackleton was an avid reader from a young age. His father gave him access to literature and poetry. He was particularly fascinated by the adventure novels by the English novelist George Alfred Henty (1832–1902) and by Jules Verne . His favorite book is said to have been Life with the Esquimaux by polar explorer Charles Francis Hall . Numerous anecdotes have come down to us about his particular fondness for the search for hidden treasures, his early urge for independence and his rousing enthusiasm, which remained with him even as an adult. At the beginning of his schooling, Shackleton was tutored by a private tutor. He has attended Fir Lodge Preparatory School since the family had lived in Sydenham . Ernest, tall and sturdy for his age, was described by his classmates as friendly and benevolent. Due to his irritable temperament, he was not afraid to use his fists if someone said something negative about his origin or his Irish accent.

In the summer of 1887 Shackleton moved to the prestigious Dulwich College . Shackleton himself described the lessons, which were shaped by the claim to great power of the Empire and whose most important building blocks were Christian militarism and military virtues, as boring. “I never learned much about geography and literature in school”. In the opinion of his teachers, he was not a particularly good student and “didn't give a damn about the lessons”, yet he finished in 1890 as the fifth best of 30 students in his year.

Service in the merchant navy (1890–1901)

Shackleton as a midshipman on the Hoghton Tower

Shackleton's father actually wanted him to study medicine. In the end, however, he gave in to his son's wish to make a living from seafaring. Since he could not financially enable training on the Britannia , the training ship of the Royal Navy , he sent the 16-year-old Ernest to the merchant navy . Shackleton was hired in Liverpool in April 1890 as a midshipman on the Hoghton Tower , a square sailboat for the North Western Shipping Company . In the following four years he learned the shipping trade from the ground up, visited distant countries and interacted with people of different origins and levels of education. The very first voyage took him in the middle of winter in heavy storms around Cape Horn to Valparaíso and Iquique , where the ship was unloaded for six weeks and new cargo was taken on board. Shackleton learned how to use boats to transport cargo undamaged back and forth between a ship and the coast - techniques that would prove helpful on his later expedition trips. In total, Shackleton took part in three voyages on the Hoghton Tower before he went to the Nautical School in London in July 1894, where he passed the examination as second mate on October 4th.

Through the mediation of a school friend from Dulwich College Shackleton received the post of third officer on the tramp ship Monmouthshire with course Far East in November 1894 . A second trip on the same ship took him to China .

On January 24, 1895, when Shackleton was in the Indian Ocean , Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink landed at Cape Adare as part of the Antarctic expedition and claimed to have been the first person to set foot on the Antarctic mainland. As luck would have it, according to later statements, Shackleton decided to become a polar explorer at exactly this time.

When he returned from his second voyage on the Monmouthshire in 1896 , he passed the examination as first mate. After his time as second mate on the Flintshire , a steamship of the Welsh Shire Line , he finally received the master's license in Singapore in 1898 . As an employee of the Union-Castle Line , Shackleton subsequently worked on the liner Tantallon Castle in mail and passenger traffic between Southampton and Cape Town . A shipmate described him as "far removed from the character of ordinary young officers", solitary but not dismissive, " reciting Keats and Browning ", a mixture of sensitivity and aggressiveness and yet sympathetic. When the Boer War broke out in 1899, Shackleton became a third officer at Tintagel Castle for the transport of soldiers to the Cape Colony. In Cape Town he met Rudyard Kipling , whom he wanted to win as a well-known co-author for his first own book.

Much like his later rival Robert Falcon Scott, who felt constricted in the routine of the Royal Navy, Shackleton did not feel that he could satisfy his ambitions in the merchant navy. A colleague at Union-Castle Line later stated: "He was attracted by the opportunity to break out of the monotony of method and routine - from an existence that would at some point have stifled his individuality." Shortly after he was appointed a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society , Shackleton's exploration career began, in no small part because he saw it as an opportunity to get rich and famous. In March 1900 he met the Lieutenant of the British Army Cedric Longstaff (1876-1950), know whose father Llewellyn Longstaff (1841-1918) one of the sponsors of the Discovery Expedition was. Shackleton used his friendship with Cedric to apply to his father to participate in the Discovery Expedition. Longstaff was so impressed by Shackleton's zeal and persuasion that he directed Sir Clements Markham , the expedition's patron, to accept him as a member of the expedition. On February 17, 1901, Shackleton received the post of third officer on the expedition ship Discovery . In June 1901 he was appointed sub-lieutenant in the Royal Naval Reserve (RNR). This ended Shackleton's service in the Merchant Navy.

Participation in the Discovery Expedition (1901–1903)

Shackleton (second from left) aboard the Discovery

The National Antarctic Expedition , as the Discovery Expedition was officially known, was initiated by Sir Clements Markham , then President of the Royal Geographical Society. The research trip should be carried out with the aim of carrying out general scientific and geographical explorations in the Antarctic. It was led by the Royal Navy officer Robert Falcon Scott , who had only recently been promoted to Commander . Although the research vessel Discovery did not belong to the Royal Navy, Scott required the ship's crew, officers and scientific expedition participants to submit to the discipline customary in the British Navy. Shackleton accepted this, although he had hated military drill since school days and instead preferred a more casual style of leadership. His tasks were outlined as follows: "Responsible for the investigation of the sea water, the supply of the officers' mess, for the hold, the stocks and supplies [...] also for the entertainment program."

After the Discovery set sail from Cowes on August 6, 1901 , she reached the edge of the Antarctic Ross Ice Shelf in January 1902 after stops in Cape Town and Lyttelton in New Zealand . After anchoring in a small bay, Shackleton took part in a balloon ascent on the ice shelf on February 4, taking the first aerial photographs of the Antarctic. After reaching the winter quarters at McMurdo Sound , he undertook the first sled excursion with the science officers Edward Wilson and Hartley Ferrar to explore a safe route over the ice shelf for the planned march towards the South Pole . He also acted as editor of the expedition magazine The South Polar Times in the winter of 1902, when the Discovery was trapped in the pack ice . In the opinion of the ship steward Clarence Hare (1880-1967) Shackleton was due to his informal nature "the most popular officer in the crew." However, there has never been substantiated evidence to believe that Shackleton was in competition with Scott in leading the men . Scott chose Shackleton to march south across the Ross Ice Shelf with him and Edward Wilson. The South Pole was not the real goal, although it was of great importance to Scott to reach as high a southern latitude as possible. The fact that Scott's choice fell on Shackleton shows on the one hand the great trust the expedition leader had in his third officer, on the other hand Scott's decision could not have been worse because of the fundamentally different character traits of the two men.

First march south

Shackleton, Scott and Wilson (from left to right) on the way to the South Pole on November 2, 1902. On the transport sledge adorned with pennants behind the three men, Shackleton's family coat of arms can be seen to the right of Shackleton.

The march, which Scott later referred to as "a combination of success and failure," began on November 2, 1902. Shackleton, Scott, and Wilson set a new south record when they reached 82 ° 17′S on December 30, the achievement Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevinks from February 16, 1900 (78 ° 50′S) outbid. Their progress was hampered by their lack of experience in handling the sled dogs and by the fact that numerous animals fell ill from spoiled food. All 22 dogs died during the march. Events may have occurred on the way back, the effects of which on the personal relationship between Shackleton and Scott are still controversial today. There is no doubt that all three men initially suffered from temporary snow blindness , frostbite and finally from scurvy . Shackleton, who was ultimately unable to help pull the transport sled, was particularly affected by this. According to Scott's later description, Shackleton even had to be transported long distances on the sled. Shackleton contradicted this representation and was confirmed by Edward Wilson's diary entries.

On February 4, 1903, the three men finally reached their base camp on the Hut Point Peninsula . After an examination of Shackleton by the expedition doctor Dr. Reginald Koettlitz (1861-1916), who remained inconclusive, decided Scott to send Shackleton home on the ship Morning , which had been anchored in McMurdo Sound as relief for the Discovery since January 1903. Scott wrote, "In his current state of health, he [Shackleton] shouldn't take any further risk of trouble." Perhaps Scott's real motive was, on the one hand, his anger at Shackleton's popularity with other expedition members, so that he saw Shackleton's dubious health as a welcome opportunity to become a pesky rival get rid of. On the other hand, the Scott biographer Diana Preston describes, Shackleton with his "tendency to question things and to offer resistance to the authorities" opposed the discipline that had been of great importance to Scott. Years later, when the "three polar knights" were no longer alive, Scott's deputy expedition leader Albert Armitage claimed that Shackleton had confided in him that there had been a solid quarrel between Scott and Scott on the way south. Furthermore, according to Armitage Scott threatened the expedition doctor: "If he [Shackleton] does not go home sick, he will be dishonorably discharged." However, there is no further evidence to support Armitage's claim. For his part, Shackleton was loyal to Scott until he condescendingly referred to him as "our invalid" in his 1905 book The Voyage of the Discovery . Both polar explorers treated each other with respect and courtesy in public, but according to his biographer Roland Huntford , Shackleton's attitude towards Scott has since been one of contempt and dislike. His injured pride called for "going back to Antarctica and surpassing Scott."

Return to civil life (1903–1907)

Shackleton's wife Emily with the children Cecily, Edward and Raymond (from left to right)

Shackleton left the Antarctic aboard the Morning on March 2, 1903. Previously, he had tried in vain to his subordinates Charles Reginald Ford (1880-1972) to move in its place to return home to his post as Paymaster aboard the Discovery take to be able. After a short vacation in New Zealand , after stops in San Francisco and New York, he returned to England, where he arrived in June 1903. There his arrival was eagerly awaited as the first returnee of the expedition. The Admiralty needed first-hand information to make further arrangements to rescue the men trapped by the ice on Ross Island . With Markham's approval, Shackleton took a temporary position to equip and load the second rescue ship, the Terra Nova , but declined the offer to return to Antarctica as first officer. He was particularly pleased that an Admiralty doctor had declared him fit for duty. Instead, he helped equip the Argentine corvette Uruguay to rescue the distressed men of the Nordenskjöld expedition .

Shackleton's attempt to get permanent employment with the Royal Navy failed despite the advocacy of Markham and William Huggins , President of the Royal Society .

In the fall of 1903 Shackleton worked as a journalist and co-editor of the Royal Magazine , founded in 1898 by the publisher Sir Arthur Pearson (1866-1921), but ended this non-fulfilling activity after a few weeks. After a lecture tour on the Discovery Expedition to Dundee and Aberdeen , he was offered the recently vacant position of Secretary and Treasurer of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society (RSGS) with the support of his friend Hugh Robert Mill (1861-1950) , which he was offered on January 14 Began in 1904. His marriage on April 9 of the same year to Emily Dorman (1868–1936), whom he had known since 1897, also resulted in personal happiness. Shackleton's first son Raymond (1905–1960) was born in February 1905, and his only daughter Cecily (1906–1957) was born in December 1906.

In February 1906, Shackleton, who was completely inexperienced in business matters, got involved in a dubious speculative deal for the transport of Russian troops from Vladivostok to the Baltic Sea , which, however, did not materialize. He also tried unsuccessfully to gain a foothold in politics in the 1906 general election as a candidate for the Liberal Unionists in Dundee. Finally the industrialist William Beardmore made him secretary of a commission that dealt with the design of new gas engines. His job was to entice Beardmore's customers and keep his professional colleagues in London and Glasgow happy.

Despite this financially secure job, Shackleton made no secret of his ambition to return to Antarctica as the leader of his own expedition. Beardmore agreed to support him in this endeavor with a guarantee of £ 7,000 (approximately EUR 906,000 when adjusted for inflation). However, there were no further investors for the time being. Nevertheless, Shackleton dared to present his plans to the Royal Geographical Society in February 1907. A detailed publication followed shortly thereafter in the Geographical Journal .

Nimrod Expedition (1907-1909)

"The Boss" Ernest Shackleton at Cape Royds in February 1908

Shackleton's first own expedition was known as the British Antarctic Expedition . From a scientific point of view, it became his most important venture. Never before has a larger area of ​​the previously unknown Antarctic mainland been opened up. Incorrect cartographic measurements of the Discovery Expedition were corrected. Shackleton's chief biologist James Murray (1865–1914) carried out the first comprehensive study of the Antarctic freshwater protozoa and lower multicellular organisms .

From the beginning, Shackleton had to struggle with major financing problems, as initially neither the Royal Geographical Society nor the British government provided money. He did his best to find sponsors from his wealthy circle of friends and acquaintances in addition to Beardmore. Among them was Sir Philip Brocklehurst , who was just 20 years old , who bought his participation in the expedition with a donation of £ 2,000 (around EUR 259,000 adjusted for inflation).

Shackleton's main goals of the voyage were to reach the geographic and Antarctic magnetic south poles. A few weeks before the expedition ship Nimrod set off from Cowes for New Zealand in August 1907 , Robert Falcon Scott defied his former subordinate's promise to stay away from McMurdo Sound, as Scott claimed this region as the sovereign area of ​​operation for another Antarctic expedition of his own. Shackleton reluctantly agreed to seek winter quarters either on Barrier Inlet or on the Edward VII Peninsula .

On New Year's Day 1908, the Nimrod left the port of Lyttelton . In order to save coal , the ship was towed by the steamer Koonya to the southern polar circle . Shackleton had been able to persuade the Koonya company and the New Zealand government to pay the costs.

On January 23, the ice shelf barrier came into view. According to the agreement with Scott, the Nimrod headed for the eastern section of the barrier. Shackleton discovered that the Barrier Inlet had widened into a large bay since the times of the Discovery Expedition, which was christened the Bay of Whales because of the large number of whales sighted there . Due to the unstable ice conditions encountered in the bay, Shackleton ruled out the establishment of winter quarters on the ice shelf. After the advance to the Edward VII Peninsula was prevented by drift ice, he decided, contrary to the agreement with Scott, to go to McMurdo Sound after all. Even if not all expedition participants were of the same opinion, this decision arose, following the later account of Second Officer Arthur Harbord (1883–1962), “only common sense.” Scott, on the other hand, saw himself deceived by Shackleton and insulted him as “professional Liar".

The McMurdo Sound was reached on January 29, 1908, but contrary to the original plan, the Nimrod could not penetrate to the old base of the Discovery Expedition on the Hut Point Peninsula due to thick pack ice . Instead, the winter quarters were built further north at Cape Royds on the west side of Ross Island . Despite the adverse conditions, the mood among the expedition participants was very good. This was not least due to Shackleton's dealings with men. Philip Brocklehurst revealed many years later that Shackleton had the ability to “make everyone on the expedition feel his appreciation. He made us feel more important than we could actually be. "

Second march south

Shackleton after the failed march to the South Pole on board the Nimrod (March 1909)

"The great journey south", as Frank Wild called the "attack" on the South Pole, began on October 29, 1908. On January 9, 1909, Shackleton, Wild, Jameson Adams and Eric Marshall reached a southern one after a difficult and dangerous march Latitude of 88 ° 23′S and thus set a new record in the closest approach to one of the two geographic poles of the earth. The South Pole was only 180 km from them, but bad weather conditions, dwindling supplies, inadequate equipment and increasing exhaustion made further progress impossible. Shackleton noted with disappointment: “We have done our best. Beat the southern record by 366 miles and the northern record by 77. [...] and yet none of this is the pole. "

On the way there, the four men were the first to cross the full length of the Ross Ice Shelf, to discover the Beardmore Glacier and to use it to advance to the central polar plateau . The way back to McMurdo Sound, on which they were for the most part on half ration, became a race against time and hunger. On January 30th, Shackleton gave the dysentery game a biscuit that was actually intended for him; a gesture to which Wild remarked: “I suppose no one else in the world can really judge the generosity and sympathy it expressed; I know and God is my witness that I will never forget. No money in the world could have bought this one biscuit. ”The four men reached the Hut Point Peninsula in early March 1909 just in time to be accepted by the Nimrod .

In addition to the southern record, the first summit ascent of the Mount Erebus volcano between March 5th and 11th, 1908, was one of the expedition's successes. In addition, the Australians Edgeworth David and Douglas Mawson, together with the Scottish doctor Alistair Mackay (1877-1914), were the first to reach the Antarctic magnetic pole at 72 ° 15′S, 155 ° 16′E in northeastern Victoria Land on January 16, 1909 .

After the expedition was over, Shackleton was celebrated as a hero in Great Britain. He published his experiences during this trip in the book The Heart of the Antarctic . His wife Emily later reported, "The only explanation he [Shackleton] gave me about not reaching the South Pole was, 'A live donkey is better than a dead lion, isn't it?' And I replied, 'Of course, darling, as far as I'm concerned.'"

Time after the Nimrod expedition (1909–1914)

Public worship

Event poster for one of Shackleton's public lectures

On his return from the Nimrod expedition, Shackleton received the highest honors. King Edward VII appointed him Commander of the Royal Victorian Order on July 12, 1909 and knighted him on December 13 of the same year ( Knight Bachelor ). The Royal Geographical Society awarded him the polar medal in gold, but with the previously disparaging note to the manufacturer: “We are free not to make the medal as big as the one that Capt. Scott was awarded. ”Clements Markham had used his influence with the learned society to punish Shackleton for breaking promises to his protégé Scott. Other expedition participants were honored with a silver version of the medal. On the special recommendation of the Prince of Wales , Shackleton was named "Younger Brother" of the British Maritime and Oceanographic Society Trinity House . Other polar explorers such as Fridtjof Nansen and Roald Amundsen also paid respect and recognition to his achievements. Amundsen wrote effusively: "By Shackleton's deed, the English nation has achieved a victory in Antarctic exploration that can never be surpassed."

Aside from the official awards, Shackleton's achievements were received with great enthusiasm by the British public. Throughout the summer of 1909 it was celebrated and honored, invited to give lectures, invited to dinners, dinners and receptions. He underpinned his popularity by his modest demeanor, because he constantly tried to highlight the achievements of the other participants on his expedition. Various individuals and groups tried to misuse him as a mouthpiece for their interests. In some ways, the same was true of the Irish press. In Dublin appearing Evening Telegraph headlined: "South Pole Almost Reached By An Irishman" and the Dublin Express wrote Shackleton's achievements its Irish heritage.

On the other hand, the commercial balance sheet of his expedition was much more sober. The cost of the trip was £ 45,000 (approximately € 5.74 million when adjusted for inflation) and Shackleton was unable to repay outstanding loans and guarantees. The British government saved him from immediate financial ruin with a public grant of £ 20,000 (adjusted for inflation about 2.55 million euros). However, it is likely that part of his debt was initially deferred and ultimately no longer called.

Entrepreneurial activities and new challenges

Sir Ernest Shackleton with his three year old son Edward in 1914

From 1910 Shackleton went on extensive lecture tours, made public appearances and put his good reputation in the service of social projects. In addition, he tried again as a businessman, for example by participating in a tobacco company and in the sale of stamps with the imprint "King Edward VII Land" in memory of a post office set up in the winter quarters during the Nimrod expedition with the help of the New Zealand Post Office . He also hoped for profits from a participation license in a gold mine in Hungary . None of these endeavors were productive. The livelihood of his family, which increased with the birth of his second son Edward in July 1911, was mainly covered by paid lectures. He now lived in Sheringham with his wife and three children . Shackleton had given up the idea of ​​leading another expedition to Antarctica for various reasons. Of inestimable value for his old companion Douglas Mawson , however, was his support in raising funds for the Australian-Oceanic Antarctic Expedition (1911-1914).

The resumption of his research activities depended mainly on the results of the Terra Nova Expedition (1910-1913) of his opponent Robert Falcon Scott . His expedition ship set sail in Cardiff in July 1910 . In the spring of 1912, word reached the world that Roald Amundsen had conquered the South Pole. Scott's tragic fate was not yet known at the time. Shackleton turned to a project that the Scottish Antarctic explorer William Speirs Bruce had originally planned, but gave up due to lack of financial support: a transcontinental Antarctic crossing from the coast of the Weddell Sea across the South Pole to McMurdo Sound. Bruce was delighted that Shackleton took over his plans, which overlapped in key points with the expedition started by the German explorer Wilhelm Filchner in May 1911. In December 1912, Shackleton received news that Filchner's trip had failed. This cleared the way for him for the “last great challenge of the Antarctic voyages”.

Endurance expedition (1914-1917)

Shackleton aboard the Endurance (photographed by Frank Hurley )

Shackleton confidently titled his new attempt at the South Pole with Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition . He had disclosed his intentions in a letter to the London Times on December 29, 1913 . Two teams proceeding separately from each other were planned. The first (the so-called Weddell Sea Party ) under the guidance Shackleton should match the expedition ship Endurance by the Weddell Sea to the Vahsel bay ( 77 ° 49 '  S , 35 ° 7'  W ) at the edge of the Filchner-Ronne ice shelf penetrate , from where a team of six should set out to cross the Antarctic. The second, led by Aeneas Mackintosh, was to take another ship, the Aurora , to McMurdo Sound. The task of this team (the so-called Ross Sea Party ) was to build depots with food and fuel over the length of the Ross Ice Shelf and, if possible, to the mouth of the Beardmore Glacier , which would enable the men coming from Vahsel Bay to To complete the crossing of the Antarctic continent over a total distance of around 2800 km.

In contrast to the Nimrod expedition, it was now relatively easy for Shackleton to find sponsors. The Scottish entrepreneur James Caird (1837-1916) and other wealthy businesspeople contributed five-digit amounts. The British government also contributed £ 10,000 (around EUR 1.2 million when adjusted for inflation). Despite the financial donations, this expedition was again underfunded, with which Aeneas Mackintosh in particular had to struggle with the organization of the Ross Sea Party . The public interest was enormous. Shackleton received more than 5,000 applications to participate in the expedition. His selection criteria were sometimes eccentric. Believing that character and temperament are more important than technical skills, he often asked his applicants surprising questions. For example, he wanted to know from the physicist Reginald James (1891–1964) whether he could sing. With others, he made a spontaneous decision based on the first impression. In addition, he expected every member of the expedition, regardless of their actual task, to take on low-level work such as scrubbing the deck.

Great Britain entered World War I on August 3, 1914. Shackleton then made his expedition ship Endurance, complete with equipment and crew, available to the British Admiralty. However, their then First Lord Winston Churchill gave the order to continue the preparations for the expedition. The Endurance left the port of Plymouth on August 8, heading south . Shackleton left England on September 27 to join the team in Buenos Aires .

Downfall of endurance

The sinking expedition ship Endurance in November 1915

The Endurance went on 5 December 1914 by Georgia as planned south into the Weddell Sea. Drift ice was encountered earlier than expected, which hindered further progress. On January 19, 1915, the Endurance was completely enclosed by sea ​​ice, southeast of the coast of Prinzregent-Luitpold-Land and within sight of the Filchner-Ronne ice shelf . The schedule for reaching Vahsel Bay could no longer be adhered to. Shackleton therefore decided on February 24th to prepare the ship for wintering. During the following months, the Endurance, trapped in the sea ice, slowly drifted north-westerly. When the ice began to break up in September, the ship's hull was exposed to the ice masses that were piled up by the drift. Up until then, Shackleton had still hoped the ship would come out of the ice so that it could sail east again towards Vahsel Bay. On "Fateful Day", as Shackleton later referred to October 27, 1915, he gave up the ship. The expedition participants left the endurance with provisions and equipment and set up winter quarters on the ice (the so-called Camp Ocean ). On November 21st, the ice-crushed ship sank.

For about two months, the team camped on a large ice floe in the hope of getting through the ice drift to Paulet Island , about 400 km away , on which there was a camp left by Otto Nordenskjöld . After several attempts to reach the island on foot had failed, Shackleton, trusting that the ice drift would bring them to safe land, set up additional quarters (called Camp Patience ) on another ice floe . On March 17, 1916, they had come within 97 km of Paulet Island, but they could not reach it due to insurmountable ice masses. On April 9, her ice floe broke apart. Shackleton then decided to head for the nearest land in the three lifeboats he was carrying. Once again he impressed with his selflessness. He left his gloves to Frank Hurley after his own were lost on the boat trip. As a result, Shackleton suffered frostbite on his fingers. After five excruciating days, the 28 completely exhausted men finally reached Elephant Island . This was the first time after 497 days at sea and sea ice that they were back on solid ground.

In the dinghy to South Georgia

Depart from Elephant Island in the James Caird

Elephant Island was not very inviting and was off the beaten track. As a result, Shackleton decided to venture over 800 nautical miles (about 1,500 km) in an open boat to the whaling stations in South Georgia for help. After consulting with his deputy Frank Wild , he chose the James Caird lifeboat , which was prepared for the journey by the ship's carpenter Harry McNish . Shackleton was accompanied by Captain Frank Worsley , Tom Crean , the sailors John Vincent (1879-1941) and Timothy McCarthy (1888-1917) and McNish. The latter had temporarily defied Shackleton's orders after the fall of the Endurance . Although Shackleton later excluded him from being awarded the Polar Medal for this, he did not want to forego the skills of the headstrong Scotsman at this point.

The crew of the James Caird took food for a maximum of four weeks, as Shackleton assumed that during this time he would either reach South Georgia or perish. On Easter Monday, April 24, 1916, the six men set out to sea. In the following 15 days they sailed in their small boat, which was in constant danger of overturning, eastward through the whipped South Atlantic. Thanks to Worsley's navigational skills, the coast of South Georgia came into view on May 8, but a landing was initially prevented by storm and heavy seas. Eventually they reached King Haakon Bay on the deserted south side of the island. After a few days of recovery, Shackleton decided not to make another attempt to get to the whaling stations in the north by boat. Instead, he planned to risk crossing South Georgia on a route that had never been traveled before. Without McNish, Vincent and McCarthy, he set off with Crean and Worsley from the campsite at Cave Cove to reach the whaling station in Stromness on May 20, 1916 after 36 hours over the central mountains .

The first to repeat the March of Shackleton, Worsley and Crean was the British explorer Verner Duncan Carse (1913-2004) in October 1955. Recalling the performance of the first climbers, he wrote: "I don't know how they did it, just that they did it - three men of the heroic age of polar exploration with a 50- foot rope between them - and the carpenter's ax."

Rescue the men on Elephant Island

The expedition members stranded on Elephant Island (Frank Hurley and Perce Blackborow are missing)

Immediately after rescuing himself, Shackleton sent a ship that took McNish, Vincent and McCarthy into King Haakon Bay. Meanwhile, he tried to organize the rescue of the men stranded on Elephant Island. The first three attempts were thwarted by difficult ice conditions. Finally, he turned to the Chilean government, which placed the Yelcho tug under the command of Luis Pardo at his disposal. The Yelcho reached Elephant Island on August 30, 1916 and was able to safely take all 22 remaining expedition members of the Weddell Sea Party on board.

The fate of the Ross Sea Party was less fortunate. The group led by Aeneas Mackintosh was Cape Evans stranded after the expedition ship Aurora was torn by storm by the armature and output. The crew remaining on board drove back to New Zealand, as a return to Ross Island was not possible due to a damaged steering gear and the onset of winter. In December 1916, Shackleton went on board in New Zealand to help rescue the men who remained in Antarctica. Despite great privations, the Ross Sea Party had fulfilled its tasks in creating the now no longer needed depots. When the aurora reached Cape Evans on January 10, 1917, Shackleton learned that Mackintosh, Arnold Spencer-Smith and Victor Hayward (1888–1916) had died in the process.

Participation in World War I and the post-war period (1917–1920)

Major Ernest Shackleton

Shackleton returned to England in May 1917 after lecturing on the endurance expedition in Australia and the USA. At this point he was already suffering from a weak heart, the cause of which was probably physical overexertion due to the exertion of his expeditions. He also began to get increasingly drunk. At 43 years old, he was actually too old for military service. Nevertheless, he followed the example of his comrades on the endurance expedition and volunteered for the front in France. Instead, he first traveled to Buenos Aires in October 1917 on behalf of the British Information Minister at the time, Edward Carson, to persuade the Chilean and Argentine governments to join the Allies in their countries. He returned from this unsuccessful mission in April 1918.

On behalf of the Northern Exploration Company, he then went on a journey to explore the mining conditions on Svalbard . Behind this front company was the War Department, which, with Shackleton's help, planned to set up a military base on the stateless islands claimed by neutral Norway. On the way there, Shackleton fell ill in Tromsø , presumably from a minor heart attack. Anyway, it forced the disease to return to England, where he in July 1918 in the temporary rank of Major transported and the end of August was sent in 1918 to the British intervention forces in northern Russia, which since June 1918 on the part of whites to the Russian Civil War involved. He was responsible for the Arctic equipment and material transport to Murmansk . With the Armistice of Compiègne , the First World War ended de facto on November 11, 1918. Shackleton returned home in March 1919. He planned to continue his activities in northern Russia, this time to promote the region's economy. For this purpose he went looking for further investors, but all plans came to a standstill after the military victory of the Bolsheviks . Shackleton then went on lecture tours again, and in December 1919 his book on the endurance expedition entitled South was published. For his military service in Northern Russia, Shackleton was named Officer of the Order of the British Empire .

Quest Expedition and Death (1920-1922)

See main article: Quest Expedition and Their Crew List

Shackleton's grave in Grytviken ( South Georgia )

In the course of 1920, Shackleton, increasingly tired from his lectures, began to explore the possibilities of a third expedition of his own. He seriously thought about venturing into the then largely unexplored Beaufort Sea and aroused the interest of the Canadian government in this regard. With money that his school friend John Quiller Rowett (1874-1924) made available, he bought the Norwegian sealer Foca I , which he renamed Quest . For reasons he did not make public, Shackleton changed his intentions to travel to the Arctic and instead planned an "oceanographic and sub-Antarctic expedition". The exact purpose of this trip remained hidden. Shackleton named the circumnavigation of the Antarctic continent and the search for "lost" sub-Antarctic islands as goals. Rowett agreed to fund the entire expedition, which has since been officially known as the Shackleton-Rowett Expedition and left England on September 24, 1921.

Shackleton had failed to pay the promised rewards to some of his previous companions on the Nimrod and Endurance expeditions. Nevertheless, many of them remained loyal to their "boss", as they called Shackleton, and also took part in this trip. When the expedition ship reached Rio de Janeiro , Shackleton probably suffered a heart attack. He refused a detailed medical examination and treatment, so the Quest continued its voyage and entered the port of Grytviken ( South Georgia ) on January 4, 1922 . During the night Shackleton called the ship's doctor Alexander Macklin (1889-1967) because he felt uncomfortable and suffered from back pain. According to Macklin's own account, he told Shackleton that he was overworked and should lead a more orderly life. Shackleton asked him, “You always want me to give up things. What should I give up? ”To which Macklin replied,“ Mainly the alcohol, boss. ”A short time later, around 3:30 am (according to other tradition at 2:50 am) on the morning of January 5, 1922, suffered Shackleton had a fatal heart attack.

At the autopsy of the body, Macklin found that the cause of death was atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries, which was made worse by Shackleton's deteriorated general condition. Leonard Hussey (1891-1964), like Macklin a veteran of the endurance expedition, agreed to accompany the transfer of the body to Great Britain. In Montevideo he received news from Shackleton's wife, Emily, that her husband should be buried in South Georgia. Hussey returned to Grytviken with the coffin on the Woodville steamer , where Shackleton was buried in the neighboring cemetery on March 5th after a brief prayer session at the local Lutheran church. In Macklin's diary on May 4, 1922, there is an entry: “[I] think this is what 'the boss' would have wanted for himself. Alone on an island and far from civilization, surrounded by the stormy seas near one of his greatest exploits. ”Since the quest had already left Grytviken, Hussey was the only one of Shackleton's companions, along with some Norwegian sailors, to attend the ceremony.


Shackleton's statue on the main building of the Royal Geographical Society in Kensington

Before Shackleton's body was transported to South Georgia, he was laid out in the Church of the Holy Trinity in Montevideo and passed with full military honors. In addition, on March 2, 1922, a memorial service was held in St Paul's Cathedral in the presence of King George V and other members of the royal family . Within the next year, his friend Hugh Robert Mill (1861–1950) published his first biography, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton . Proceeds from the sale of this book benefited Shackleton's family as he left debt of approximately £ 40,000 (approximately $ 2.67 million when adjusted for inflation). In addition, a memorial foundation was set up to finance the education of his children.

In the decades that followed, Shackleton's popularity was overshadowed by that of his rival Captain Scott. In Great Britain alone, more than 30 monuments, statues and even stained glass windows were made for it. It was not until 1932 that a memorial designed by Edwin Lutyens was unveiled for Shackleton on the facade of the Royal Geographical Society building in Kensington , but there were few other public commemorations. The press was more interested in Scott, who tragically died on the way back from the South Pole. A forty page booklet in the series Great exploits (in German: Large exploits ) from the publisher Oxford University Press in 1943 remained well into the 1950s the only existing print product on Shackleton next Mills biography.

In 1957, Margery (1913-1992) and James Fisher (1912-1970) published a highly acclaimed biography called Shackleton , and in 1959 Alfred Lansing (1921-1975) followed with his book Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage . These were the first in a series of books that showed Shackleton in a most positive light. At the same time, the view of Scott gradually changed, which culminated in a devastating reckoning in Roland Huntford's 1979 book Scott and Amundsen . This negative portrayal of Scott was generally accepted, since the hero type as embodied by Scott fell victim to the changed cultural understanding of values ​​at the end of the 20th century. Within a few years Shackleton had surpassed Scott in public image. For example, Shackleton was voted 11th in the BBC- produced program 100 Greatest Britons (in German: The 100 Greatest Britons ) in 2002. Scott, on the other hand, only ended up in 54th place.

At the beginning of the new millennium, Shackleton's ability to motivate his subordinates to top performance in a supposedly hopeless situation was also discovered by management advisors who deal with his leadership qualities and their transfer to everyday working life (see coaching ). Around half a century earlier, Jameson Adams , deputy leader of the Nimrod expedition , described Shackleton as "the most important guide who ever walked on God's earth without qualification." business seminars. Furthermore, there are now numerous educational reform schools (so-called Shackleton Schools ) based on the model of the Outward Bound , in which the character traits attributed to Shackleton such as steadfastness, a sense of responsibility and creativity are conveyed in the context of experiential education.

Shackleton's dream of a transcontinental crossing of the Antarctic was fulfilled around 40 years later by the Everest conqueror Edmund Hillary and the English polar explorer Vivian Fuchs on the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1955-1958). Ranulph Fiennes repeated this as part of the Transglobe Expedition (1980-1981). Both expeditions took place with enormous technical effort. In 1989/1990 Reinhold Messner and Arved Fuchs crossed the Antarctic for the first time in the classical style, followed by the first solo crossing by the Norwegian Børge Ousland at the turn of the year 1996/97. In 2000 Arved Fuchs also repeated Shackleton's boat trip from Elephant Island to South Georgia in a replica of the James Caird , but with the aid of modern navigation and communication technology. He also undertook the march from Shackleton, Worsley and Crean through South Georgia on the same expedition. At the turn of the year 2008/2009 , the Shackleton Centenary Expedition took place under the direction of Henry Worsley (1960-2016), a descendant of Captain Frank Worsley , in which the historic march towards the South Pole was repeated and back then on the trail of the Nimrod Expedition missing 97 miles have been completed. Worsley died on January 24, 2016 in a hospital in Punta Arenas, Chile, of complications from peritonitis after he had attempted to cross Antarctica alone and without additional help a few days earlier due to dehydration 48 km before reaching his destination by emergency call and afterwards The rescue had to break off.

On November 20, 1998, the Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) at Cambridge University opened the Shackleton Memorial Library , where original documents from Shackleton's research trips are archived. In the cultural history museum of Athy , not far from his birthplace, Ernest Shackleton and his contributions to polar research have been commemorated since 2001 as part of an annual event in autumn. On polar cruises to the Antarctic Peninsula and South Georgia, visits to Point Wild on Elephant Island and Shackleton's grave are now a must. The preservation of the hut built on Cape Royds during the Nimrod expedition , which is considered an international cultural heritage in New Zealand, rests in the hands of the New Zealand Antarctic Heritage Trust .

Shackleton's death marks the end of the so-called Golden Age of Antarctic exploration, an epoch of voyages of discovery for scientific and geographical exploration of the still largely unknown Antarctic continent without modern aids. In the foreword of his book The Worst Journey in the World , the polar explorer Apsley Cherry-Garrard emphasized the importance of her main characters as follows: “Give me Scott as a scientific-geographical expedition leader, […] give me Amundsen for a quick and efficient polar expedition, but give Shackleton me, when fate seems to have conspired against me and I'm looking for a way out. "

useful information


Shackleton has received numerous awards and honorary memberships at home and abroad for his services to the exploration of Antarctica. On 28 June 1909 he took following the Nimrod Expedition in the Royal Albert Hall , the Polar Medal in gold from the hands of the Prince of Wales counter and on 13 December 1909 he was by King Edward VII. Through knighthood as a Knight Bachelor in raised personal nobility. In addition, Shackleton was awarded the following medals:

On July 9, 1901, Shackleton was admitted to the Freemasonry . His lodge was Navy Lodge No. 2616 of the United Grand Lodge of England .

In June 1914, the University of Glasgow awarded him an honorary doctorate (English honorary degree of LL.D. ).

Namesake for geographical and other objects

The Shackleton crater at the south pole of the moon (image of the Clementine probe from 1994)

For a complete listing of Shackleton's names and locations associated with Shackleton, see the Low-Lattitude Antarctic Gazetteer - Series 2 and the website .

Shackleton in poetry and prose

  • The forced march across the mountains südgeorgische away after the physically and mentally grueling ride in the lifeboat as part of the Endurance expedition inspired the American-British poet TS Eliot to a stanza of his poem The Waste Land (in German: The Waste Land ):

"Who is the third who walks always beside you?
“Who is the third person who always walks next to you?
When I count, there are only you and I together
When I count, it's just you and me together.
But when I look ahead up the white road But when I look ahead
along the white road,
There is always another one walking beside you
, there is still someone else walking
next to you,
Gliding wrapt in a brown mantle, hooded
gliding, in a brown coat wrapped, muffled.
I do not know Whether a man or a woman
I do not know whether man or woman
- But who is did on the other side of you "?
- But who is the one who goes to your other side? "

The reason for this passage of the poem was Shackleton's story that both he and his two companions had repeatedly had the feeling of being accompanied by a fourth being during the forced march over the snow-covered mountain ridge of South Georgia. The Canadian author John G. Geiger describes this phenomenon based on Eliot's depiction of an imaginary third person as a third man factor , which others, such as mountaineers Frank Smythe and Reinhold Messner , also experienced in extreme situations.
  • The novel The Woman Thou Gavest Me by the British author Hall Caine (1853-1931) from 1913 is a fictional biography that is heavily based on the life story of Shackleton up to the Nimrod expedition. Caine's protagonist Martin Conrad , after taking part in a boat trip, organizes his own expedition to Antarctica to conquer the South Pole.
  • Shortly after Shackleton's death in 1922, the novel Spinster of this Parish by the British author WB Maxwell (1866-1938) was published. With this book Maxwell denied any allusion to Shackleton. The character traits of his main character, the polar explorer Anthony Dyke , and various chapters of his fictional life story (e.g. the crossing of the Antarctic continent and the dispute with a rival polar explorer) are very similar to Shackleton. Aided by Shackleton's death, the book was a success. In 1922 alone it appeared in five editions, followed by a popular edition in 1923 and further editions in the following years.
  • Shackleton admired the great British poets of the 19th century such as Alfred Tennyson , John Keats and especially Robert Browning , from whose works he liked to recite in public lectures or whose verses can be found in his expedition reports. He also tried his hand at poetry. Examples of this are the poems Erebus and Aurora Australis , which he wrote in the winter quarters of the Nimrod expedition .


  • Like other polar explorers, Shackleton received nicknames and used pseudonyms . As the leader of the expedition, his subordinates respectfully called him “The Boss”. Frank Wild and other friends also called him "Shackles" or "Shackle". Less common are the titles "Old Cautious", which he was given during the endurance expedition because of his supposedly overly cautious behavior, and "Nemo", Shackleton himself as a pseudonym based on the main character of the novel 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea by Jules Verne used. From the extensive correspondence with his wife Emily, the nicknames "Emicky", "Micky", "Mikeberry" and "Mikleham" are known, whose origins lie in Shackleton's Irish ancestry.
  • Shackleton is the only polar explorer to have set a southerly record twice ( Discovery expedition , December 30, 1902, together with Robert Falcon Scott and Edward Wilson : 82 ° 17′S (more like 82 ° 11′S according to recent calculations) and Nimrod expedition , January 9, 1909, together with Frank Wild , Jameson Adams and Eric Marshall : 88 ° 23′S).
  • In July 1909 Shackleton was honored to be exhibited as a wax figure at Madame Tussauds .
  • For his lecture tour through Germany and Austria following the Nimrod expedition from January 1910, Shackleton learned the German language specifically . One reporter wrote: "His pronunciation was so good that it is difficult to believe that he [Shackleton] only recently became familiar with the language."
  • In the period from his marriage until his death, Shackleton and his family moved no fewer than six times. When he started working for the Royal Scottish Geographical Society (RSGS), they lived in Edinburgh and most recently in a house in Kensington . The Mainsail Haul house in Sheringham , which they moved into in 1910, was owned in 1919 by the composer Ralph Vaughan Williams , who created the music for the film Scott's Last Voyage (1948).
  • On June 18, 1912, Shackleton was heard as an expert on navigating in polar waters by the Commission to Investigate the Sinking of the Titanic , headed by Rufus Isaacs and Robert Finlay .
  • Shackleton is said to have had several extramarital affairs. A temporary love affair with the American actress Rosalind Chetwynd († 1922) is documented.
  • Shackleton had a tendency to be superstitious. The number 9 marked recurring important stages in his life. On April 9, 1904, he married his wife, Emily, and on January 9, 1909, Shackleton reached its highest southern latitude during the Nimrod expedition. On July 9, 1913, he was the best man at the wedding of his friend Philip Brocklehurst . A silver version of the number 9 was affixed to Shackleton's cabin door on the Quest expedition ship. The nine-armed star became his personal emblem, which is also immortalized on his tombstone. Finally, after several months of serious illness, Emily Shackleton died on June 9, 1936.
  • Shackleton's grave was initially decorated with a simple wooden cross, which was replaced by a granite stele in 1928 . On the back of the stele is a verse from Robert Browning's poem The Statue and the Bust : "I hold ... that a man should strive to the uttermost for life's set price" strive to the utmost in life ”).
  • The first to climb Mount Everest , Sir Edmund Hillary , counted Ernest Shackleton among his role models.
  • Shackleton has been portrayed several times in television films and series, for example by David Schofield in the film Shackleton (1982) or by James Aubrey in the episode Poles Apart of the British TV series Last Place on Earth (1985). Best known is certainly Kenneth Branagh in the award-winning, multi-part series Ernest Shackleton ( Shackleton , 2002), directed by Charles Sturridge .
  • The Hamburg multi-instrumentalist Frank Bossert released the concept album Shackleton’s Voyage under the project name Eureka in 2009 , which is a musical reminiscence of the endurance expedition.
  • Four years after the discovery of the hut built during the Nimrod expedition on Ross Island , employees of the New Zealand Antarctic Heritage Trust recovered five boxes of whiskey and cognac that had been buried under it since 1909. A bottle of the so-called Shackleton whiskey with a collector's value of approx. 200,000 US dollars was used as a counterfeit item in an episode of the US television series White Collar .
  • In 2014 the illustrator William Grill published his first children's book Shackleton's Journey. On the occasion of the German edition in the following year, the detailed picture book said it was “hard work from the archive”, Grill ticked off the expedition story “point by point, as if he were stubbornly following the logbook”.

Quotes from and about Shackleton

“Sir Ernest Shackleton failed in his [sic!] Two Antarctic expeditions with the aim, but in his failure he had a greater success than if he had achieved his aims. I consider him the greatest of all Antarctic leaders. "

- Russell Owen (1898-1952) : The Antarctic Ocean , p. 195 .

“To be a great leader, it is not enough to have a strong will [or] being an example of extreme perseverance. Ultimately, it was Shackleton's ability to inspire that made him the greatest leader in all of Antarctica's history. "

- Margery (1913-1992) and James Fisher (1912-1970) : Shackleton. P. 220.

“Shackleton had a remarkable ability to make correct and quick decisions that averted disaster, and his greatness as a researcher can be attributed to this instinct. The success of his expeditions was close to his heart, but the safety and health of those who served under him came first; and the fact that he lost none of his men can be considered the most wonderful of his deeds and his greatest triumph. "

- J. Gordon Hayes (1877-1936) : The Conquest of the South Pole. P. 55.

"The name of Sir Ernest Shackleton is written in letters of fire for all time in the annals of Antarctic exploration."

- Roald Amundsen (1872–1928) : The South Pole Vol. II , p. 114 .

“For Shackleton, the National Antarctic Expedition was an opportunity and nothing else. [...] He was neither particularly fond of polar regions, nor did he have an outstanding research spirit. "

- Hugh Robert Mill (1861-1950) : The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , p. 57 .

"For science, give me Scott, for speed and efficiency give me Amundsen, but when disaster strikes and things are desperate, fall on your knees and plead for Shackleton."

- Edmund Hillary (1919–2008) : in Antje Strubel : Ice Story. Shackleton's battle in Antarctica

“You have to decide whether you want to be a scientist or a successful expedition leader. Both are not possible at the same time. "

- Ernest Shackleton (1874–1922) : in Beau Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 409

"Superhuman efforts are worth a damn as long as they don't lead to results."

- Ernest Shackleton (1874-1922) : in Elizabeth Knowles (ed.): Oxford Dictionary of Quotation. P. 647.

"Difficulties are ultimately just things that have to be overcome."

- Ernest Shackleton (1874-1922) : The Heart of the Antarctic , p. 189 .

“Men wanted for dangerous journeys. Low wages, bitter cold, long months of complete darkness, constant danger, safe return uncertain. Honor and recognition in the event of success. "

- Ernest Shackleton (1874–1922) : in Julian Watkins, The 100 Greatest Advertisements , p. 1

Literature cited

Shackleton Biographies

  • Margery and James Fisher: Shackleton . James Barrie Books, London 1957.
  • Roland Huntford : Shackleton . Hodder & Stoughton, London 1985, ISBN 0-340-25007-0 .
  • Hugh Robert Mill: The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton . William Heinemann, London 1923 ( [accessed September 10, 2009]).

Contemporary complementary works

  • Roald Amundsen : The South Pole . tape 2 . John Murray, London 1912 ( Vol. II [accessed November 15, 2010]).
  • Apsley Cherry-Garrard : The worst Journey in the World, Volume 1 . Constable & Co., London 1922 (worstjourneyinwo01cher [accessed January 6, 2010]).
  • J. Gordon Hayes: The Conquest of the South Pole . Thornton Butterworth, London 1932.
  • Frank Hurley: Shackleton's Argonauts . Angus and Robertson, Sydney 1948.
  • Clements Markham : The Lands of Silence . University Press, Cambridge 1921 ( [accessed January 4, 2020]).
  • James Marr : Into the Frozen South . Cassell & Co., London 1923 ( [accessed November 25, 2010]).
  • Douglas Mawson : The Home of the Blizzard, Vol. I . William Heinemann, London 1915 ( [accessed May 26, 2010]).
  • Russell Owen : The Antarctic Ocean . Whittlesey House, New York 1941 ( [accessed November 11, 2010]).
  • Robert Falcon Scott : The Voyage of the Discovery, Vol. II . Macmillan, London 1905 ( [accessed September 11, 2009]).
  • Ernest Shackleton et al: The Antarctic Book . William Heinemann, London 1909 ( [accessed November 25, 2010]).
  • Ernest Shackleton: The Heart of the Antarctic . William Heinemann, London 1910 ( [accessed September 11, 2009]).
  • Ernest Shackleton: South . Macmillan, New York 1920 ( [accessed January 4, 2010]).
  • Frank Wild: Shackleton's Last Voyage . Cassell & Co., London 1923 ( [accessed January 14, 2010]).
  • Edward Adrian Wilson : Diary of the Discovery Expedition . Blandford Press, London 1975, ISBN 0-7137-0431-4 .
  • Frank Worsley : Shackleton's Boat Journey . Pimlico, London 1999, ISBN 0-7126-6574-9 .
  • Manuscript collection from the Scott Polar Research Institute ( acronym : SPRI MS), University of Cambridge.

Modern complementary works

  • Caroline Alexander: Endurance . Bloomsbury Publishing, London 1998, ISBN 0-7475-4123-X .
  • Stephanie Barczewski: Antarctic Destinies . Hambledon Continuum, London 2007, ISBN 978-1-84725-192-3 .
  • David Crane: Scott of the Antarctic . Harper Collins, London 2005, ISBN 0-00-715068-7 .
  • Ranulph Fiennes : Captain Scott . Hodder & Stoughton, London 2003, ISBN 0-340-82697-5 .
  • Kim Heacox: Shackleton - The Antarctic Challenge . National Geographic, Washington DC 1999, ISBN 0-7922-7536-5 .
  • Max Jones: The Last Great Quest . Oxford University Press, Oxford 2003, ISBN 0-19-280483-9 .
  • Elizabeth Cody Kimmel: Ice Story - Shackleton's Lost Expedition . Clarion Books, New York 1999, ISBN 0-395-91524-4 .
  • Elizabeth Knowles (Ed.): Oxford Dictionary of Quotations . Oxford University Press, Oxford 2009, ISBN 0-19-923717-4 .
  • Leif Mills: Frank Wild . Caedmon of Whitby, Whitby 1999, ISBN 0-905355-48-2 .
  • Shane Murphy among others: With the Endurance to the Antarctic: Shackleton's South Pole Expedition 1914–1917; the legendary photos by Frank Hurley / [from the English by Gertrude Wilhelm] . DuMont, Cologne 2001, ISBN 3-7701-5870-9 .
  • Diana Preston: A First Rate Trategy . Constable & Co., London 1997, ISBN 0-09-479530-4 ( [accessed February 25, 2011]).
  • Beau Riffenburgh: Nimrod . Berlin Verlag, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-8270-0530-2 .
  • Ann Savors: The Voyages of the Discovery . Catham Publishing, London 2001, ISBN 1-86176-149-X .
  • Kelly Tyler-Lewis: The Lost Men . Bloomsbury Publishing, London 2006, ISBN 978-0-7475-8414-8 .
  • Julian Watkins: The 100 Greatest Advertisements . Dover Publications, Mineola 1959, ISBN 978-0-486-20540-3 ( [accessed November 16, 2010]).
  • David M. Wilson: Nimrod Illustrated . Reardon Publishing, Cheltenham 2009, ISBN 1-873877-90-0 .

Web links

Commons : Ernest Shackleton  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , title page.
  2. ^ A b "Ernest Shackleton dies on antarctic trip" , The New York Times, January 30, 1922, p. 4 (accessed October 25, 2011).
  3. a b Tyler-Lewis: The Lost Men. P. 12: According to the assessment of John King Davis , participant in Shackleton's Nimrod expedition and in later years one of the most important navigators in Antarctic research, this is the era given its technical inadequacies rather, it is about the “ Stone Age of polar research trips”; quoted from John King Davis, High Latitude. University Press, Melbourne 1962, p. 101.
  4. Photo from Kilkea House ( Memento of February 4, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed June 23, 2010)
  5. Ernest Shackleton and his siblings ( Memento from February 6, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (photo from approx. 1890): (from left to right) Kathleen (1884–1961), Ethel (1878–1935), Clara (1881–1958), Frank (1876–1941), Amy (1875–1953), Ernest, Eleanor (1879–1960), Alice (1872–1938), Gladys (1887–1962) and Helen (1882–1962) (accessed July 30, 2010) .
  6. ^ Photo of Shackleton's parents ( February 6, 2012 memento in the Internet Archive ) (accessed June 24, 2010).
  7. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 38.
  8. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 36.
  9. ^ Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , p. 4.
  10. ^ Photo by Francis "Frank" Shackleton ( Memento from February 10, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed June 24, 2010)
  11. Huntford, Shackleton , pp. 227-228.
  12. a b Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , p. 8.
  13. Fisher: Shackleton. P. 1.
  14. Huntford, Shackleton , pp. 6-9.
  15. ^ Kimmel, Ice Story , pp. 4-5.
  16. ^ Charles Francis Hall: Life with the Esquimaux . Low, Son & Marston, London 1864, Vol. I and Vol. II (accessed January 7, 2010).
  17. a b Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 44.
  18. Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , p. 23.
  19. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 37.
  20. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 43.
  21. ^ Huntford, Shackleton , p. 6.
  22. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 45. Original document cited: Mrs. JQ Rowett in conversation with author James Fisher (1912–1970), SPRI MS 1456/75.
  23. ^ Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , p. 24.
  24. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 46.
  25. Photo of the Hoghton Tower ( Memento from January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed on June 23, 2010)
  26. ^ Huntford, Shackleton , p. 11.
  27. Huntford, Shackleton , pp. 13-18.
  28. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 49.
  29. ^ Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , p. 43.
  30. ^ Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , pp. 45-48.
  31. ^ Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink , information on (accessed January 13, 2010). Borchgrevink could not finally assert this claim. Presumably, the Antarctic mainland was already set foot on the first time by John Davis or Edward Bransfield .
  32. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 57.
  33. Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , pp. 49-50.
  34. Photo of Tantallon Castle (accessed June 23, 2010)
  35. Huntford, Shackleton , pp. 20-23.
  36. ^ Photo of Tintagel Castle (accessed June 23, 2010)
  37. Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , p. 54. The book in question was the work OHMS An illustrated record of the voyage of SS> Tintagel Castle < .
  38. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 76. Original document cited: JA Hussey in a letter to Hugh Robert Mill dated July 27, 1922, SPRI MS 100/49 / 1-5.
  39. Huntford, Shackleton , pp. 25-30.
  40. ^ Huntford, Shackleton , p. 42.
  41. London Gazette . No. 27322, HMSO, London, June 11, 1901, p. 3926 ( PDF , English).
  42. Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton pp. 54-55. His last trips in the service of the merchant navy Shackleton made each as third officer in October 1900 on board the Gaika and in January 1901 on the Carisbrooke Castle .
  43. Fisher: Shackleton. Pp. 19-20.
  44. ^ Savors, The Voyages of the Discovery , p. 9.
  45. ^ Fiennes, Captain Scott , p. 35.
  46. ^ Crane, Scott of the Antarctic , pp. 171-172.
  47. Fisher: Shackleton. P. 23.
  48. ^ Wilson, Diary of the Discovery Expedition , p. 111.
  49. ^ Wilson, Diary of the Discovery Expedition , pp. 115-118.
  50. ^ Fiennes, Captain Scott , p. 78.
  51. ^ Huntford, Shackleton , p. 76.
  52. ^ Fiennes, Captain Scott , p. 83.
  53. Wilson, Nimrod Illustrated , p. 9. Scott had specified a geographical latitude of at least 85 ° S as a destination.
  54. Fisher: Shackleton. P. 58.
  55. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 117: "There has not been such a bad choice since Richard Francis Burton set out for Lake Tanganyika with John Hanning Speke ."
  56. ^ Scott, The Voyage of the Discovery , Vol. 2, p. 93.
  57. ^ Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , 153.
  58. ^ Crane, Scott of the Antarctic , pp. 214-215. New calculations based on Shackleton's photographs and Wilson's drawings indicated that they may have only reached 82 ° 11 ′.
  59. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 110.
  60. ^ Crane, Scott of the Antarctic , p. 205.
  61. ^ Preston, A First Rate Tragedy , pp. 65-66.
  62. Huntford, Shackleton , pp. 143-144.
  63. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. S. 156. Original document cited: SPRI MS 232/2.
  64. ^ Scott, The Voyage of the Discovery , Vol. 2, pp. 127-128.
  65. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 105.
  66. Huntford, Shackleton , pp. 114-118.
  67. Preston, A first rate Tragedy , 1997, p. 68:prospensity to argue and to resist authority
  68. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 118. Original document cited: Louis Bernacchi , diary entry of November 6, 1902, SPRI MS 353/3.
  69. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 123: According to Albert Armitage (note to Hugh Robert Mill dated May 24, 1924) Shackleton confided to him that Scott had called him an "idiot" one morning. Shackleton replied: “Well, you are the stupidest idiot of all, and every time you dare to speak to me like that, you get it back.” Originally cited document: SPRI MS 367/1.
  70. Preston, A First Rate Tragedy , p. 68. Original document cited: Albert Armitage in a note to Hugh Robert Mill dated May 24, 1924, SPRI MS 367/1.
  71. ^ Scott, The Voyage of the Discovery , Volume 2, pp. 85 and 90.
  72. ^ Crane, Scott of the Antarctic , p. 310.
  73. Huntford, Shackleton , pp. 143-144.
  74. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 126. Original document cited: Charles Reginald Ford in a letter to the author Margery Fisher (1913–1992) dated January 12, 1956, SPRI MS 1456/78.
  75. Fisher: Shackleton. Pp. 78-80.
  76. ^ Huntford: Shackleton. Pp. 119-120.
  77. a b Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 130.
  78. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 131.
  79. Mill: The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton. P. 84.
  80. a b Fisher: Shackleton. P. 26: Shackleton and Mill got to know and appreciate each other on the Discovery Expedition. Mill supported the preparatory work for the scientific program of the expedition as an oceanographer and meteorologist and instructed Shackleton in the study of seawater. When the Discovery reached Madeira, Mill's task was done and he returned to England.
  81. ^ Huntford: Shackleton. Pp. 124-128.
  82. Mill: The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton. P. 87 , p. 91 and p. 93.
  83. Fisher: Shackleton. Pp. 97-98.
  84. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. Pp. 136-142.
  85. Fisher: Shackleton. P. 99.
  86. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 143.
  87. a b c d e f Conversion using template: inflation and template: exchange rate .
  88. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. Pp. 148-149.
  89. Mill: The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton. P. 105.
  90. ^ Ernest Shackleton (1907): A new british antarctic expedition. Geographical Journal 29 (3), pp. 329-333 (accessed February 17, 2011).
  91. Crane, Scott of the Antarctic , pp. 392–393: Scott himself described the work of his chief geographer Charles Royds (1876–1931) as "awful and sloppy".
  92. The results of the zoological research were compiled in the following work: James Murray: Reports of the Scientific Investigations - British Antarctic Expedition 1907–9 , William Heinemann, London 1910, Vol. I and Vol. II.
  93. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. Pp. 175-176.
  94. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 144.
  95. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. S. 161. Original document cited: Letter from Ernest Shackleton to Robert Falcon Scott dated May 17, 1907, SPRI MS 1537/2/15/21.
  96. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 197.
  97. ^ Shackleton, The Heart of the Antarctic , p. 47.
  98. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 210. Original document cited: Arthur Harbord in conversation with James Fisher on June 9, 1956, SPRI MS 1456/70.
  99. Huntford, Shackleton , p. 304. Quoted from a letter dated March 28, 1908, from Robert Falcon Scott to John Scott Keltie (1840-1927), chief geographer of the RGS.
  100. Shackleton, The Heart of the Antarctic , pp. 52-56.
  101. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 248. Original document cited: Philip Brocklehurst in conversation with James Fisher on December 16, 1955, SPRI MS 1456/95.
  102. Mills, Frank Wild , p. 72.
  103. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. Pp. 306-307. Original document cited: Entry in Ernest Shackleton's expedition diary of January 9, 1909, SPRI MS 1537/3/6.
  104. Mills, Frank Wild , pp. 82-90.
  105. Markham, The Lands of Silence , p. 479 : In Markham's opinion, Shackleton's calculated need for food was a priori "undoubtedly insufficient in quantity."
  106. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 336. Original document cited: Entry in Frank Wild's expedition diary of January 31, 1909, SPRI MS 944/1.
  107. Riffenburgh, Nimrod, pp. 233-238.
  108. ^ Riffenburgh, Nimrod , p. 321. Original document cited: Tannat William Edgeworth David, Narrative , in Ernest Henry Shackleton's The Heart of the Antarctic , pp. 309-311.
  109. ^ Huntford, Shackleton , p. 300.
  110. Fisher: Shackleton. P. 272.
  111. London Gazette . No. 28321, HMSO, London, December 24, 1909, p. 9763 ( PDF , accessed October 1, 2013, English).
  112. ^ Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , p. 168.
  113. Fisher: Shackleton. P. 251. Quoted from the letter from John Scott Keltie to Cuthbert Bayes (maker of the medal) of April 19, 1909.
  114. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 379.
  115. ^ Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , p. 161.
  116. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 395. Original document cited: Letter from Roald Amundsen to John Scott Keltie of March 25, 1909, SPRI MS 1456/16.
  117. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 376.
  118. Huntford, Shackleton , pp. 298-299.
  119. Huntford, Shackleton , pp. 314-315.
  120. Huntford, Shackleton , pp. 351-352.
  121. ^ Huntford, Shackleton , p. 312.
  122. ^ Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , p. 184.
  123. Fisher: Shackleton. P. 282: On June 6, 1910, the Toronto Star reported an expedition by Shackleton together with the Canadian Governor General Albert Gray to explore Hudson Bay .
  124. ^ Riffenburgh: Nimrod. P. 393.
  125. ^ Mawson, The Home of the Blizzard , Volume 1, pp. Xv.
  126. Fisher: Shackleton. P. 278–279: On board the RMS Lusitania on the way to New York, Shackleton expressed to reporters in March 1910 the hope of being able to start another expedition as early as 1911.
  127. ^ Huntford, Shackleton , p. 367.
  128. ^ Shackleton, South , pp. Vii.
  129. ^ David Sanderson, Nicholas May: How a letter to The Times helped launch Shackleton's ill-fated Antarctic expedition. in: The Times of December 29, 1913, p. 6 (accessed December 21, 2010): “I have taken the liberty of naming the expedition 'The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition' because I feel that it is not alone the people of these [British] Isles, but rather our relatives in all countries under the Union Jack are ready to support the implementation of the entire research program to which my comrades and I are committed. "
  130. ^ Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , 195.
  131. Shackleton, South , pp. Vii-xv.
  132. Huntford, Shackleton , pp. 375-377.
  133. ^ Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , 198.
  134. Fisher: Shackleton. Pp. 306 and 316: The Daily Mail , in its January 10, 1920 issue, put the total cost at around £ 80,000 (around 3.93 million euros when adjusted for inflation). Mackintosh was forced to attract more investors in Australia in order to equip the expedition ship Aurora .
  135. Fisher: Shackleton. P. 308.
  136. ^ Huntford, Shackleton , p. 386.
  137. Fisher: Shackleton. P. 312.
  138. Alexander, Endurance , p. 16.
  139. Shackleton, South , p. Xiv . Shackleton received a telegram from the Admiralty just an hour after his offer with one word: "Carry on."
  140. Fisher: Shackleton. Pp. 324-325.
  141. Shackleton, South , pp. 29-30.
  142. ^ Shackleton, South , p. 36.
  143. Shackleton, South , pp. 63-66.
  144. Shackleton, South , p. 74.
  145. Shackleton, South , pp. 75-76.
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  147. ^ Shackleton, South , p. 95.
  148. ^ Shackleton, South , p. 107.
  149. Fisher: Shackleton. P. 366.
  150. Shackleton, South , pp. 122-123.
  151. Hurley, Shackleton's Argonauts , p. 103.
  152. Heacox, Shackleton - The Antarctic Challenge , S. 136th
  153. Murphy et al., With the Endurance in the Antarctic , pp. 196–197: Shackleton titled this photo in his book South with “All safe! All well! ”(See p. 242 ). As it turned out, however, Frank Hurley had altered this nitrocellulose recording to show the August 30, 1916 rescue. In reality, the photo was taken on Easter Sunday (April 24, 1916) when the James Caird departed.
  154. Shackleton, South , pp. 158-160.
  155. Huntford, Shackleton , pp. 475-476 and p. 656.
  156. Shackleton, South , pp. 164-165. : Exact composition of the meals.
  157. Alexander, Endurance , p. 137.
  158. ^ Mill, The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton , p. 226.
  159. ^ Huntford, Shackleton , p. 574.
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  161. ^ Worsley, Shackleton's Boat Journey , pp. 211-212.
  162. Fisher: Shackleton. P. 386.
  163. Murphy et al., With the Endurance in the Antarctic , p. 209: Perce Blackborow (1896–1949) lay with frozen toes in the refuge. Frank Hurley, who took this photo on May 10, 1916, called it "the most colorful and neglected collection ever projected onto a panel."
  164. Alexander, Endurance , pp. 166-169 and pp. 182-195.
  165. Huntford, Shackleton , pp. 634-641.
  166. Alexander, Endurance , p. 192
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  172. ^ Frank Worsley: Endurance. An Epic of Polar Adventure . Geoffrey Bles, London 1939, p. 230 ff. (English)
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  181. ^ Wild, Shackleton's Last Voyage , p. 65.
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  188. P2002 / 28/908 , photo of Shackleton's coffin laid out. Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) (accessed February 19, 2010).
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  191. ^ Jones, The Last Great Quest , pp. 295-296.
  192. Fisher: Shackleton. Pp. 481 (photo), 486-487. Lutyen's design was implemented as a bronze statue by the English sculptor Charles Jagger (1885–1934). Originally, Shackleton's statue was to be erected free-standing on a pedestal as a memorial. However, since no suitable location could be found in London, the offer of the Royal Geographical Society was accepted to place the statue in a facade niche at the main building of the society.
  193. Barczewski, Antarctic Destinies , p. 209.
  194. The book was published in German-speaking countries under the title 635 Days in Ice: The Shackleton Expedition , Goldmann Verlag, Munich 2000.
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  197. Barczewski, Antarctic Destinies , p. 283.
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  199. a b Barczewski, Antarctic Destinies , pp. 294-295.
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  218. Shackleton Inlet , topographic map on the United States Geological Survey website (accessed March 18, 2010). The inlet (top right on the map) marks the mouth of the Nimrod Glacier into the Ross Ice Shelf .
  219. Mount Shackleton , photo of the mountain on the James Caird Society website (accessed March 18, 2010).
  220. Mount Shackleton (in the background) in British Columbia, Canada (accessed June 17, 2010).
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  223. ^ Mawson, The Home of the Blizzard , Volume 1, pp. 243-244.
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  228. Geographical Objects Named After Ernest Shackleton , information on (accessed October 6, 2011).
  229. ^ TS Eliot, The Waste Land , lines 359-365, (accessed May 20, 2010).
  230. ^ Shackleton, South , p. 211.
  231. National Public Radio : Guardian Angels Or The 'Third Man Factor'? Article from September 13, 2009 (English). Retrieved July 16, 2020.
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  233. ^ WB Maxwell, Spinster of this Parish , Gosset & Dunlap, New York 1922 (accessed November 24, 2010).
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  237. ^ Marr, Into the Frozen South , "Publisher's Note."
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  245. The Cherry Tree 2/2006 pp. 2–3 (accessed on August 6, 2015).
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  247. Emily Shackleton's grave in Coldwaltham, West Sussex (accessed June 29, 2010).
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  249. ^ Back of Shackleton's tombstone (accessed June 28, 2011).
  250. "From beekeeper to world explorer" ( Memento of 27 August 2008 at the Internet Archive ) (accessed on 11 January 2011), Interview with Sir Edmund Hillary of 16 November 1991, San Francisco.
  251. Ernest Shackleton in the Internet Movie Database (English) Template: IMDb / Maintenance / Unnecessary use of parameter 2.
  252. Frank Bossert: EUREKA ( memento of December 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed on January 15, 2010).
  253. Shackleton loved whiskey ( memento October 5, 2010 on the Internet Archive ) . In: Polar News of December 22, 2009 (accessed August 30, 2010).
  254. Ernest Shackleton's whiskey discovered in Antarctica . In: Welt Online from April 6, 2010 (accessed on August 16, 2010).
  255. Freddy Langer: "Shackleton's Journey" for Children: A Story of Failure and Victory. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, February 5, 2016, accessed January 5, 2022 .
  256. Ice Story. Shackleton's battle in Antarctica. In: Deutschlandfunk . January 23, 2001. Retrieved April 29, 2019 .
  257. The Antarctic Circle : The exact source of what is perhaps the most famous Shackleton quote is unclear. It has repeatedly been claimed that Shackleton placed an ad of the same name in the London Times or another British newspaper in 1912 or 1913 in the run-up to the endurance expedition . This has not yet been proven (accessed on November 16, 2010).