"Franz Josef Strauss"
|Height above MSL||448 m (1470 ft )|
|Distance from the city center||28.5 km northeast of Munich|
|train||National Airport Express ( ÜFEX )|
S-Bahn : buses
|opening||17th May 1992|
|operator||Munich Airport GmbH|
|Air freight||338,517 t (2019)|
( PAX per year)
|Employees||38,090 (December 31, 2018)|
|08R / 26L||4000 m × 60 m concrete|
|08L / 26R||4000 m × 60 m concrete|
The Munich "Franz Josef Strauss" airport ( IATA : MUC , ICAO : EDDM ) is the international traffic airport of the Bavarian state capital Munich and, with around 48 million passengers (2019) to the ten busiest aviation hubs in Europe. Around 100 airlines connect it to over 200 destinations in around 70 countries. Judging by the number of passengers he finished in 2019 after Frankfurt the second place in Germany and the ninth in Europe . Munich Airport is the only airport in Europe to have received the Skytrax 5-Star Airport award . In a global survey of more than twelve million passengers, Munich Airport was once again voted the best European airport in 2020, for the 13th time in the last 15 years (May 2020). In a global comparison, Munich Airport ranks fifth at the “World Airport Awards 2020”. Among the airports with an annual passenger volume between 40 and 50 million, Munich ranks first in the world.
When it opened in 1992, Munich Airport replaced the former Munich-Riem Airport .
|District||district||Area [ ha ]||%|
Munich Airport has a total area of 1618 ha . At 49 percent, the slightly smaller part of the airport area belongs to the district of Erding (municipality of Oberding ), while the western, slightly larger part belongs to three municipalities in the district of Freising : The south-west belongs to the municipality of Hallbergmoos , and the north-west with the visitor park to the city of Freising. A very small part of the northern border with around 2.8 hectares belongs to the municipality of Marzling . The planned third runway is to be built at a distance of 1180 meters northeast of the existing runway system. This would expand the airport area by around 870 hectares, 500 hectares of which are planned as green space.
The Erdinger Moos was relatively sparsely populated before the airport was built. Still, some residents had to be relocated, especially to make room for the runways. Most of them, namely 400 inhabitants, belonged to the abandoned scattered settlement Franzheim .
The Freising postal code 85356 is assigned to the streets in the place “Munich Airport”; PO boxes have postcodes in the range from 85324 to 85336. The telephone code is 089. Place signs bear the name “Flughafen München”.
The competent court is the Erding District Court , in particular for disputes relating to air passenger rights , insofar as these fall within the substantive jurisdiction of the District Courts. The next higher instance is the Landshut Regional Court .
The journey time from Munich city center to the airport by car or S-Bahn is around 45 minutes.
For private transport , Munich Airport is connected to the federal trunk road network via the A 92 Munich-Deggendorf motorway . The eastern connection mainly consists of the intersection-free state road St 2580, the airport tangent east . The federal highway 301 between Ismaning and the airport has also been upgraded to be free of intersections and, in connection with a short section on the federal highway 471 from the Aschheim / Ismaning exit of the A99, offers an alternative approach from the south.
There are taxi stands in front of Terminal 1 at every module and at the exit from Terminal 2, at the Audi Forum and at the Hilton Munich Airport .
A continuous foot and bike path leads from Freising via the visitor park to the terminal. In the immediate vicinity of Terminal 1, there are weather-protected bike racks. The Isar cycle path can also be easily reached from the airport.
Under the name Lufthansa Express Helikopter, Lufthansa offers an airport transfer via helicopter within a maximum radius of 500 km from Munich Airport. In 2015, the shuttle service under the Lufthansa Express brand was combined with other shuttle offers from the company, which connect air travelers to the area around the airport with a limousine service, among other things.
Local road transport
Numerous public bus connections are available for local road transport to the airport region. It is integrated into the regional traffic of Upper Bavaria with connections to the districts of Freising and Erding . By MVV line 635 it is part of the city bus system of Freising . The cities of Landshut and Moosburg on the Isar are also connected to the airport. There are further connections to the Munich Exhibition Center , Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm , Taufkirchen (Vils) and Wartenberg .
Local rail transport
With the two S-Bahn lines S1 and S8, Munich Airport is connected to the Munich S-Bahn network for local rail passenger transport . During the day, the trains on both lines run every 20 minutes. The two lines run east and west of the Isar over the Munich East – Munich Airport railway and the Munich – Regensburg railway to Munich. They meet on the main S-Bahn line between Laim and Ostbahnhof . Since both lines run in opposite directions to the airport in this area, there are only ten-minute intervals to the airport at the main train station and the east train station . At night the clock is thinned out. Travel time to Munich Central Station is 46 minutes with the S1, 42 minutes with the S8, and 43 and 40 minutes in the opposite direction.
A combination of regional and long-distance transport called Überregionaler Flughafenexpress ( ÜFEX ) from Regio Bayern connects the airport to Regensburg every hour via Freising , Moosburg and Landshut . The journey time between Regensburg and the airport is around one and a quarter hours, and between Landshut and the airport around 30 minutes. The first train leaves Regensburg at 03:18 a.m., the last train in the opposite direction from the airport at 12:28 a.m.
The MVV line 635 also connects the airport with the Freising train station three times an hour . Local trains to Nuremberg and Passau as well as the alex with connections to Weiden, Hof and Pilsen and Prague stop there .
Munich Airport is currently only directly accessible by long - distance bus services . The bus stop for long-distance buses is located north of the main hall of Terminal 2 in the immediate vicinity of the Munich Airport Center. The journey by long-distance bus can sometimes be purchased directly in the booking process for the flight ticket, which means that in the event of a bus delay, a claim for compensation for the possibly missed flight can be guaranteed, provided that appropriate cooperation has been concluded.
The beginning of aviation in Munich
Aviation history in Munich was written at the Oktoberfest in 1820, when Wilhelmine Reichard rose into the air on the Theresienwiese on October 10, 1820 with the help of a hydrogen balloon . Aviation pioneers made their first flight attempts as early as 1910 at the Puchheim airfield to the west of Munich . The flight demonstrations of daredevil pilots attracted thousands of spectators to Puchheim. The aeronauts of the Royal Bavarian Army used the Oberwiesenfeld area for balloon ascents and landings. On April 2, 1909, the first airship of Count Zeppelin landed on the Oberwiesenfeld, the "Reichsmilitary airship SM Zeppelin I", which had successfully completed its first "long-distance journey" from Lake Constance. The Royal Bavarian Air Force was founded here on January 1, 1912, but it was relocated to Oberschleißheim on April 1 of the same year . Bavaria's first air base was built in Oberschleißheim in May 1913. Today Oberschleißheim with the historic Schleissheim airfield is considered the oldest preserved airfield in Germany. Oberschleißheim is used as a special airfield and houses part of the aviation collection of the Deutsches Museum .
Oberwiesenfeld Airport, start of civil aviation
Passenger traffic on the Oberwiesenfeld was born in 1919. The Konstanz aviation pioneer Ernst Schlegel had organized an air passenger service with six old military double-deckers between Constance, Stuttgart, Berlin, Freiburg, Munich and Friedrichshafen with a connection to the Zeppelin traffic. In 1919, Rumpler Luftverkehrs AG also set up its scheduled flight service on the routes Munich - Augsburg and Munich - Nuremberg - Leipzig - Berlin with converted military aircraft. As the second airline operating in Munich, Bayerischer Luft-Lloyd opened the Munich - Konstanz connection in 1921, which was initially served from Schleissheim. Air passengers also took off from Oberwiesenfeld on so-called "recreational and social flights" to the Bavarian mountains and lake areas; the inaugural flight took place on June 24, 1919 with a Rumpler CI. On October 20, 1920, the Rumpler Post and Passenger Air Service was started on the route to Vienna, but the aircraft there were confiscated by the Entente Commission because aircraft were not allowed to be imported. On May 14, 1923, the first scheduled international connection was started on the route from Munich to Vienna, which was operated as part of the Junker “Transeuropean Union” by Österreichische Luftverkehrs AG (ÖLAG) in cooperation with Bayerischer Luft-Lloyd. Junkers Luftverkehr provided the two Junkers F 13 D-219 Stieglitz and D-253 Taube as aircraft . In 1923 Bayerische Luft-Lloyd and Rumpler Luftverkehr were taken over by Junkers Luftverkehr, which also opened an international connection to Zurich. From 1925 he was competing with the Süddeutsche Aero-Lloyd. This company offered flights to Bad Reichenhall (district of Berchtesgadener Land), Berlin, Stuttgart-Mannheim, and later to Innsbruck, Frankfurt, Dortmund and Amsterdam. The airlines could not support themselves and received subsidies from the Reich, the states and municipalities. Under pressure from the Reich, the companies merged to form Süddeutsche Lufthansa in 1926. In 1927 planning began for the expansion of the facilities on Oberwiesenfeld into an airport “I. Order". On May 3, 1931, the inauguration of the airport was celebrated with a major flight day. The number of passengers at Oberwiesenfeld Airport, which in 1932 was around 16,000, more than tripled in the following six years. In 1938, the last complete year of operation of Munich's first commercial airport, a total of 49,156 passengers were counted at Oberwiesenfeld.
When the civil airport on Oberwiesenfeld became too small due to ever larger aircraft, planning began for a new airport that was to be built “far outside the city”. Finally, Riem was chosen as the location . On October 24, 1939, the Munich-Riem Airport, which was spacious for the time and built according to the plans of the architect Ernst Sagebiel , was inaugurated. On October 25, 1939, the first transport plane landed in Riem, a Lufthansa Ju 52, which arrived in Munich from Berlin and then continued its flight to Venice and Rome. After the Second World War, civil air traffic was only resumed on April 6, 1948, when a Pan American DC-3 from London landed in Riem. The last day of operation at Munich-Riem Airport was May 16, 1992. The move to the new Munich Airport took place overnight, which began operations on May 17, 1992 as scheduled.
First plans for a new airport
In 1954, the operating company of Munich-Riem Airport drew up a general expansion plan, the realization of which was that extensive expansion and reconstruction of the airport was inappropriate, as the airport was already too densely populated with only ten kilometers from the city center. As a result of the plane crash on December 17, 1960 , in which an airplane crashed on a fully occupied tram on the corner of Bayerstrasse and Martin-Greif-Strasse in downtown Munich, killing 52 people, demand was again made for a new airport “far from the city " to build.
Soon there were various site proposals, but they were very controversial and, above all, not yet professionally investigated. In March 1963 the Free State of Bavaria and the City of Munich founded the Munich Airport Site Commission , also known as the Oechsle Commission for short , after the chairman and former Bavarian Labor Minister Richard Oechsle , to find a suitable location. By 1964, twenty possible locations had been found that met some cornerstones such as a flat area, about half an hour's reach from Munich as well as suitable soil conditions and settlement. The space requirement was estimated at up to 1500 hectares.
After sorting out some places, five locations remained: Mammendorf , Sulzemoos , Erdinger Moos, Hörlkofener Forest and Hofoldinger Forest . These were reduced to Mammendorf and the Erdinger Moos for the final report, which was published in August 1964. Although the Hofolding site had several disadvantages - a particularly serious intervention in the flora and fauna would have been necessary there - it remained in the running due to the spacious area and the infrastructural connection. The current location in Erdinger Moos was deleted because there was no clarity about the conditions there and the Erding air base was also located there. Mammendorf was considered unrealistic because of the dense settlement there, although the airport would have had an ideal infrastructural connection there. However, since the Oechsle Commission did not make a clear judgment, a Munich Airport working group was set up in October 1965 . Here the Sulzemoos location was ruled out, the reasons being the nearby Fürstenfeldbruck airfield , where military flight operations would have been disrupted, and the unfavorable geological conditions. The Hörlkofen location was also ruled out because it would have been in the area between Munich and Mühldorf , which is important in terms of urban development policy , which inevitably would have led to a situation similar to that in Riem. Ultimately, in July 1966, the working group recommended the location in the Hofoldinger Forest with the arguments that the catchment area, the air traffic control situation , the shape of the terrain and the ownership structure there should be assessed favorably. As a result, the Bavarian Council of Ministers decided to initiate a spatial planning procedure for this area .
In the meantime, however, the Federal Ministry of Defense had decided to close the Erding site if the major airport in Erdinger Moos was to be realized. The site proposal was therefore taken up again and integrated into the regional planning process in 1967. In July 1969, a binding decision was made to build the airport in Erdinger Moos. The reasons for this were the spatial planning and general state planning . The Bavarian Council of Ministers, under the leadership of the then Bavarian Prime Minister Alfons Goppel , finally decided on August 5, 1969 to start planning the construction of the airport immediately.
Concrete planning and litigation
Decision of principle
As early as 1969, the airport operating company, Flughafen München GmbH, applied for air traffic approval for the planned airport. This was granted by the Bavarian State Ministry for Economic Affairs and Transport on May 9, 1974 (No. 8421b-VII / 8c3-29185). Approval was given for the facility and the operation of a commercial airport with four parallel runways, two of which are main runways with a length of 4000 m and a width of 60 m and two secondary runways with a length of 2500 m and a width of 45 m. Other key data included, for example, the so-called 62 dB (A) line , which stipulates that within this limit line, the continuous sound level must not exceed 62 dB (A) at any place or day. However, even during the approval process, the surrounding municipalities opposed the state government's plan and tried to implement a new regional planning procedure, as the previous one was not a "formal" one. This claim was rejected by the Bavarian Administrative Court. Since no appeal was allowed against this decision, an action was taken before the Federal Administrative Court; the lawsuit was dismissed on February 21, 1973. Citing the right to self-government, the municipalities again challenged the approval, but initially unsuccessfully, as the administrative court dismissed the claims. Now the appeal was successful, which only lasted for a short time, until the Federal Administrative Court found the lawsuit unfounded, since the municipalities were to be involved in the aviation law approval process, but no right could be derived from this to force the factual review of the approval.
After approval, FMG applied for on 7 June 1974 planning approval . This was followed by the plan approval procedure with 249 public discussions. On July 8, 1979, the planning approval decision allowed the new construction of the airport with three runways, two of which corresponded to the current runways, 4000 meters long and 2300 meters apart, supplemented in the north by a small runway intended for general aviation were. The request for a fourth runway south of the airport was rejected because the possible number of flight movements of 120 per hour was considered to be oversized. There were 5,724 lawsuits against this planning approval decision. Following a ruling by the Munich Administrative Court, these were reduced to forty “representative model actions”. The Federation of Nature Conservation in Bavaria appealed against this decision to the Federal Constitutional Court , but the lawsuit was not accepted due to poor prospects of success. They then complained again to the court that the court proceedings had not yet been legally concluded due to the lack of processing of all complaints. The Administrative Court dismissed this action on October 31, 1980, but the Administrative Court upheld the complaints against this decision on April 16, 1981, which resulted in the postponement of the planning approval decision and thus a halt to the construction work that had started in November 1980. The more far-reaching lawsuit to dismantle the sections already built was unsuccessful.
In the course of the following considerations and negotiations, FMG gave up the third runway in the north and submitted a plan change application, which resulted in a second plan approval procedure in 1981. After renewed meetings in the first quarter of 1983, at which the plans could be publicly discussed, a plan approval amendment decision followed on June 7, 1984, which, in addition to the already mentioned reduction to a two-lane system, included night flight regulations. However, the causes of these changes were not exclusively the lawsuits, but also the new forecasts for air traffic, which predicted significantly lower growth than originally assumed. These prognoses later turned out to be wrong, as the higher prognoses were also exceeded. In the planning approval decision in 1979, these assumed 9.44 for 1985, 12.01 for 1990, 14.23 for 2000 and 17.60 million passengers per year for 2010. In the 1984 amendment, the government of Upper Bavaria reduced the forecasts to 7.814 for 1990 and 10.769 million passengers in 2000. In fact, 8.043 million passengers were handled in 1985, 11.424 in 1990, 23.126 in 2000 and 33.980 million in 2007.
The construction phase
In March 1985 the Bavarian Administrative Court lifted the construction freeze and construction work continued two months later. The last lawsuits were dismissed in 1986 when the Federal Administrative Court declared the airport's planning to be lawful in December. Construction of the central building as the first building construction measure began in August 1987, Terminal 1 in February 1988. In September 1989 the topping-out ceremony for Terminal 1 took place. In August 1991 the management of FMG moved into the administration building on Nordallee, and in December of the same year the tower was put into operation. The trial operation of airport operations on the ground, such as baggage sorting, check-in and so on, began in February, and the trial flight operation in April 1992.
The opening ceremony took place on May 11, 1992. The “first start” was approved at 1.30 p.m. by the then Bavarian Prime Minister Max Streibl . A prototype of the Airbus A340 called Franz Josef Strauss was launched . On the night of May 16-17, 1992, all flight operations moved relatively smoothly overnight from Munich-Riem Airport to the new airport, after the last scheduled flight in Riem shortly before midnight with the take-off of the Lufthansa Boeing B737 Freising was carried out. The logistics of the move gained worldwide attention, which led to the fact that experts from Munich Airport were often called in for similar projects, for example when moving to Bangkok Airport or Athens-Eleftherios Venizelos Airport . The airport site in Riem was redesigned to become the Messestadt Riem , with the exception of the listed tower and the coat of arms hall.
On June 29, 1992, what was then Deutsche BA operated the airport for the first time . On April 16, 1993, an Airbus A340 was used as scheduled for the first time from Munich, but it only served the short haul to Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport for Air France . On May 6 of the same year, the topping-out ceremony of the Kempinski Hotel Airport Munich took place at the airport, which started operations on April 1, 1994 (since 2015 Hilton Munich Airport ). The aforementioned Deutsche BA, at that time the second largest German scheduled airline after Lufthansa, decided on November 9, 1993 to relocate its headquarters to the airport; it was relocated on March 27 of the next year. In the autumn and winter of 1994, the airport acted as an aviation hub for the first time , and Condor distributed its passengers there. On March 22nd, the decision to build the Munich Airport Center, a building with offices, shops, restaurants and conference rooms, was taken on the first major expansion of the airport. The construction costs were estimated at 220 million DM. With the 1995 summer flight schedule, Lufthansa stationed two Airbus A340s in Munich for the first time. From this year on, she built up a steadily growing long-haul program from Munich. This made Munich the second hub after Frankfurt.
On January 24, 1996, the fifty millionth passenger was welcomed. On October 26, 1996, Concorde visited the airport for the first and only time. In 1997, on May 12, the first capacity expansion building in Terminal 1 was inaugurated with a waiting hall located on the apron. On December 15th, the architectural competition for Terminal 2 was announced and the airport was among the ten largest airports in Europe for the first time (measured by the number of flight movements and passengers). On May 30, 1998, FMG and Lufthansa announced their intention to jointly build and operate the planned Terminal 2 as part of a “Memorandum of Understanding”; In return, it was decided that Terminal 2 should be used exclusively by Lufthansa and its partners. Two months later, the winner of the architectural competition for Terminal 2, the architects' office Koch und Partner from Munich, was also certain. The hundred millionth passenger was processed on November 18, 1998. The first public hydrogen filling station was opened at the airport on May 5, 1999 , and an extension to Terminal 1 with new passenger gates on May 26. The Inter Airport Europe , a trade fair for airport technologies and services at airports worldwide success, was first held in September 1999; The Munich Airport Center was also inaugurated in September .
Structural extension to the air traffic hub
On April 14, 2000, the foundation stone was laid for the 1.6 billion euro Terminal 2 project, the financing of which was shared between Lufthansa (40%) and FMG (60%). The opening took place on June 27, 2003, the first flight took place on June 29, 2003. With Terminal 2, the airport has a capacity of 50 million passengers per year.
After Munich Airport had rapidly developed into an international air traffic hub, the performance of the transport connections to Munich city center should be further improved in view of the growth rates. In order to create an optimal connection between rail and air traffic, the planning for a reliable high-speed maglev was started. The Munich Transrapid was supposed to quickly connect the airport with Munich Central Station . The plan was to travel ten minutes, with the motto “In 10 minutes, every 10 minutes”. In contrast to conventional wheel-rail technology, this was the first time that a highly innovative means of transport was to be used in Germany, which enabled completely contactless hovering at high speeds. The planning approval procedure for the construction of the 37.4 km long route was initiated on February 28, 2005. After controversial political discussions, the project was ultimately abandoned due to ever increasing costs. On March 27, 2008, Federal Transport Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee and Bavaria's Prime Minister Günther Beckstein declared in Berlin that the Transrapid Munich project had failed. Section II of the Transrapid 07, which was used as an information center and stood on the plaza of the Munich Airport Center for almost six years, was removed in May 2008 and sold at the symbolic price of one euro to the Max Bögl company, which had developed the track technology for the Transrapid. Today the train with the “Maglev Guideway Bögl” developed by Max Bögl is set up at the historic Greißelbach station near Neumarkt in the Upper Palatinate ( ).
In July 2005 the shareholders of Flughafen München GmbH decided to initiate a spatial planning procedure for the construction of a third runway in order to increase the airport's capacity from 90 to 120 flight movements per hour. On July 26, 2011, the government of Upper Bavaria issued a planning approval decision for the construction of a third runway at Munich Airport. All lawsuits against the planning approval decision were dismissed, most recently by the Federal Administrative Court. On June 17, 2012, the 3rd runway project was stopped for the time being by a referendum in the city of Munich.
In December 2010, the supervisory bodies of Flughafen München GmbH (FMG) and Deutsche Lufthansa AG decided to jointly expand Terminal 2 with a satellite terminal in order to take into account the passenger growth at Munich Airport. The total construction costs for the satellite amounting to around 900 million euros were shared between FMG and Lufthansa at a ratio of 60 to 40, as was the case with Terminal 2.
In November 2013, Munich Airport presented a completely new corporate design for the first time since it opened . In addition to a new logo and lettering, for example, the website was also redesigned.
In March 2016, Transavia opened a base with four aircraft at the airport, but announced the closure of the base in October 2017 just one year later.
The satellite terminal at Munich Airport went into operation on April 26, 2016. The satellite offers 27 aircraft parking positions close to the building, which passengers can use to get on the aircraft directly and without a bus transfer. With the terminal building, the capacity of Terminal 2 used by Lufthansa and the Star Alliance airline group will increase by a further eleven million to a total of 36 million passengers. The satellite has no direct land-based transport connection. Passengers check in in Terminal 2 and, after checking passengers and hand luggage, take the airport's own subway to the satellite building in just under a minute. The total investment for the satellite terminal, including the extension of the baggage handling system and the apron areas, is around 900 million euros.
In November 2016, plans to renovate and expand modules A and B of Terminal 1 for 400 million euros were announced, increasing the capacity by 6 million passengers per year and the area for sales and catering areas. Once the planning has been completed, construction should begin in 2018 and last at least four years.
Munich Airport has a slot capacity of 90 flight movements per hour and a terminal capacity of around 53 million passengers per year. In terms of infrastructure, Munich Airport is suitable for take-offs and landings of the Airbus A380 ; In February 2004 it was the first airport in Europe to receive approval for the operation of aircraft in the “New Large Aircraft (NLA)” category.
Terminal 1 has an annual capacity of 17 million passengers, Terminal 2 one of 36 million passengers. In Terminal 1, airlines handle a good fifteen million passengers per year in point-to-point traffic , while Terminal 2 handles all hub traffic for Lufthansa and its partners in the Star Alliance .
Munich Airport has two parallel, each 4000 meters long and 60 meters wide concrete runways with a center distance of 2300 meters and a threshold offset of 1500 meters to each other. This means that the two runways can be operated independently of one another according to the regulations of the ICAO.
In order to be prepared for future traffic requirements, the expansion of an additional runway is planned, with which the runway capacity can be increased from the current 90 to 120 movements per hour in the future.
Terminal 1 has a capacity of around 17 million passengers and is divided into five modules A, B, C, D and E over a length of 1,081 meters, with module E only being used for arrivals; modules A and D are designed for Schengen traffic; modules B and C can also handle non-Schengen traffic. In addition, the external Hall F, located between Terminal 1 and 2 north of the Hilton Hotel, belongs to Terminal 1. The general planner of the entire passenger handling area was Hans-Busso von Busse with his partners Heinz Blees, Roland Büch and Niels Kampmann.
Terminal 1 has 21 passenger boarding bridges , two of which have become unusable due to the addition of a waiting hall over the apron. One of the building positions was equipped with a third passenger boarding bridge for use on the upper deck of the Airbus A380 in October 2011 . On the west apron in front of the terminal, there are 60 additional aircraft parking positions, some of which are equipped with apron boarding bridges specially developed for the airport, to which passengers are driven by buses. With this concept, which is so far unique in the world, completely covered transport was possible with little structural investment. The gross floor area of the terminal is 198,000 square meters, that of the apron 600,000 square meters.
The airlines Air France and Emirates each operate their own lounge in Terminal 1. In addition, Munich Airport operates the two lounges "Airport Lounge World" and "Airport Lounge Europe" in this terminal. With a size of 1700 square meters there is also a special wing for VIP
Airlines and apron use
At the moment, all flights that are not operated by Lufthansa or its partner airlines (e.g. Air France or British Airways ) are handled in Terminal 1 . In addition, there are Condor flights and, since June 2019, Eurowings too.
The check-ins for flights at risk of security (e.g. to Israel) are processed in the specially designed Hall F in Zone 5 (eastern edge), regardless of which airline is operating the flight. Hall F is not connected to any building and can only be reached by passengers via an open-air area behind the Hilton Hotel. The check-in area there is the only one in the airport with access control . The hall was designed by the architecture office Krebs (Munich).
The west apron is also used by aircraft that are handled in Terminal 2; In addition, some apron positions are used for long-haul aircraft where the time span between arrival and departure is so great that they would hinder apron positions in Terminal 2. Some of them are already being prepared for the next flight on the apron of Terminal 1 before they are towed to Terminal 2.
Terminal 1, structure of the building
The terminal is clearly structured vertically. Modules A to D are structurally clearly separated from each other and are operated accordingly autonomously, so they are, as it were, separate terminals. Only transferring passengers can switch between them on the air side through connecting paths within the security area. On the land side , the modules each consist of a check-in area with security control, which is preceded by small shops as well as offices and information desks of the airlines. Always north of the check-in area of these modules are the baggage belts for arriving passengers on the air side and the pick-up area on the land side, with the car access area with short-term parking spaces and taxi stands being connected to the eastern exit. On the air side, to the west of the check-in, are the departure gates, which in modules B and C are only centrally located in front of the security control and in modules A also north and D also south of it, which is why these two modules serve parking positions closer to the building. The module E has a special position insofar as it is located on the air side within the module D and only provides it with additional baggage carousels and on the land side a pick-up area including car access.
The levels are numbered from 1 to 8 from bottom to top: Level 2 is the S-Bahn station . The terminal station is located under the central area with a staircase towards Terminal 1 and one at the Munich Airport Center. Directly next to it is a shell shaft which was originally intended for a double-track long-distance railway connection and is designed for a platform length of 400 meters sufficient for long-distance trains. The west apron is located on the air side at level 3 . If an aircraft is not parked directly at the terminal, passengers on this level board buses to be driven to the aircraft.
On the land side, this is the transfer level. The Passenger Transport System consists of long moving walks that run through the entire terminal and connect modules A to E, the external hall F, the parking garages, the airport hotel and the central area. The transition to the central area and on to Terminal 2 is only possible on this level. In each module, inclined moving walkways establish the connection exclusively from the main level 4; You get up by escalators and elevators. The airport's medical center is also housed here in module E. This not only consists of an emergency ambulance in the event of a disaster, but also houses a full-fledged competence center for several specialist departments, which is not only open to passengers and employees, but also to ordinary patients from the airport region.
Level 04 is the main level of the airport. This is where the access roads, the ticket counters and most of the catering service facilities are located. In addition, the departure areas with check-in counters and security control as well as the arrival areas with baggage claim and customs control are located alternately and separately for each module . The aircraft can also be accessed from this level via the passenger boarding bridges.
The air-side transfer level is on level 05. Transferring passengers are separated from the arriving passengers on arrival and are guided to the departure gate of the connecting flight via this level separately from everyone else, in order to return to level 04. In addition, there are additional security gates in Module C on this level if required. On the land side, there are some offices and administrative units, for example the headquarters of the Federal Police Inspectorate responsible for the airport.
Levels 06 to 08, which are even higher, are not available in the entire terminal and are generally not open to the public; They are mainly used for the administrative offices of the airlines and operating companies, for example the traffic control center. Further administration rooms are located near the apron on level 3.
Terminal 2 consists of a main building that went into operation on June 29, 2003 and a satellite that opened on April 26, 2016. A passenger transport system creates the connection between the two parts of the building, between which one can move freely after the security check within the respective area (Schengen or non-Schengen). There are 55 parking positions close to the building, including 51 with passenger boarding bridges , and there are also parking positions on the apron of Terminal 2 and a few on the apron of Terminal 1, which can be reached by buses. Terminal 2, including the expansion of the satellite terminal, has a capacity to handle 36 million passengers per year. It was planned, built and financed by FMG in cooperation with Lufthansa and is operated by the Terminal 2 operating company (shares: 60% FMG, 40% Lufthansa). This is the first time that an airline is involved in the operation of a terminal in Germany. In 2017, Terminal 2 at Munich Airport was voted the best terminal in the world at the World Airports Awards of the Skytrax Institute in London.
The check-in area and access to the security area are located in the main building, both of which are located in a central hall. To the north of the hall is the bus station, to the south is the right of way for private cars, including a short-term parking space. To the west is the Munich Airport Center , through which the S-Bahn station can be reached. Within the security area, 24 passenger boarding bridges are available in the main building to the east over a length of 980 meters and to the west in the so-called Commuterhof there are four parking positions for small aircraft (maximum Avro RJ and Boeing 737-600 ). The building has a gross floor area of 260,000 square meters. Terminal 2 was designed by the Munich architects Norbert Koch + Partner.
The rod-shaped satellite, which is located completely within the security area, has a total of 52 gates on two passenger levels, which serve a total of 27 aircraft parking positions. As in the main building, there is a central area in which there are shops and restaurants. The connection to Terminal 2 is made by a passenger transport system, whereby the journey always remains within the security area and therefore the central hall of Terminal 2 is also used for check-in and security control.
Outline of the terminal
In contrast to Terminal 1, Terminal 2 is only structured horizontally.
Level 03: Arrival and baggage sorting
In the main building, level 03 is the arrival level on the landside; This level is where the transition from Terminal 2 to the Munich Airport Center and thus also to Terminal 1 is located. On the air side, the baggage claim belts are arranged on this floor, from which you can go directly to the public area. There are also some check-in counters on level 03, for example from United Airlines . The baggage sorting system is located on this level, both in the main building and in the satellite, and cannot be seen by passengers. In the southern area of the main building there are also some gates on level 03 that are specially designed for traffic to Italy: This Spazio Italia has a typical Italian bar with Italian newspapers and an Italian-speaking waitress. Because of the good connections to Italy and the strong presence of Air Dolomiti, which is the second largest airline at Munich Airport after Lufthansa, the airport is often referred to as "Italy's northernmost airport".
Level 04: Check-In and Schengen
On the landside level 04 is mainly the check-in hall, from where you can check-in for almost all airlines that use Terminal 2. To get into the non-public area, you have to pass a security check, which is also located on level 04. On the air side, most of the catering facilities and duty-free shops are located on Level 04, and Gates G in the main building and Gates K in the satellite , from which domestic and Schengen flights are handled.
Level 05: Non-Schengen
Level 05 is also divided into a public and a non-public area; In the landside section there is a (changing) art exhibition, various restaurants and access to the visitor terrace. On the air side you get to level 05 after the security check in level 04. Before you leave, by passing the passport control on this floor, you can still shop on level 04 - the shared use of the common area for Schengen and non-Schengen countries. Passengers are not allowed in Terminal 1. The gates on level 05 are referred to as gate H in the main building and as gate L in the satellite . In the north and south of the main building there are again security checks that must be passed through on flights to the USA. The security check for arriving passengers from countries that require a visa, who get off via level 06 and then want to change, is also located on level 05 in the main building; If you switch to an airplane with a destination within the Schengen Agreement, you must also go through passport control and customs, which are also located on this floor. The level is partly the arrival level for visa-exempt non-Schengen countries (e.g. Great Britain, Bulgaria, Romania, Ireland, USA and Canada).
Level 06: Arrival from countries requiring a visa
Level 06 is the arrival level for passengers from countries that require a visa. Passengers from visa-exempt countries will also be directed to level 06 if the final destination is Munich. From there you can go through passport control to baggage claim. In the event of a changeover, all passengers arriving from a country requiring a visa must first go through a security check and from there go to the non-Schengen area on level 05. The security check is located in the satellite on level 06, but in the main building on the level 05. This is due to the fact that level 06 in the main building was built from 2007 to January 15, 2009 as a glass corridor from the roof. In the main building, not all gates are connected to level 06, which limits the positioning of the aircraft.
Also on level 06 in the main building is the visitor terrace, from which you can observe the entire eastern apron with free entry; it is connected to level 05 by a glazed corridor, the so-called skywalk .
Passenger transportation system
Passengers are transported between the main building and the satellite using a passenger transport system (PTS). The PTS operates in an underground tunnel that was built when Terminal 2 was built. The driverless trains of type INNOVIA APM 300 of the company Bombardier run every 90 to 180 seconds, with the traveling time at a speed of 50 km / h is only 50 seconds. The trains should be able to carry up to 400 people. The platforms are 49 meters (satellite) and 51.3 meters (Terminal 2) long. The length of the PTS is approx. 700 m (travel distance approx. 400 m plus the subsequent maintenance areas and turning systems). In the possible final stage, the PTS will have a length of approx. 2000 m. Then in the peak hour there are over 9,000 people changing direction in each direction. The existing tunnel height in the shell is approx. 3.65 m. In the safety area there is an approx. 4 x 16 m opening in the tunnel ceiling for the introduction of all components including the trains.
The trains run with four cars each. Two are reserved for Schengen traffic, one for non-Schengen traffic and on the way from the satellite to the main building one for passengers arriving and disembarking in Munich from countries outside the Schengen area . Schengen passengers get on and off at the outer platforms, and non-Schengen passengers on the middle platforms. All areas are individually connected to the respective floors of the horizontally structured building. The arriving and disembarking passengers from countries outside the Schengen area use a structurally separate area at the eastern end of the outer platform; if you have a connecting flight, you first go through the security check in the satellite. They can then either enter the non-Schengen area immediately or after a passport control into the Schengen area and, if necessary, use the corresponding wagons on the train.
This is where the aircraft of the Lufthansa Group, primarily Lufthansa itself, Air Dolomiti and Lufthansa CityLine , the Star Alliance and other airlines that cooperate with Lufthansa, are handled. For flights with a particular risk potential (usually flights to Israel), check-in is always carried out in Hall F. Eurowings will open a new medium-haul base in Munich from the start of the 2016 summer flight schedule. In October 2017, the core company Lufthansa had 94 aircraft stationed at Terminal 2: 62 aircraft from the Airbus A320 family , 8 Airbus A330 , 24 Airbus A340-600 and 5 Airbus A350 .
General Aviation Terminal
The Terminal for General Aviation (also: General Aviation Terminal or GAT for short ) is located in the northeast of the apron of Terminal 2. Airline-free aircraft and private aircraft are handled here. There are up to 50 parking positions available on an area of 120,000 square meters. The airport's expansion plans call for the building to be demolished, as this will prevent Terminal 2 from being expanded further. As a replacement, a new building is to be built between the two northern runways as part of the expansion to three runways.
Government flights (for members of the Bavarian State Government ) were handled prior to the construction of Terminal 2 on the apron of Hall F east of Terminal 1, currently this is done in an area equipped with flagpoles on the apron in front of the hangars in the southwest of the airport site. From there, the members of the government are driven directly into the public area through a nearby gate or come directly through a gate to the aircraft, while the other passengers are driven by buses to or from one of the terminals in order to enter or exit there.
The cargo handling hall is west of the main terminals 1 and 2 and a little north of the southern runway. There are 14 parking positions on the 66,500 square meter site.
At the end of May 2007, a new building for cross-border freight traffic was opened. In addition to the existing freight terminal, this offers a new border control point with a small animal station, where the animals can "enter" under veterinary inspection. This also applies to food of animal origin such as fish and meat products. The capacity of the freight terminal is currently being expanded extensively (as of August 2007).
On the land side, the freight terminal is also experiencing further growth: in addition to the 231,736 t of air freight flown, a further 180,000 t of "trucked" air freight were turned around by truck at the airport. The increase in freight rates in the “trucking” area was even somewhat higher at + 16.9% than in the flown area (+ 10.6%).
Baggage sorting systems
There are a total of three baggage sorting systems at Munich Airport , one for Terminal 1 modules A to E, one for Terminal 1 Hall F and one for Terminal 2; the baggage sorting systems in Terminal 1, Modules A to E and Terminal 2 are interconnected.
In Terminal 1, the baggage sorting system extends over a length of 18 kilometers on level 03. Suitcases are transported on treadmills. Departing passengers can check in their luggage at one of the 150 check-in counters, from where they are channeled into the baggage sorting system. In the case of arriving passengers, the baggage items are distributed on 14 baggage claim belts located in the modules. 19,200 pieces of luggage can be sorted every hour.
On the apron there was another baggage sorting hall for transfer baggage from 1999, but its daily use was partially abandoned after the Star Alliance and Lufthansa cooperation partners moved to Terminal 2 in 2003 and finally completely abandoned from 2004, as it was no longer needed. It was created by the Alstom / Crisplant consortium and was able to sort up to 9600 pieces of luggage per hour.
The baggage sorting system in Terminal 2 extends over 40 kilometers and can sort 14,000 pieces of baggage per hour. In contrast to the system in Terminal 1, each piece of luggage is assigned a tub, which then goes through all the necessary sections with the individual piece of luggage; these can include, for example, several security checks and a customs check. Most of the 124 check-in counters are located in the central departure hall. The baggage sorting system is also located on level 03 below the departure levels of the main building and the satellite where baggage can be sorted locally. This avoids long journeys when aircraft are parked at the satellite or on apron positions: It is therefore possible to guarantee transfer times of 30 minutes. There are 14 central baggage claim belts in the arrivals area of Terminal 2.
The tower was put into operation in 1991 and is 78 meters high. It houses the operating rooms of Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH (DFS), the apron control of Flughafen München GmbH and the German Weather Service as well as various technical facilities. The gross floor area is 3100 square meters, the diameter varies between 8.40 meters and 25.20 meters. The windows of the glass pulpit are angled 15 degrees outwards, which prevents annoying reflections. The tower was designed by the Munich architects Prof. v. Busse & Partner Blees, Büch, Kampmann planned. The architecture of the tower at Munich Airport set new standards: similarly shaped towers are found, for example, today at the airport Eleftherios Venizelos and the Kuala Lumpur airport . The apron control in the tower is responsible for the apron of Terminal 1 and the aprons in front of the hangars around the freight terminal; the latter are sometimes difficult to see, which is compensated for with cameras and the existing ground radar.
Since large parts of the apron of Terminal 2 cannot be seen from the control tower, a separate tower had to be built for the apron control of Terminal 2. This is located to the east of the baggage sorting hall and was put into operation at the same time that Terminal 2 was opened.
The central area of the airport is located between Terminal 1 and the Munich Airport Center, through which it is also connected to Terminal 2. It has a gross floor area of 46,000 square meters and offers the main information, many service facilities, shops, branches of car rental companies and counters of airlines and travel agencies as well as 37 check-in counters; the western check-in counters are intended for airlines in Terminal 1, while automatic check-in counters for Terminal 2 are located on the eastern side. The S-Bahn station is located on level 02 directly below the central building, while the bus station with connections to the region is located at the southern exit of the central building. On level 04 is the ecumenical Christophorus Chapel, which also includes rooms for the church service, headed by an Evangelical Lutheran and a Roman Catholic airport pastor.
According to interim plans from 2007, today's central area should give way to a new building that should house a large, publicly accessible shopping center . At the same time, the demolition of the adjacent parking garages , which had become too small, was considered. However, these plans have been put on hold indefinitely due to the high level of financial investment.
The fuel infrastructure for aircraft includes a 30,000 cubic meter tank farm for kerosene with the specification Jet A-1 . The fuel is supplied by rail and via a pipeline ( OMV von Burghausen oil pipeline , length 61.2 km).
The airport has a 14,000 meter long network of hydrant pipelines to over 120 aircraft parking spaces.
Until 2016, the operation of the tank storage facility and the hydrant system was transferred solely to Skytanking ASIG GmbH & Co.KG, in which Marquard & Bahls AG holds a 50% stake. The company is also one of two licensees for apron fueling ( Intoplane Service ).
In the south-western part of the airport there are three hangars for aircraft maintenance. All were opened in 1992, the architect of all hangars is Günter Büschl . What they have in common is the fully glazed half-timbered construction and the sliding facades as gates.
Hangar 1 has a length of 300 meters, a depth of 100 meters and a height of 30 meters with 36,500 m² of space for up to five Boeing 747s . Its suspended roof is supported by nine 55 meter high pylons with the help of ropes, three of which are placed at each end of the building and three in the middle. The other two hangars 3 and 4 are smaller, each 80 meters deep and 22 meters high, with hangar 3 being 300 meters wide and hangar 4 150 meters wide.
Munich Airport Center (MAC)
The Munich Airport Center , or MAC for short , is a multifunctional service center in the heart of the airport and connects Terminal 1 and Terminal 2. The Munich Airport Center , which opened in 1999, is frequented by many thousands of people and offers shops and restaurants as well as a medical center and office space and the municon congress center . The “Airbräu” tavern with an attractive beer garden is particularly popular. Munich Airport is the only airport in the world to operate its own brewery here . Different types of beer are served with names inspired by aviation, such as Kumulus , Jetstream and Mayday . With a total area of around 10,000 square meters, the MAC Forum is the largest covered open space in Europe. Numerous events take place in the MAC forum, from polo tournaments and presentations of the latest car models to public viewing at football championships. The annual Christmas and winter market is very popular, with numerous stalls and an ice rink for ice skating. In summer, the open space is used for various types of events, including Surf & Style , one of the largest European surfing events on an artificial standing wave. The Bike & Style cycling event and the Taste & Style food festival took place in 2017 . The gross floor area of the complex is 50,000 square meters, which are distributed as follows: both the forum and the service area take up 10,000 square meters and the office space extends over 21,000 square meters. The roof area, which is 41 meters above the ground at level 03, is 18,800 square meters with a span of 90 meters. The two L-shaped buildings, which close like a U around the forum, each measure 120 by 76 meters. The roof surface consists alternately of translucent, Teflon-coated glass fiber membranes and laminated safety glass and is suspended from 14 pylons. The architect of the Munich Airport Center is - like the architecturally similar neighboring building, Hilton Munich Airport - Helmut Jahn .
There are currently five parking garages and six underground garages. Altogether there are 30,000 parking spaces, around 16,500 of which are covered. The P20 car park at Terminal 2, with 6400 parking spaces on eleven levels (four of which are underground), was the largest car park in Germany for a short time since it opened in 2003, until it was overtaken by the new Allianz Arena car park in 2005. The maximum vehicle height in the multi-storey car parks is 2.00 meters. A parking guidance system is installed in the multi-storey car parks, which recognizes whether a parking space is occupied and guides newly arriving vehicles to empty parking spaces.
In addition to the usual parking options, Munich Airport also offers special parking spaces with additional services for corresponding additional costs. This includes valet parking , in which the vehicle is picked up and parked by an airport employee at the departure point, the Park, Sleep & Fly offer, which includes an overnight stay in the Hilton hotel, and the offer of oversized parking spaces, the so-called XXL parking and secure parking ; For the latter there is a separate parking level in the P20 car park, where the parked vehicles are specially guarded. You can also book special services, such as interior or exterior cleaning and a tank service.
In order to make the shopping in the public area of the airport more attractive for residents of the area around the airport, there are special offers that allow you to park for up to three hours free of charge in the P20 car park (for example, if you have spent more than 20 euros in the catering area). In the east of the central area there are around ten short-term parking spaces where you can park for up to thirty minutes free of charge. During the holiday periods there are also discounted conditions in car park P8.
A visitor park was attached to the airport right from the start, which is located almost directly on the apron opposite Terminal 1, from which it is only separated by the northern access road. There is a visitor center with an exhibition and a cinema, from where visitors can also take tours with trips to all the aprons. In addition, a visitor's hill can be entered for a fee, from which the western apron and the two runways can be observed. Additional, freely accessible visitor hills are located on both runways. In the visitor park are historical aircraft, including a Lockheed Super Constellation (registration D-ALEM), a Junkers Ju 52 / 3m (D-ANOY) (each in Lufthansa livery) and a Douglas DC-3 (registration HB-IRN) from Swissair displayed. There is also a playground, a restaurant called "Tante Ju's" and a mini golf course. After Munich Airport opened in 1992, the visitor park temporarily replaced Neuschwanstein Castle as the most visited tourist destination in Germany for a few weeks .
The visitor park can be reached by public transport via the S-Bahn station Visitor Park (S1 and S8), where the MVV bus line 635 from Freising also stops. This stop is also used by airport staff; For example, the freight terminal and the Lufthansa Flight Operating Center are right next to the station. The pedestrian bridge, which connects the S-Bahn station with the freight area and the visitor park on the opposite side, spanning both the S-Bahn line and the airport feeder, was opened in 1991, has a gross floor area of 1100 square meters and is 263 Meters long. The tubular bridge is fully glazed and was planned by the Munich architects Auer + Weber + Assoziierte .
There are two hotels on the airport grounds: North of the Munich Airport Center, the Hilton Munich Airport with 389 rooms, owned by Flughafen München GmbH and operated by Hilton Hotels in the five-star standard since 2015 . In 2010, a Novotel brand hotel with 257 rooms and a three-star hotel with a lower price category opened near the Visitor Park S-Bahn station . Within the security area of the main building of Terminal 2, both in the Schengen and non-Schengen areas, so-called “Napcabs” with internet access for sleeping and working are available for a fee; An onward flight is required for use.
Promotion of air traffic
In 2019, Flughafen München GmbH paid around 25 million euros to 31 airlines to promote air traffic growth. Around 18,000 flight movements to 85 different destinations were funded. In 2018, funding was 24 million. In 2017, 16 million euros were paid.
From 1993 to 2018 Flughafen München GmbH paid at least 295 million euros in subsidies for airlines, plus 89 million euros in kerosene subsidies.
As a result of the participation of Flughafen München GmbH in the Air Traffic for Germany initiative , in which Fraport , Deutsche Flugsicherung and Deutsche Lufthansa are also involved, a so-called “four-pillar strategy” was developed to improve environmental protection with an overall concept; these four pillars include:
“Reduction of CO2 emissions through technical progress and innovations, especially in the area of engine development; a more efficient infrastructure with a needs-based adaptation of airport capacities, through which, for example, polluting holding loops are avoided; operational measures such as the optimization of soil processes; economic incentive systems "
Climate protection: CO 2 neutrality by 2030
The declared corporate goal of Flughafen München GmbH is to achieve CO 2 -neutral airport operations by 2030. According to this, the CO 2 emissions attributable to the airport should be reduced by 60% and the remaining 40% offset by suitable climate projects, if possible in the region . Munich Airport will invest 150 million euros in this ambitious climate protection program.
The basis for all climate protection measures is reliable and internationally comparable recording of all CO 2 emissions. Munich Airport records its emissions using the internationally recognized accounting system of the "Greenhouse Gas Protocol" (GHG). Based on this data, the so-called CO 2 footprint is created, in which the airport's greenhouse gas emissions are broken down in detail.
In order to continuously reduce its CO 2 emissions, Munich Airport is implementing a large number of CO 2 saving measures. The package of measures to achieve CO 2 neutrality at Munich Airport takes into account all areas, but in particular the energy supply, climate-efficient building technology, measures for a particularly environmentally friendly vehicle fleet, outdoor lighting and further optimization of the power consumption of the baggage handling system. The spectrum ranges from intelligent control technology to air-conditioning facades, includes the switch to LED technology for the lighting of the runways, the increased use of renewable energies and the expansion of electric mobility in the vehicle fleet.
Completely CO 2 -free operation of the airport - that is, the goal of "Net Zero Carbon" - is to be achieved by 2050 at the latest. To this end, the airport will continue to drastically reduce its CO 2 emissions. In June 2019, Munich Airport signed the European "Net-Zero2050" resolution of ACI Europe, the umbrella association of European airports, and with over 190 European airports participating in the climate initiative, committed to reducing their own CO 2 emissions by 2050 at the latest . Reduce emissions to almost zero and remove the inevitable remainder from the atmosphere through technological measures.
Munich Airport has already received several awards for its climate protection measures. Independent environmental auditors have repeatedly validated Munich Airport in accordance with the EMAS and ISO 14001 environmental standards and recognized Munich Airport for its responsible approach to the environment. For its continued efforts to reduce CO 2 emissions, Munich Airport was awarded the "optimization" certificate as part of the "Airport Carbon Accreditation" (ACA) program of the "Airport Council International" (ACI Europe), the second-highest level of a four-level Scale for achieving climate neutrality. As part of a voluntary commitment, Munich Airport is primarily focusing on technological innovations in order to continuously reduce its CO 2 emissions and will initially refrain from purchasing CO 2 certificates. Only when all technical possibilities have been exhausted should the unavoidable rest of the CO 2 emissions in the regional area around the airport be offset.
In addition, FMG is involved in projects with its partners in order to drive forward the reduction of greenhouse emissions.
Right from the start, when planning the airport, aspects of nature conservation, some of which were prescribed by the state, were taken into account. When it opened, around 70 percent of the airport site was planted, but today, at 925 of 1,560 hectares, it is only 60 percent. The structure of many intersecting lines of small streams, rows of trees , etc., which predominates in the Erdinger Moos , was incorporated into the landscape architecture. On the other hand, care was taken to make the airport grounds unattractive for birds in order to reduce the risk of bird strikes. In addition, a 230 hectare green belt was created, which is intended as a compensation area. The total area of the compensation areas amounts to approximately 600 hectares. However, environmental associations criticized the enormous amount of land taken up by the airport, in particular due to the planned expansion measures; the compensation areas are also not sufficient to compensate for the damage caused by the airport.
For the construction of the airport in the Erdinger Moos , massive interventions were made in the water balance of the region, as the groundwater level of the boggy landscape had to be lowered significantly; drainage ditches were created for this . However, existing watercourses, such as small streams, were not interrupted, but instead either passed around the airport site or below the site. This means that the effect of the groundwater lowering is essentially limited to the area of the airport.
The waste water from the airport and the rainwater collected are fed back into the natural water cycle. To this end, over 100 kilometers of sewage pipes were laid, seven pumping stations, a washing water purification system and four rainwater clarifiers were built. The already roughly cleaned water is finally cleaned in a sewage treatment plant. For the de-icing required in winter, the airport uses chemical de-icing agents such as glycol , which are collected together with the contaminated melt water and then either cleaned or reused. The cleaning is carried out in the mining system area , where soil bacteria break down the glycol into the harmless components water and carbon dioxide.
With only 11,300 affected residents who are exposed to a day-evening-night noise index (24-hour average) of over 55 dB (A), Munich Airport is one of the airports in Germany based on its high performance (number of flight movements) with the least amount of environmental noise .
To reduce the noise, the runways were laid out over a length of 4,000 meters in order to avoid the noisy thrust reversal when the aircraft landed ; In practice, however, this requirement is not met, since the ground roll times should generally remain short. A hall was built for engine tests, with which noise pollution can be reduced; After 10 p.m., engine tests may only be carried out with the approval of the traffic management. In order to induce airlines to use low-noise aircraft, the airport calculates the fees according to the noise pollution. There are 16 stationary noise measuring points at the airport.
Night flight regulation
In July 1989 the Bavarian Administrative Court issued stricter night flight restrictions. There is no strict ban on night flights at Munich Airport, but rather a flight ban between 10:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., from which Post and DFS survey flights are excluded. In a core time from 0:00 to 5:00 a.m., flights are generally only possible that are justified in the public interest. This includes so-called emergency service flights, e.g. B. Police and rescue helicopter operations or medical emergencies. Furthermore, flight movements are for safety reasons, z. B. Safety landings, possible at any time. During this time, flights can also be carried out with special permission from the Bavarian State Ministry for Economic Affairs, Infrastructure, Transport and Technology .
In the time from 10:00 p.m. to 12:00 a.m. and from 5:00 a.m. to 6:00 a.m., flights according to the so-called bonus list are possible. Exceptions are delayed flights or premature landings if these aircraft are at least approved for noise in accordance with ICAO Chapter 3. In addition, further requirements must be met for both criteria, i.e. bonus list and noise requirements. One of several additional criteria must be met, including that the airline must have a maintenance base at the airport, the maximum number of 28 scheduled flight movements per night (charter and scheduled services) must not be exceeded, the aircraft must not be louder than 75 dB ( A) may be or it is about training or practice flights.
This regulation applies until the total annual volume of flight movements according to these regulations is exhausted. Further such flights are then not allowed. The number of night flights increased from 42 to 60 flights per average night from 1999 to 2007.
Residents have been protesting against aircraft noise for years, especially against noise pollution at night. In 2001, the government of Upper Bavaria approved the currently applicable night flight regulations.
Block-type thermal power station
Munich Airport largely supplies itself with electricity and heat, which are generated in its own combined heat and power plant, which is located in the west of the airport south of the northern runway. Within the block-type thermal power station there are nine so-called block -type thermal power station modules , seven are operated by diesel gas, the other two by gas Otto. The electrical generation capacity is 18.5 megawatts. One tries to let the block-type thermal power station always run evenly; the heat that is unnecessarily produced at certain times of the day is temporarily stored in heat storage systems. In summer, the generated heat is used to operate the absorption chillers . The gross overall degree of utilization is 78 percent (diesel-gas) and 83 percent (gas-Otto). Biogas is used for the block-type thermal power station modules as part of Flughafen München GmbH's obligation under the Renewable Energy Sources Act to also generate electricity using renewable energies. The airport also has a connection to the district heating network of the Zolling power plant .
There is a photovoltaic system on the roof of the central hall of Terminal 2 ; it is a joint project of BP Solar , Deutsche BP , Federal German Working Group for Environmentally Conscious Management , Deutsche Lufthansa , Flughafen München GmbH and others, has been in operation since July 10, 2003 and generates an average of 445,000 kilowatt hours per year, which corresponds to the consumption of 155 households . The electricity comes from 2856 modules made of silicon cells, which cover a total area of 3594 square meters. It has a lifespan of 30 years and is expected to save 12,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions during this time. 2.65 million euros were invested in the system. The system generates direct current which, after being converted into alternating current, is immediately fed into the electricity system. In Terminal 2, the currently generated energy is displayed on a board which also contains further information.
Biofuel filling station
By setting up a biofuel filling station with the fuels rapeseed oil , bioethanol and biomethane in the non-public sector, the operating company was able to slowly convert its vehicle fleet to biofuels; This filling station can also be used by external companies operating at the airport.
Bird protection and flight operations, bird sanctuary "Nördliches Erdinger Moos"
The European bird sanctuary "Nördliches Erdinger Moos" was designated on July 8, 2008 and comprises 4,525 hectares of the airport meadows around the two runways as well as mainly the areas of the northern Erdinger Moos to the north and east of the airport site. It is an important stepping stone in the Natura 2000 ecological network, which is spread across Europe, and serves to protect particularly endangered bird species. The bird sanctuary is of high national importance for the preservation of bird species in the open and semi-open fen landscapes. It is home to significant occurrences of the curlew, the lapwing and the gray bunting, as well as numerous other species of still waters, reed beds and silting zones, for example bluethroat, and at the same time has a special protective function for the red-bellied pochard, gadfly, potty tit and little ringed plover. Today the area of Munich Airport is regularly one of the three most important breeding areas of the curlew in Bavaria (State Office for the Environment, Meadow Breeder Report 2014) and offers protection for a total of 40 different bird species. Aircraft collisions with birds, known as bird strikes , can pose a threat to air traffic safety. Even if Munich Airport is located within a European bird sanctuary, flight safety is always a top priority. In order to ensure safe airport operations, Munich Airport takes a number of measures and intensively monitors the flight operations areas. To prevent bird strikes, a special biotope management adapted to local conditions takes effect. The high-quality, nutrient-poor meadows that were already laid out when the airport was built require only a few mowing operations (usually twice a year). Long grass cultivation is carried out on the airport meadows. Because of the lack of visual contact with each other, flocking birds such as seagulls and starlings avoid the tall grass, as do heavy-weight birds such as buzzards and herons because of the difficulty in foraging. The success of all these efforts is reflected in the low bird strike rates at Munich Airport, which are regularly well below the nationwide rates.
Four inspections by the Federal Police , departments of the Bavarian State Police (Police Inspection Munich Airport of the PP Upper Bavaria North ) and the Security Service Department of Flughafen München GmbH ensure the safety of passengers and flight operations . The airport police station is located at Nordallee 6, the police officers deployed there have qualifications that are adapted to the specific area of operation, for example they are also prepared for the case of an airplane hijacking. The Bavarian Police Helicopter Squadron is also based at Munich Airport and has five “ Eurocopter EC 135 ” helicopters stationed there. A move of the unit to the special airfield Oberschleißheim is planned for 2020.
In addition, one of the world's two chambers for explosive goods is located on the airport premises (the second is located at Kuala Lumpur Airport ). Explosive goods can be defused in a controlled manner in this chamber.
The airport has its own fire brigade with 32 fire engines , which are spread over two fire stations. The two fire stations are located near the runways. They are arranged in such a way that the emergency vehicles can reach every point on the aprons, taxiways and runways in a maximum of three minutes, as long as there are no adverse weather conditions. In the event of larger deployments, the fire brigades of the surrounding communities can be requested, which can come with up to 36 vehicles and around 216 men; In return, the airport fire brigade helps out in the event of major fires in the region. The last time this happened was the fire at a BMW plant in Eching .
|year||Missions 1||Fires||Technical assistance||False alarms|
The emergency medical care is a rescue station guarantees on the northern avenue of Malta Ambulance Corps is operated in the public service. An ambulance is ready for use around the clock and is also used outside the airport area for normal emergency rescue. If necessary, other rescue workers from the region or nationwide are called in; the deployment is coordinated by the integrated control center in Erding , which is also responsible for the area of the airport .
On January 5, 2004 at 8:17 a.m., a Fokker 70 of the Austrian airline Austrian Airlines (AUA), Austrian Airlines flight 111 , had to make an emergency landing a few kilometers from the runway in Munich on a snow-covered field. The 28 passengers and 4 crew members got away with the horror. The machine was on a scheduled flight from Vienna to Munich. As a result of icing, there was a loss of thrust on both engines.
On May 4, 2010, a serious incident occurred. Around 10:14 a.m. there was a close separation of three machines: a machine that had just started at the airport and two machines on the direct landing approach came dangerously close to each other north of the airport at an altitude of around 3000 meters. The incident was classified as a "serious incident".
On March 11, 2011 at 7:02 a.m., a Bombardier Challenger 600 and two Sikorsky UH-60 helicopters came dangerously close in the area of runway 08R. The pilots of the two US Army helicopters apparently misunderstood an instruction from the tower controller and came dangerously close to the CL-600 taking off. The smallest distance between the aircraft was around 200 meters. The pilot of the CL-600 then aborted the take-off at a speed of around 80 knots (148 km / h).
On November 3, 2011, a Singapore Airlines Boeing 777 that took off from Manchester Airport with a destination in Singapore came off the southern runway during a stopover in Munich. Nobody was injured, but the incident led to considerable impairment in air traffic.
On May 5, 2012, an Airbus A330 of the Air Berlin airline coming from Mallorca sent the Pan-Pan urgency signal . Due to fatigue, the pilots asked permission for preferential treatment to carry out an automatic landing.
On May 17, 2012, an ATR 72-500 of Air Dolomiti that took off from Munich with destination Venice had to return to the airport after 10 minutes and make an emergency landing. The causes were smoke development in the cockpit and engine problems. During the landing, the machine came off the runway and rolled into the grass verge. Five of the 58 passengers were slightly injured.
On April 1, 2014, a 28-year-old Kosovar took control of a stewardess and threatened her with a razor blade on board LH flight 1676 to Budapest. The pilot of the Airbus A320, which had recently started in Munich, returned immediately, 76 passengers left the aircraft in Munich unharmed. The Kosovar, who was to be deported to Hungary, allowed himself to be arrested without resistance.
As of December 31, 2018, a total of 38,090 people were employed at Munich Airport and the 518 different companies and authorities operating there. Compared to the last workplace survey in 2015, the number of employees at the airport has increased by 3,370, statistically speaking, three new jobs were created at Munich Airport every day. The two largest employers at Munich Airport are the Lufthansa Group with 13,100 employees and Flughafen München GmbH, which together with its subsidiaries employs 9,700 people. 665 apprentices are employed at the airport, who are spread over 50 apprenticeships. According to the new study, the average gross annual income of airport employees has risen by over twelve percent from 46,700 euros to 52,400 euros and is thus above the corresponding average values from related areas in the transport or service sector. The total of all gross wages and salaries paid out at the airport, excluding the employer's social security contributions of around 327 million euros, amounts to two billion euros. This also includes a total of around 650 million euros, which are paid by the employees as taxes and social security contributions (Employee Survey 2018 - Munich Airport).
Munich Airport is one of the largest workplaces in Bavaria. The Freising employment agency district has long had one of the lowest unemployment rates in Germany.
Terminal 1 is decentralized, the shape is characterized by many lines, breaks, edges and other geometric shapes. In Terminal 1, special emphasis was placed on an architecture that is characterized by light and fits into the landscape. Large, heated window areas were installed for the light, some of which are continued in the roof structure, but at the same time electrically controllable pipe systems are placed in front of the window areas in order to provide glare protection on the one hand, but also to create plays of light on the other. White was chosen as the dominant base color. They can be found in the entire building on the walls and facades as well as in the central area and in the tower. Only silver still appears in the form of zinc, aluminum or stainless steel. However, the flight information boards stand out with white letters on a light blue background. The color concept and the graphic appearance were designed by Otl Aicher in collaboration with Eberhard Stauß from the design office. The architect of the terminal is Hans-Busso von Busse with his partners Heinz Blees, Roland Büch and Nils Kampmann from Munich.
Terminal 2 is planned completely differently than the modular Terminal 1: Since it was intended exclusively for Lufthansa and its partners and as a transfer terminal from the start, there is only one central arrival and departure hall. This is located in a central location next to the Munich Airport Center. The cube-shaped and simple facade of the hall is a deliberate contrast to the curved and therefore moving roof of the Munich Airport Center as well as the central building with many corners and edges. The facade of the seven-aisled hall consists of a glass-steel construction and is a half-timbered construction executed, which allows spans of 60 meters. Inside there are fabric sails on all glazed walls to protect against glare, but they are translucent . A sloping glass roof is assigned to each ship . There is a photovoltaic system between the individual glass roofs. The pier in front of the hall is exclusively structured horizontally. The facade is in two parts, it consists of a glass level, in front of it is an expanded metal construction .
The passenger boarding bridges are fully glazed and consist of three individually extendable tunnels. The architects' office Koch + Partner was responsible for planning the terminal, and Seeberger Friedl und Partner for the construction . The steel construction comes from Maurer Söhne . In 2005, the terminal was awarded the European Steel Design Award ( European Steel Design Award 2005 ).
Public transport improvements
In the early 1990s, the German Federal Railroad considered four options for better rail connections to the airport. With expected costs between 500 million and 2 billion marks, all of them would have enabled the airport to be integrated into the ICE network. This was rejected, however, and instead the focus was on improving the connection between the airport and regional traffic and Munich Central Station .
Airport Express (S-Bahn)
In order to reach the main train station and Munich city center more quickly, critics proposed the establishment of an express S-Bahn parallel to the Transrapid connection that failed in 2008 . Due to the heavily used trunk line, it is not possible to use it and a connection via the Munich East – Munich Airport railway line is pointless, as using the Munich Südring as an alternative would eliminate a large part of the time saved on the way to the main station. Its main hall could in turn be approached directly from the airport via the Munich-Regensburg railway line, which, however, also no longer offers regularly usable capacities and the neighboring communities are resisting its expansion, as the line runs through several town centers and crosses federal road 471 at ground level in Oberschleißheim .
Thus, the construction of new railway lines for the implementation of an airport express is required. The MAEX solution approach via the Munich East-Munich Airport railway line requires the construction of the second trunk line ; a solution brought up in 2016 by Bündnis 90 / Die Grüne under discussion about Moosach and the Neufahrner Spange building a new route along the federal motorway 92 .
By extending various underground lines to the intersection with one of the two airport S-Bahn trains, the travel time to the airport from various northern Munich districts can be shortened considerably. This was implemented for the Milbertshofen-Am Hart and Feldmoching districts with the U-Bahn line 2 to the S1 Feldmoching station in 1996 and the construction of the airport bracket near Neufahrn in 1998. In 2010, the connection of the subway line 3 to the S1 train station in Moosach shortened the travel time to the airport from the districts of Moosach , Schwabing West and Neuhausen-Nymphenburg . The extension of underground line 6 in the direction of Freising / airport is to be examined as part of a new feasibility study.
Erdinger ring closure
The Erdinger Ringschluss is intended to extend the S-Bahn (S2) from Erding towards the airport and connect it to neighboring Freising via a connecting curve , the Neufahrner counter-curve . The connection from the airport to the city center will not be accelerated by the Erdinger Ringschluss, but a direct connection between the airport and the Munich Exhibition Center would be established. For this purpose, the S2 would also make a small swivel north of the Munich Exhibition Center and receive a stop at Messestadt Nord .
In addition, a rail link from Mühldorf am Inn is to be established between Erding and Dorfen using the Walpertskirchner brace ; the concrete planning phase for this also began as with the Erdinger Ringschluss in August 2006.
With the opening of the Neufahrner counter curve to the timetable change in December 2018, the first construction phase of the Erdinger Ringschluss, the long-required rail connection from Eastern Bavaria including the neighboring airport commuter cities of Freising , Moosburg and Landshut to the airport, has already been realized with its own regional express line.
Justification of the expansion project
The growth of air traffic in Munich from 1997 to 2006 averaged 7% annually according to the reasons for the application of the airport company, especially at peak times the airport's capacity is already exhausted. Since new airlines in Munich no longer receive the desired slots, a traffic-repellent effect occurs. An air traffic forecast by Intraplan Consult GmbH assumes 58.2 million passengers for 2025, provided that growth at the airport without bottlenecks is possible. In order to be able to exploit the expected traffic potential in Munich, the operating company plans to expand the capacity from today's 90 movements per hour to 120 movements per hour by building a third runway. The shareholders of Flughafen München GmbH stated that the construction of a third runway was necessary for the Munich region and for the whole of Bavaria for reasons of transport and economic policy. Various associations and institutions from business and politics responded positively to the planning approval decision issued by the government of Upper Bavaria for the construction of a third runway at Munich Airport.
The project to build a third runway is provoking resistance, especially in the directly affected airport region in the Freising and Erding districts , but also in other nearby districts. Among other things, one calls for the use of larger aircraft in order to meet the demand and, above all, doubts the growth forecasts made by FMG.
The opponents of the expansion project joined forces to form the MUCkt action alliance (over 80 groups, including citizens' initiatives, church groups and environmental organizations), which is supported by the Bund Naturschutz in Bayern ; and organized several demonstrations. Resistance to the construction has also been announced by the Catholic Church, which owns some of the affected land. Protests have increased since the planning approval decision of July 26, 2011. On October 29, 2011, a large demonstration with around 7,000 participants took place in Munich on Marienplatz, directly in front of Munich's town hall.
Approval process and political situation
On July 26, 2005, the Supervisory Board of Flughafen München GmbH (FMG) decided to initiate the regional planning procedure for the construction of a third runway due to the emerging capacity bottlenecks in the existing rail system . On February 21, 2007 the government of Upper Bavaria assessed the expansion measure in the form applied for (railway location 5b) as positive in terms of regional planning. FMG stated conclusively that "the existing capacity of the runway system will be exhausted in the coming years and that the air traffic volume expected in the medium and long term will require the construction of another runway," said the government.
On August 24, 2007, FMG submitted the application for planning approval to the government of Upper Bavaria . From November 5, 2007 to December 4, 2007, the planning documents, consisting of over 10,000 pages with 500 plans in a total of 47 files, were available in the surrounding communities for public participation . The complete plan approval documents could also be viewed on the Internet. On time, the government of Upper Bavaria received 59,191 objections (57,032 of which are mass objections) as well as 123 statements from the districts and municipalities affected by the project, public authorities and other bodies. On a total of 59 hearing days from November 11, 2008 to March 31, 2009 in the Ballhausforum in Unterschleißheim, the concerns of the citizens affected by the expansion project were discussed. Flughafen München GmbH, as the applicant, commented on the justification of the plan and responded to the objections raised. The topics of the discussion procedure carried out by the government of Upper Bavaria as the competent licensing authority were divided into eleven sections. For the application by Flughafen München GmbH (FMG) for the construction of the third runway at Munich Airport, additional documents were made available for inspection in the surrounding communities from April 12, 2010 to May 11, 2010. Submitted by FMG reports , statements and plans contained in particular a review of the air traffic forecast, new calculations for aircraft noise after entry into force of additional regulations for Aircraft Noise Abatement Act , new and modified conservation law and -fachliche elaborations including an environmental impact study together with the documents external risk and property price changes. At the same time, the report of the Hamburgisches WeltWirtschaftsInstitut (HWWI) commissioned by the government of Upper Bavaria on the economic basis for the forecast of air traffic at Munich Airport was interpreted. Again, the objections of the citizens were received by the responsible planning approval authority and the applicant FMG was asked to comment. An updated set of arguments with a compilation of the objections of affected citizens and the replies was published on September 29, 2010. There were almost 60,000 objections in the planning approval procedure.
In February 2011, due to new findings regarding the existing bird population, the Federal Nature Conservation Association had to be involved again in an individual hearing. Due to the massive endangerment of these populations, the Bund Naturschutz sees its rigorous rejection of the expansion of the airport confirmed again.
On July 26, 2011, the government of Upper Bavaria issued a planning approval decision for the construction of a third runway at Munich Airport, combined with an order for immediate execution . Flughafen München GmbH, as the applicant, had declared that it would not start construction work until the Administrative Court had decided on immediate enforceability.
On November 4, 2011, the deadline for lawsuits and applications for provisional legal protection against the planning approval decision of the government of Upper Bavaria for the third runway at Munich Airport expired. The Bavarian Administrative Court (BayVGH) had received 22 complaints and seven motions.
In December 2011, the BayVGH suggested that Flughafen München GmbH should not make use of the right to immediate execution until the judges had decided on the main complaint. In a cabinet meeting on January 16, 2012, the state government decided that the operating company would first wait for the court decision in the main proceedings so that “the highest level of legal certainty” could be guaranteed.
With the referendum of June 17, 2012 in the state capital Munich , which was initiated by the Alliance 90 / The Greens, ÖDP and the Left as an alliance "Munich against the 3rd runway", the construction of a third runway was on Munich Airport was rejected by a majority with 54.3% of the votes. 32.8% of Munich's citizens took part in the vote.
Although the one-year binding period for the referendum has long expired, the political decision on the construction of the third runway is still pending. This requires the consent of all shareholders of Flughafen München GmbH, and resolutions must be passed unanimously in the shareholders' meeting. So far, the state capital of Munich has felt bound by the result of the referendum of 2012. In terms of approval law, the government of Upper Bavaria has received a positive planning approval decision for the construction of a third runway, which was confirmed in all points in a judgment of the Bavarian Administrative Court (VGH) on February 19, 2014. The BayVGH did not allow an appeal. Christian Ude had made his vote in the shareholders' meeting dependent on the result of the referendum in Munich, his successor Dieter Reiter also feels bound by it. The state capital of Munich holds 23% of the shares in Munich Airport, the two other shareholders (Free State of Bavaria 51% and the Federal Republic of Germany 26%) are in favor of building the third runway.
In July 2014, the Bavarian Administrative Court gave written reasons for the judgment. Thereupon several plaintiffs, including the city of Freising and the Bund Naturschutz, filed a non-admission complaint with the Federal Administrative Court in Leipzig in order to obtain a possible appeal. On March 4, 2015, the Federal Administrative Court announced its decision of February 17, 2015, according to which the lawsuits of the municipalities (Landkreis Freising and Stadt Freising, as well as the municipalities Berglern, Eitting, Oberding and Fahrenzhausen) will be rejected. In July 2015, the pending lawsuits by the Federal Nature Conservation Union (BUND Bayern) and several private individuals were also rejected by the Federal Administrative Court.
In autumn 2015, Bavarian Prime Minister Horst Seehofer held intensive dialogues with representatives of the municipalities, political parties, citizens' initiatives and business representatives and the citizens affected by the expansion in Attaching and made a political decision for the spring of 2017 to build the third runway announced. Lord Mayor Dieter Reiter, in turn, mentioned in February 2017 at a meeting of the Munich City Council that "at the beginning of 2018, if necessary," another referendum would be held. The Supervisory Board of Flughafen München GmbH mutually agreed in July 2017 that the expansion would not be discussed again until the end of 2017 at the earliest. While Prime Minister Horst Seehofer continues to plead for solving the political conflict in a dialogue with the city and Lord Mayor Dieter Reiter , Lufthansa CEO Carsten Spohr again spoke out in favor of the runway being implemented soon. If Munich is not to be left behind, one will not be able to do without a third runway and it may be necessary to change shareholders. According to a report in Münchner Merkur, it was said that Prime Minister Horst Seehofer was planning a decision before the state elections in 2018 and would ask Munich's Lord Mayor Dieter Reiter for a "clear yes or no to a new referendum in the city". Otherwise the conversion of the airport into a stock corporation would be an issue again. Sharp criticism of Seehofer's advance, however, was expressed by the opposition and opponents of the expansion project.
In February 2018, the CSU moved away from its plans to find a solution to the dispute over the construction of a third runway at Munich Airport before the state elections in autumn 2018. The designated Prime Minister Markus Söder left no doubt that he was in favor of a third slope, but there was no time pressure. He named the year 2025 as the target for completion. Söder does not want to reduce the discussion about the future of the airport to the third runway, but rather to lead a fundamental debate about where the airport should be in ten to twenty years. Managing Director Kerkloh announced that Flughafen München GmbH will continue to fight for the third runway. After the formation of the government in 2018, the coalition of the CSU and Free Voters announced that they would no longer pursue the expansion plans until 2023.
Search of the track location
Initially, more than 25 possible railway locations were checked, six of which met the capacity requirements of FMG and which were discussed with representatives of the neighboring communities and citizens' groups together with the neighborhood advisory board that was set up specifically for this purpose. The six track layers were each a four-kilometer runway, which was planned to be parallel to the existing track system at different distances and offsets, two of them south and four north of the existing track system. In all variants, the distance to the two existing runways prescribed by the ICAO had to be adhered to in order to ensure independent and parallel operation on the planned third runway.
All variants except for the so-called “web layer 5b” were discarded for various reasons. Variant 5b was a runway with a length of four kilometers and a width of 60 meters. It was located north of the existing rail system at a distance of 1180 meters from the existing northern runway and a threshold offset to the east of 2100 meters. Nevertheless, with this variant, considerable noise pollution was to be expected for the villages of Attaching and Berglern , as districts are flown over directly. In the scattered settlement Schwaigermoos , the residents of eleven properties were relocated.
The new northern runway should be given the designation 08L / 26R if implemented in accordance with ICAO guidelines (ICAO Annex XIV), while the old northern runway now in the middle should be renamed 08C / 26C.
Terminal 1, extension gate
A new gate will be built between modules A and B in Terminal 1, which will extend 350 meters into the western apron. The aim of the expansion measure is to adapt the terminal to the requirements of modern air traffic. For the passengers in Terminal 1, this will increase the quality of service and stay. Twelve aircraft positions will be created on the 350 meter long pier, two of which will be equipped with three passenger boarding bridges for the Airbus A380. The elimination of four previous gates will result in eight additional positions close to the building, which will increase the capacity of the two terminal modules by 6 million a year, but above all will offer more space and greater comfort for passengers. In addition, numerous new business and restaurant areas will be created. The government of Upper Bavaria issued the planning approval decision for the expansion of Terminal 1 at Munich Airport in mid-November 2018. According to current estimates, total project costs of around 455 million euros are estimated for the expansion project, which Flughafen München GmbH will raise from its own resources. Construction work on the new pier began in 2018, and commissioning is scheduled for 2023. Should a further expansion of Terminal 1 become necessary, the concept could also be transferred to modules D and E.
Terminal 2, extension of the satellite by "T-handle"
With a "Letter of Intent" signed in December 2019, Flughafen München GmbH and Deutsche Lufthansa AG announced their joint intention to close the satellite building connected to Terminal 2 with a building that adjoins Terminal 2 at right angles to the east, the so-called "T-stem" expand. The planned investments are intended to expand the passenger capacity of the Terminal 2 system, which is already almost fully utilized, by up to ten million passengers per year. This will intensify and continue the strategic cooperation in the sustainable further development of the Munich air traffic hub, explained Munich airport boss Dr. Michael Kerkloh and Wilken Bormann, CEO Lufthansa Hub Munich, on the occasion of the signing of the joint declaration of intent. At the Munich hub, this would create the conditions for the foreseeable increase in passenger demand with consistently high quality for guests. The preliminary planning for the planned construction project has started.
The cross-company and cross-sector ideas center “LabCampus” is being built at Munich Airport, where everything revolves around innovations. The research will focus on future topics such as seamless travel, building intelligence, new workspaces, the Internet of Things (IoT) and blockchain technology. The future project brings together companies and knowledge carriers, start-ups and global players, creatives and investors - and all of this at a pulsating international transport hub that is networked with over 260 destinations worldwide and also offers sufficient space for targeted property development. Because 150,000 people visit Munich Airport every day, there are enormous advantages in terms of location for the project. The go-ahead for the innovation center was fired in March 2018. In April 2019, the Ed. Züblin AG was awarded the general contractor for the construction of the first office complex.
Traffic figures, international comparison, awards
Since it opened in 1992, the number of passengers at Munich Airport has quadrupled: Whereas 12 million passengers were counted in 1992, around 48 million passengers take off and land in Munich today (2019). Forecasts assume that Munich Airport will have more than 58 million passengers by 2025. In order to be able to cope with the foreseeable growth in traffic, the capacities of the airport are to be expanded as required.
In August 2006, the commercial passenger volume exceeded the 30 million mark for the first time. In 2015, 41 million passengers, more than ever before, used Munich Airport as a starting point, stopover or destination for their flight.
In 2019, Munich Airport was one of the busiest airports in Europe with around 48 million passengers and ranked 8th among the “Top Ten” European airports.
With almost 14 million passengers, a new quarterly record was set between July and September 2019. July 2019 brought a new monthly high with a total of around 4.7 million passengers. In addition, on Friday, September 27, 2019, around 174,000 travelers used Bavaria's air traffic hub - more than ever before in one day. The main growth driver is international traffic to and from Munich.
Munich Airport was the first airport in Europe to receive the "Five Star Airport" seal of quality.
In 2020, Munich Airport will again be named the best airport in Europe, with over 12 million passengers worldwide taking part in the survey. At the annual “World Airport Awards” of the London aviation institute Skytrax, the Bavarian air traffic hub has been named “Best Airport Europe” for the 13th time in 15 years. Singapore Changi Airport remains the best airport in the world, and Munich Airport ranks fifth in the world.
The following table shows the traffic figures of Munich Airport in the past. A detailed table including the traffic figures from Munich-Riem Airport can be found under Traffic figures of Munich Airport .
The maximum number of flight movements was achieved in 2008 when the so-called Condor hub was also able to use rail capacities during off-peak times. Due to a lack of rail capacity but increasing demand, increasingly larger aircraft are used today. Since then, flight movements have developed rather moderately, while the number of passengers continues to rise.
Through a parliamentary request from the Greens in the Bavarian State Parliament, it became known in 2020 that the airport company paid around 25 million euros to airlines in 2019 to increase the number of take-offs and landings. 18,000 flight movements to 85 destinations were funded. The Greens criticized that air traffic would be artificially inflated to the detriment of climate protection and the neighboring residents. Flughafen München GmbH stated that it only provides temporary support for certain flight connections with the aim of opening up important and economic markets for the location in terms of transport policy. Such support concepts are common practice at most European airports. The funding program would cushion the high economic costs and entrepreneurial risk of the airlines, especially in the initial phase when a route is taken. An "excellent" connection of Bavaria to the global air transport network contributes significantly to the economy, employment and the quality of the location. The demand-based further development of the transport offer to and from Munich is therefore an important contribution to securing the competitiveness of the domestic economic area.
|Year of operation||Passenger volume||Air freight [ t ]||Flight movements|
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