|coat of arms||map|
|Commune number :||5401|
|Province (county) :||Troms and Finnmark|
|Residents:||76,974 (Feb 27, 2020)|
|Population density :||31 inhabitants per km²|
|Language form :||neutral|
|Postal code :||9006-9019|
|Mayor :||Gunnar Wilhelmsen ( Ap ) (2019)|
|Located in the province of Troms and Finnmark|
Tromsø ( ˈtrʊmsø ]; German : Tromsö ; North Sami : Romsa ) is the eighth largest city in Norway and the largest city in the north of the country with 76,974 inhabitants (as of February 27, 2020) . The provincial administration of the Fylke Troms og Finnmark has its seat here as well as the Arctic Council ., [
The most important employer is the University Hospital in Northern Norway (UNN) with around 4,500 employees. Tromsø has a university , the Norwegian Fisheries School , the Framsenteret Climate and Environmental Research Center and the Mack Brewery .
Tromsø is 344 km north of the Arctic Circle as the crow flies . This corresponds to the geographical latitude of northern Alaska . Tromsø is not only home to the northernmost university, but also the northernmost cathedral in the world .
With an administrative urban area of 2,558 km² (of which 1,434 km² on the mainland and 1,124 km² on several islands off the coast), Tromsø is the largest city in Norway.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Tromsø
The annual mean temperature is 2.5 ° C, the lowest temperature recorded so far in the city was −18.4 ° C in 1966. In winter it is rarely colder than −10 ° C, in summer it is rarely warmer than 20 ° C. Due to the foothills of the Gulf Stream , the water temperatures are quite mild for the northern latitudes.
From May 17th to July 24th the sun does not completely set in Tromsø at night, but no sunrise is experienced from November 27th to January 14th. Due to the surrounding mountains, it practically takes until the beginning of February when the sun appears again for the first time. When the sky is clear, it is still light, only the sun is below the horizon. The polar night is only black all day when a thick cloud cover swallows all light. The sun shines an average of 1,250 hours per year.
The average precipitation in the year is 1031 mm, by April usually about one meter of snow accumulates. On April 29, 1997 the record of 2.4 m snow depth was reached. That year, a total of around eight meters of fresh snow was measured at the weather station on the island of Tromsøya .
Archaeological finds show that the region was settled 9,000 years ago. In 1252 the first church in Tromsø was built. A fortress ( Skansen ) was built around this time . In 1789, the city of Bergen's monopoly on trade was lifted and the people of Northern Norway were allowed to trade freely. Tromsø was granted city rights in 1794, and at that time only 80 people lived there.
In 1803 Tromsø became the bishopric of Northern Norway. In 1820 the city sent the first seal-catching ship north. Without eradicating the seal populations, seal fishing became an important industry. The Teachers' College was founded in Tromsø in 1848, and the Tromsø Museum in 1872. The cathedral was built in 1861. In 1874 Carl Weyprecht and Julius von Payer began their expedition to explore the North Sea here. In 1927 the city received an important institution with the Northern Lights Observatory. At the same time, Tromsø served as the starting point for many expeditions to the polar region and especially to the North Pole, led by Roald Amundsen and Fridtjof Nansen , among others .
From May 1940, Tromsø was the capital of Norway for a brief period when Oslo and the southern parts of Norway were occupied before the king and government had to leave the country on June 7th. After that, the city served briefly as a naval base for surface ships of the German navy , u. a. The German battleship Tirpitz was anchored off the island of Kvaløya for a short time , where it was sunk on November 12, 1944 after an attack by British Lancaster bombers and largely scrapped until 1960. Today only an armored plate of the ship as a memorial plaque and a huge bomb crater can be seen on the bank. Even German distress pilots were stationed from August 1942 until the war ended here. Incidentally, the city was largely spared during the war.
In 1960, the Tromsøbrua was the first bridge to connect the center with the mainland; In 1994 a tunnel was added. The university was founded in 1968 and the first students enrolled in 1972. In 2009 the university merged with the Tromsø University of Applied Sciences. In 2009 around 6,800 students from 32 nations studied in the city.
In 1993 the Norwegian Parliament decided to move the Norwegian Polar Research Institute ( Norsk Polarinstitutt ) from Oslo to Tromsø. The institute is located in the Polar Environmental Research Center (Polarmiljøsenteret) , which also houses the Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, the Norwegian Institute for Cultural Research, the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, the Norwegian Cartography Agency, the Geological Institute of Norway, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Agency and the national coastal administration are located or have branches. Tromsø is still one of the most important starting points for expeditions to the polar region.
In 2007 Tromsø was selected by the Norwegian Sports Federation and Olympic Committee to compete for the 2018 Winter Olympics . However, the association finally refused an application in 2008 for cost reasons. Especially with regard to the ecological and social consequences of hosting the Winter Games, this decision was not only criticized in Tromsø.
On January 1, 2020, the former province of Troms , whose administrative seat was Tromsø, was transferred to the province of Troms og Finnmark as part of the regional reform in Norway . Since then, Tromø has been the administrative center of this new province.
The city has a number of sights, most of which are closely related to the subpolar location of the city or nature. While the experience center Polaria over the polar region and the Barents informed the visitor may Polar Museum expeditions Polar inform famous. Some curiosities from the polar world are also exhibited there. The adventure world also includes an arctic aquarium, the attraction of which is bearded seals . The Tromsø Museum , part of the University of Tromsø , has a comprehensive exhibition on the history and culture of the Sami who have lived in the region for thousands of years. It also shows interesting facts about the flora and fauna of Northern Scandinavia.
The most striking modern church in Norway, the Arctic Cathedral (norweg. Ishavskatedralen ), was built in 1965 at the end of the Tromsøbrua in the Tromsdalen district and has the largest glass mosaic window in Europe. Not far from this church is the valley station of the Fjellheisen cable car to the Storstein , Tromsø's local mountain. With its 418 moH, the summit of the mountain offers an impressive view of the city, the fjord and the surrounding island and mountain landscape.
Not a sight in the strict sense of the word, but a special feature of the city is the public road tunnel system that runs through parts of the island below the city.
Tromsø has been fighting for a connection to the railway network for decades. The next rail connection is about 250 km further south in Narvik on the Ofotenbahn . Given the expected volume of traffic and the costs, the request has little prospect of being realized.
The European route 8 begins in Tromsø and connects the island of Tromsøya with the mainland through the Tromsøysund tunnel and continues to Turku on the southwest coast of Finland. The Fylkesvei 862 trunk road runs from Tromsdalen on the mainland over theSandnessundbrua forTromsøya Island, via Tromsøbrua to Kvaløya Island to Brensholmen and then via the Botnhamn – Brensholmen ferry to Senja Island in Berg municipality .
sons and daughters of the town
Tromsø is twinned with:
- Anchorage , Alaska, since 1969
- Arkhangelsk (Russia), since 2011
- Gaza (Palestinian Territories), since 2001
- Kemi (Finland), since 1940
- Luleå (Sweden), since 1950
- Murmansk (Russia), since 1972
- Quetzaltenango (Guatemala), since 1999
- Zagreb (Croatia), since 1971
- Football clubs Tromsø IL and Tromsdalen UIL
- The EISCAT research radar is located near Tromsø .
- Tromso Prelature
- The psychological thriller Death Sleep is set in Tromsø .
- Tromsø has the northernmost symphony and chamber orchestra in Europe.
- The Tromsø Internasjonale Film Festival is the largest in Norway and the northernmost in the world. Its offices are in Verdensteatret , Norway's oldest cinema.
- the 2014 Chess Olympiad took place in Tromsø from August 1st to 14th, 2014.
- Macks Ølbryggeri, the northernmost brewery in the world, was located in Tromsø . Svalbard Bryggeri in Longyearbyen has had this title since 2015 .
- The Norwegian Arctic Philharmonic Orchestra , based in Tromsø, is the northernmost philharmonic orchestra in the world measured by its headquarters .
- Tourist information (English)
- Tromsø: studying in the dark. spiegel.de
- English website of the University of Tromsø
- Pictures from Tromsø
- Tourist Office Norway
- Weather camera
- Statistisk sentralbyrå - Befolkning
- Christoph Seidler: Tromsø: Arctic Council gets home in Norway. In: Spiegel Online . January 22, 2013, accessed January 22, 2013 .
- jst: plans for Arctic railway. In: Eisenbahn-Revue International 11/2017, p. 572.
- timetable 2018/2019 Munich Airport. (PDF) In: Flughafen München GmbH . October 30, 2018, accessed October 31, 2018 .