The Munich S-Bahn is next to the subway the most important means of transport of the public transport in the metropolitan area of the Bavarian state capital Munich . It is operated by DB Regio AG and is integrated into the Munich Transport and Tariff Association (MVV). The responsible authority is the Bavarian Railway Company (BEG).
The S-Bahn network was created for the 1972 Summer Olympics from several existing suburban lines. They were electrified and connected by a tunnel. This so-called trunk line - initially also called the V-Bahn for connecting line - runs from the main station through Munich city center to the Ostbahnhof .
It carries over 840,000 passengers on working days, with the main traffic volume being the commuter flows from the Munich area to the city of Munich in the morning rush hour and back again in the afternoon rush hour. The Munich S-Bahn employs over 1,100 people, 538 of whom are train drivers and a further 120 as service employees.
The core of the S-Bahn network is the trunk line with the connecting tunnel that crosses under Munich city center. West of the tunnel, the network branches into seven branches, the lines of which were originally numbered from north to south from S 1 ( Freising ) to S 7 ( Wolfratshausen ). According to operational requirements, which have changed several times over the course of time, in particular due to route extensions, these are linked to the five branches to the east via the trunk line tunnel, with the branch to Ebersberg being served by two lines (S 4 and S 6), which also ends Line S 1 at the Leuchtenbergring. This results in the numbering in the east. In June 1991 there was the first change from the S 4 to the S 5 on the branch to Ebersberg. The line to Wolfratshausen was initially called the S 10 and only became the S 7 with the introduction of the main line.
In order to avoid line changes on the eastern branch via Ismaning to the airport, the name S 8 is permanently assigned to the line operating there, in deviation from the scheme described. The number that would emerge from the west branch is omitted; currently this is the designation S 5.
There is also the S 20, which runs from Pasing to Höllriegelskreuth, a line that does not go through the trunk line tunnel. The 20 number range of the S 20 and the former S 27 comes from the time when these two lines were introduced, as they still crossed the Isar on the Großhesseloher Bridge and continued to Deisenhofen and the branch to Holzkirchen via Deisenhofen still had the number S 2 (instead of today S 3) wore.
The diesel -powered line A , which was also part of the S-Bahn network, ran on the Dachau – Altomünster railway line until 2014 . It started on the S 2 in Dachau and drove to Altomünster. As part of the 520 million euro expansion program, it was electrified by December 2014 and integrated into the S 2 as a wing section.
In the course book , the S-Bahn lines are listed under the course book routes 999.1 to 999.8. The S 20 and S 27 had the course book route number 999.20 until 2013, the line A until 2014 the number 999.30.
Lines and tact
The basic cycle of the Munich S-Bahn (lines S 1 to S 8) is 20 minutes all day. From autumn 2004 onwards, a 10-minute cycle was established during rush hour by repeater trains on sections of individual branches . However, towards the end of the 2010s, this was gradually discontinued due to increasingly frequent train cancellations. However, these have been running again since the beginning of 2020 - except for construction work on the main route. A special case is the route to Erding, where on weekday mornings a combination of express trains from Erding and normal S-Bahn trains from Markt Schwaben run, which run every 10 minutes from Ostbahnhof. The same happens on the S 7 between Höhenkirchen-Siegertsbrunn and Kreuzstraße. Furthermore, there are sporadic repeater trips on the S 4-West during rush hour, but they do not use the trunk line tunnel. On some outer branches, one out of three trains turns around a few stops before the terminus outside of rush hour, so that the last sections have a 20/40 minute cycle.
(+) additional individual amplifier trains, so that at times there is a 10-minute cycle.
Timetable symmetry on the main route
Currently (2015 annual timetable) the lines from east to west on the main route operate in the following order:
S 2, S 6, S 7, (S 8), S 3, (S 2), S 4, S 1, S 8, (S 3) (clock amplifier trains in brackets)
In the opposite direction, the trains run in exactly the opposite order, which is an essential prerequisite for good corner connections. This timetable symmetry, which already existed in the early years, was reintroduced with the timetable change on December 12, 2004. With the timetable change on December 13, 2009 (the Hirschgarten stop went into operation), the sequence of trains from the western branches on the main route remained almost unchanged, only those to Maisach (clock amplifier) and Petershausen were swapped. In the east, the branches to Ebersberg and to the airport were each shifted by two minutes by swapping with lines ending at the Ostbahnhof. As a result, all "10-cycle lines" on the main line have an actual ten-minute cycle. Furthermore, the timing from / to Holzkirchen was shifted by ten minutes by swapping with the route of the "Takt-10-Amplifier" from / to Deisenhofen. The departure times on the external routes remained largely the same, only on the S 3-Ost they were postponed by ten minutes. The 8/12 or 7/13 minute intervals for rush hour traffic have become almost exactly 10 minutes intervals on the more frequent lines to Dachau (S 2), Maisach (S 3) and Zorneding (S 4 / S 6) improved, as it already existed after Germering (S 8) and Deisenhofen (S 3).
All lines running on the inner city route have a uniform symmetry time (meeting time), which is half a minute after: 00 within the main line, but half a minute before: 00 on the outer lines, due to the two-minute buffer times inwards at the Ostbahnhof and in Pasing (p 3, S 4, S 6, S 8), Laim (S 1, S 2) or Donnersbergerbrücke (S 7).
- / : Until May 31, 1981 the S 10 to the main station (Holzkirchner wing station) operated without stopping at Donnersbergerbrücke and Hackerbrücke instead of today's S 7 until the long-distance railway tracks at Donnersbergerbrücke were tunneled. Instead of the S 27, which later approached the Starnberg wing station of the main station, the S 22 also ended in the Holzkirchen station. Locomotive hauled push- pull trains were used .
- / : The S 5 and S 11 ran as special lines during the 1972 Olympic Games via Johanneskirchen (S 5) and Moosach (S 11) to the now disused Olympiastadion station .
- From Pasing via Mittersendling to Deisenhofen, until the opening of the S 7, push-pull trains ran under the name S 12. After that, these trains ran without the S-Bahn name. The line was later strengthened and was again given an S-Bahn designation as S 20.
- S 21: During the 1972 Olympic Games, this line reinforced the S 1 on competition days between the Starnberg wing station and Oberschleißheim.
- S 25: This line operated as a repeater line with approximately 400 meter long double-throw trains with intermediate locomotives between Munich East and the Olympiastadion station.
- , from 1985 , ran as a special line for major events in the Olympic Park until 1988 via Moosach to the Olympiastadion station.
- / : Until the construction of the S 8 airport line (1991), the S 3 served the Nannhofen ( since 2004: Mammendorf) –Ismaning route. After the construction of the route to the airport, the S 8 ended in Pasing in the west, the S 3 drove in the east to the Ostbahnhof. The two lines were later merged to relieve the strain on the trunk line. Because of the great importance of the airport line, the name S 3 was dispensed with.
- : From December 2004 to December 2005, the S 3 experienced a renaissance: During rush-hour traffic it operated as a reinforcement line between Maisach and Zorneding in order to achieve the promised 10-minute intervals on these sections. (Color red / black). After a year, this route became obsolete, as the western branches of the S 4 and S 8 were swapped.
- : When the timetable changed in December 2009, the name S 5 was dropped. Since then, the route to Herrsching has been served by the S 8, the route to Holzkirchen by the S 3.
- : With the timetable change in December 2009, the S 3 was reintroduced. It now runs between Mammendorf and Holzkirchen.
- : The S 27 ran from the Starnberg wing station at the main station along the route of the S 7 to Solln, crossed the Isar on the Großhesseloher bridge and continued to Deisenhofen. On December 15, 2013 the S 27 was discontinued; it was replaced by regional trains of the Meridian .
- : From 1995 to 2014 line A was the only non-electrified Munich S-Bahn line on the Dachau – Altomünster line . After the completion of the electrification of the route, it was incorporated into the S 2 as a wing line on December 14, 2014.
The trains of train traveled partially own tracks (single or double track), partially double-track lines in the mixing operation ( direction of operation ) with other traffic (passengers and freight), and sometimes more than two-track routes in the line operation . On the latter one or two tracks are only used by the S-Bahn and the other two tracks are used by the rest of the traffic.
The following overview shows the length of the route from Munich Central Station or Ostbahnhof, as this is where the kilometers of routes begin. Exceptions to links that do not start there are noted.
|Length from main station or east station||other traffic||expansion|
Main line / connecting line
Pasing – Hbf – Ostbahnhof
|11.4 km||There are also various trains running between Pasing and the main station, and the Bayerische Oberlandbahn also runs between Donnersbergerbrücke and the main station (without any further stops)||three stations with four or more platform tracks, three stations in a Spanish solution|
Munich – Regensburg
Laim – Freising railway line
|40.7 km||Regional and interregional ( ALEX , DIEX), as well as freight traffic||double track in mixed operation over 34.5 km|
Neufahrn Airport West (7.3 km)
|40.8 km||Regional traffic section (ÜFEX), individual freight trains||two-pronged|
Munich – Ingolstadt
Laim – Petershausen railway line
|36.4 km||ICE from Berlin and Hamburg as well as Frankfurt via Nuremberg, regional traffic from Nuremberg and Ingolstadt, as well as freight traffic||separate tracks for the S-Bahn (one or two tracks) next to the high-speed line for ICE and other traffic|
Railway line Dachau – Altomünster
Dachau – Altomünster
|47.7 km||only S-Bahn traffic||single track|
Munich – Augsburg
Pasing – Mammendorf railway line
|31.0 km||Regional, long-distance and freight transport. It is one of the busiest routes in Germany, which is why it was the first to be expanded to include four tracks for the S-Bahn.||own tracks for the S-Bahn (two to Maisach, from there one to Mammendorf)|
Allgäu Railway (Bavaria)
Pasing – Geltendorf
|42.1 km||Various two-hour regional connections, two-hour EC to Zurich, long-distance diversion traffic Augsburg-Munich||Double track in mixed operation over 34.7 km, electrification for the S-Bahn to Geltendorf|
Railway line Munich-Pasing – Herrsching
Pasing – Herrsching
|38.3 km||only S-Bahn traffic||double track to Weßling, then single track|
Munich – Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Pasing – Tutzing railway line
|39.6 km||Regional traffic and individual long-distance trains to Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Innsbruck)||two own S-Bahn tracks to Gauting, then two-track mixed operation|
Isar Valley Railway
Solln – Wolfratshausen
|31.3 km||S-Bahn traffic and freight traffic (sporadic)||double track to Höllriegelskreuth, then single track.|
Railway line Munich East – Munich Airport
Ostbahnhof – Airport
|33.1 km||Freight traffic on the north ring between Daglfing and Johanneskirchen||continuously double-track, partly in mixed operation with freight traffic|
Railway line Munich – Simbach and railway line Markt Schwaben – Erding
Ostbahnhof – Markt Schwaben – Erding
|34.7 km||Freight and regional traffic in the direction of Mühldorf and Freilassing to Markt Schwaben, then only S-Bahn traffic||double track in mixed operation to Markt Schwaben, then single track to Erding|
Railway line Munich Ost – Deisenhofen and railway line Munich – Holzkirchen
Ostbahnhof – Giesing – Deisenhofen – Holzkirchen
|31.2 km||to Deisenhofen exclusively S-Bahn traffic, between Deisenhofen and Holzkirchen the Bavarian Oberlandbahn also operates||two-pronged|
Munich – Rosenheim railway line and Grafing – Wasserburg
Ostbahnhof – Grafing – Ebersberg railway line
|31.0 km||Regional traffic to Rosenheim and Wasserburg, long-distance traffic to Salzburg and freight traffic||four-track to Grafing Bahnhof (S-Bahn operated separately), then single-track in mixed operation|
Railway line Munich East – Deisenhofen and railway line Munich-Giesing – Kreuzstraße
Ostbahnhof – Giesing – Kreuzstraße
|30.1 km||only S-Bahn traffic||single track between Munich-Giesing and Kreuzstraße, the rest double track|
Sendlinger Spange (8.8 km) and railway line Munich – Holzkirchen
Pasing – Mittersendling – Höllriegelskreuth
|20.5 km||partly runs over freight tracks from / from Munich Laim marshalling yard, between Mittersendling and Solln regional traffic of the Bavarian Oberlandbahn||single track to Mittersendling, then double track in mixed operation|
Eight of the 31 underground stations in the Deutsche Bahn network are in the area of the Munich S- Bahn. Of these, five are in the area of the main line between the main and eastern stations and three are on the S 8 airport line.
In the original state from 1972, there were no stations in the outside area and only a few stations along the trunk line tunnel were made barrier-free. The platform height of only 76 centimeters (with a boarding height in the trains of 96 centimeters) and the lack of elevators prevented this in most cases. Since the end of the 1990s, however, the stations of the Munich S-Bahn have been gradually expanded to be barrier-free. In the beginning, this was mostly done as part of route extensions, as the stations often had to be demolished and rebuilt for this purpose. B. along the multi-track sections to Grafing Bahnhof (1999), Deisenhofen (2004) and Dachau (2005). In the meantime, however, individual train stations along undeveloped external routes are also increasingly being renovated. Since, in addition to retrofitting elevators and increasing the platform height to 96 centimeters, countless other work is usually carried out, the appearance of the Munich S-Bahn stations is changing from the outdated standard of the early 1970s to a noticeably more modern appearance. This mainly includes new, translucent platform roofs and new platform furniture (benches, information showcases). Only a few stations are still mostly in their original condition from 1972.
In 2017, the Bavarian Supreme Audit Office criticized the fact that accessibility in the area of the Munich S-Bahn repeatedly ends at the platform edges. The distance to the rail vehicle is too great for people with reduced mobility at a number of train stations. In order to achieve the goal of barrier-free access by 2023, structural measures and technical solutions, for example in the case of rail vehicles, should be closely coordinated.
Disused train stations
As a special feature, the Munich S-Bahn has some disused stations, all of which are above ground but not dismantled. Worth mentioning here is the former Olympiastadion S-Bahn station , which was opened in 1972 for the Olympic Games and carried a considerable traffic load during the 1972 Summer Olympics . After that, the station was served by a special line on football match days or at events in the Olympic Stadium, but then became redundant and finally shut down in 1988. The station is still largely in its original state and is visibly deteriorating. A track connection to the rest of the network has not existed for several years, as the route was interrupted by a construction pit for the extension of the U 3 . A reactivation of the station is not planned, as the area is meanwhile opened up by the lines of the Munich subway which have been extended to the Olympia shopping center . After the end of planning for the Transrapid project from the main train station to Munich Airport , the route of which would have run directly through the former train station, the way was clear for the land acquisition of the area by the city of Munich, which on this route provides a bicycle and footpath connection to Munich North plans.
Freiham on the southwestern outskirts had its own S-Bahn station on the S 5 (now S 8) line until the end of May 1975, but it was closed because of only around 70 people entering and leaving the city per day. Since then, only the signal box has been used in the station building. The platforms were demolished as part of the double-track expansion of the S-Bahn line in the mid-1980s. Due to current major new construction projects, the district has been connected to the current S 8 line again since 2013 via a new Freiham stop in the center of the district .
In the outdoor area, the Mühlthal S-Bahn station , located a little north of Starnberg , should also be mentioned. After the new Starnberg Nord S-Bahn station was opened on June 10, 2001, the less frequented station in Mühlthal was shut down with the new timetable in December 2004. Since the station is a curiosity far from any town in the middle of the forest and was considered a “wanderer station”, the closure was relatively easy to enforce. The station is also a central location for the premiere episode Waldweg of the crime series Derrick , which was first broadcast on October 20, 1974.
In the municipality of Pullach im Isartal (south of Munich) there is a disused train station in the Großhesselohe district in front of the bridge over the Isar. The state train station Großhesselohe was served by the S-Bahn lines S 12 and S 22 (corresponds to lines S 20 and S 27) on the journey from Deisenhofen to Munich-Solln. The station building is still there today.
- : In 1975 the service of the S-Bahn station Freiham was stopped.
- : In 1981 the operation of the S-Bahn station Großhesselohe was stopped.
- / : The Heimeranplatz S-Bahn station went into operation on September 26, 1982.
- : On May 31, 1992 the Unterpfaffenhofen-Germering station was renamed Germering-Unterpfaffenhofen.
- : On May 28, 2000, the Esterhofen and Walpertshofen stops on the S 2 line were renamed Vierkirchen-Esterhofen and Hebertshausen.
- : With the timetable change at the end of 2004 (December 12, 2004), the Mühlthal train station was shut down, since then the S 6 trains have been running the 7.7 km between Gauting and Starnberg Nord without stopping.
- : With the timetable change at the end of 2005, the terminus of line S 4 (previously: S 8) was renamed from Nannhofen to Mammendorf .
At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, numerous suburban railways were built in the Munich area. Numerous new stops were set up on existing railway lines in the west of Munich in 1896 and in the east of Munich in 1897 in order to be able to better link the Munich suburbs with the city of Munich. On May 1, 1895, the Royal Bavarian State Railways introduced a suburban tariff for two pfennigs per kilometer. The traffic on the suburban railways increased sharply in the period that followed, so that there was a dense cycle sequence, especially in excursion traffic on weekends. The trains mostly consisted of third class cars , the average speed was 25 km / h. A disadvantage of this suburban railway network, consisting of a total of 13 line branches, was that seven lines of the network began and ended in Munich Central Station and its wing stations, another five in Munich Ostbahnhof and another, the Isartalbahn , in the former Munich Isartalbahnhof . There was no connection between the stations via suburban trains, so that passengers mostly had to use the overcrowded trams .
In 1900 a study by Theodor Lechner , who was director of the local rail company at the time, was published on the construction of a four kilometer long connecting line from the main train station to the east train station. The local railway company operated, among other things, the line from Munich-Isartalbahnhof to Wolfratshausen . With this proposal, the route should run from west to east over the current connection between the main train station and the east station and an additional connection between the Isartalbahnhof and Unterföhring should be built, which should meet in the area of the Coal Island, today's Museum Island. This study spoke of a tunnel or elevated railway .
In September 1911 a memorandum of the Royal Bavarian State Ministry for Transport Affairs was drawn up, in which the idea of building a connecting railway from east to west was continued. The connecting line was supposed to run underground to protect the population, although planning and implementation would not begin until the Munich underground network was planned . Two separate tracks were to be created on the long-distance routes for suburban trains. However, since the implementation in the following years of the four-track expansion of the long-distance lines was considered too expensive, the project was not implemented.
In 1928, a memorandum was introduced in a study by Joseph Rank with the title “On the shifting of the traffic focus”. The idea was to move what was then the main train station in the direction of Pasing at about the level of today's Donnersbergerbrücke and to connect the main and east train stations with a tunnel. The tunnel route would enable a direct long-distance traffic connection through the city of Munich without the hassle of thinking. However, because of the economic crisis that broke out in 1929, implementation of the plan was out of the question.
Plans to build an S-Bahn by 1941
|Close network||Extended network||tunnel|
|Riem||Market Swabia||East West|
After Adolf Hitler gave the order to restructure the Munich railway system around a new central station near what is now the Friedenheimer Bridge , the Deutsche Reichsbahn began in 1937 with the concept of having it connected to the city center through the city of Munich with an underground railway . In October 1937, the decision was made to link the subway with the suburban railways, which is why the Deutsche Reichsbahn took over the planning again. An east-west connecting tunnel was to be built to connect the suburban railways from the direction of Pasing and Munich East. The course of the tunnel corresponded roughly to the course of today's trunk line, but the Isar should not be crossed in a tunnel, but with a bridge. The Isartorplatz station was also to be built on the surface. At Karlsplatz , a north-south tunnel should connect the suburban rail from the direction of Holzkirchen , Wolfratshausen, Gauting , Garching and Ismaning should take. The tunnel should at Schwabinger Güterbahnhof start where connection to the Munich North Ring could be made, and the Harras to the wooden churches Munich railway link. A ring line based on the Berlin model connected the two tunnel sections. In the south the ring line ran on the route of the south ring , in the north the ring line was supposed to run on the route of the north ring. In the address given by the General Director of the Deutsche Reichsbahn, Julius Heinrich Dorpmüller , the project was presented to the public as the " S-Bahn ". The S-Bahn was to have 60 stations near the city, for which 103 kilometers of new lines were planned. These new lines were necessary because every S-Bahn line was to have its own tracks in addition to the long-distance line. In addition, lines of the extended network had to be electrified; in contrast to Berlin and Hamburg , the same electricity system was to be used in Munich as on the long-distance railways . The S-Bahn trains were to run in the suburb area every 20 minutes, which was also known as the narrow network , a 10-minute cycle was planned during rush hour . The so-called extended network offered an extension of the S-Bahn lines , with which further suburbs further away from Munich should receive a connection every hour .
For the first construction stage, the four-track expansion of the railway line to Ingolstadt to Dachau , the railway line to Mühldorf to Riem , the railway line to Ismaning to Daglfing , and from Freimann to Unterföhring, and the railway line to Augsburg to Maisach . The double-track expansion was planned on the railway line to Herrsching , on the railway line to Kreuzstrasse to Höhenkirchen-Siegertsbrunn and on the railway line from Ostbahnhof to Deisenhofen . In a second expansion stage, which was to be implemented after the opening of the S-Bahn lines in the first expansion stage, the four-track expansion of the railway line from Lindau to Fürstenfeldbruck and the railway line to Ismaning were planned.
In order to find out the best possible construction method for the two S-Bahn tunnels, the Deutsche Reichsbahn awarded a test construction lot in 1938. This was part of the planned north-south tunnel route and ran with a length of 750 meters in Lindwurmstrasse . In addition to the tunnel, the Goetheplatz S-Bahn station was also to be built. The Deutsche Reichsbahn selected a construction lot on the north-south tunnel route so as not to obstruct the access to the construction of the new main station. When construction began on the east-west route, several entrances would have had to be closed. In July 1941 construction work was stopped due to the Second World War , by which time a 580 meter long section of the tunnel had been completed. During the Second World War, the tunnel was made available to the population as an air raid shelter.
After the Second World War, however, all work and planning on the Munich S-Bahn network was stopped. After the end of the war, the part of the tunnel that had already been built was used by the people of Munich as a growing area for mushrooms and from 1971 it was used as part of the U 6 for its current purpose.
Further development of suburban traffic
Munich became a metropolis of over a million in 1957 , and the population in the surrounding area also rose. Ten years later, the population of the Munich area also exceeded the million mark. After the Second World War, around 24,000 commuters daily used Munich's suburban trains. In 1950 the number doubled, and in 1961 114,300 commuters used the suburban trains every day. Most commuters from the Munich area, however, used motor vehicles to get to the city of Munich. The suburban trains proved to be too inconvenient and did not run in a fixed cycle system. This led to the fact that the city of Munich became one of the cities with the largest number of vehicles in Germany. In order to prevent the impending traffic chaos, the plans for the introduction of a means of mass transport were resumed in 1954. The Deutsche Bundesbahn saw advantages in an inner-city tunnel from the east to the main train station, in order to connect the western and eastern suburban railways with one another and thus shorten travel times. The city of Munich and the Deutsche Bundesbahn then set up an examination committee in 1959 to determine a suitable tariff system and a suitable means of mass transport. In the same year, the Deutsche Bundesbahn announced that it was planning a connecting line, abbreviated as V-Bahn, which should be implemented as the connection from the east to the main station already planned by the Deutsche Reichsbahn. The length of the tunnel should be 4.2 kilometers, and it should be connected to the Munich area with an approximately 380 kilometer network. 134 stations were planned for the entire route network. Previously, on November 1, 1955, the Deutsche Bundesbahn had prevented the construction of an under- paving line on the planned connecting line with the help of an expert report . The examination commission commissioned in 1959 also came to the conclusion in 1963 that the route for the planned connecting line should be handed over to the Deutsche Bundesbahn and that a north-south tunnel section of the subway at Marienplatz should connect to the connecting line. In a city council resolution on July 10, 1963, the construction of the connecting railway and on January 29, 1964 the construction of an adjoining underground railway was approved.
First expansion stage
In 1956 the Deutsche Bundesbahn took over the plans from 1941 for the S-Bahn with east-west tunnels and the main external routes; There were no additional planning variants. Initial considerations regarding the financing of the project showed that the Federal Railroad could not finance the entire main line. So they suggested mixed financing by a sponsoring company, in which the federal government , the Free State of Bavaria and the state capital Munich should also participate. In December of the same year, the Deutsche Bundesbahn held initial talks with the federal government, the Free State of Bavaria and the City of Munich. In 1961, the Free State of Bavaria and the City of Munich agreed to financing with the Deutsche Bundesbahn. The federal government set up a commission of experts to examine the circumstances in the Munich area. In October 1964, the work of the commission was completed, and the federal government saw the advantages of mixed financing by a sponsoring company. According to the results of the commission, it should also finance the north-south tunnel route of the subway. In order not to delay the construction of the underground, the state capital of Munich and the Free State of Bavaria founded the supporting company on February 1, 1965, which was called the Münchner Tunnelgesellschaft (MTG). The Deutsche Bundesbahn and the federal government did not participate for the time being, as the construction of the main S-Bahn line had not yet been secured. In June 1965 the Federal Cabinet announced that negotiations were being held on the financing of the S-Bahn network on July 9, 1965 due to increasing necessity and after objections from the federal government had been resolved. As the negotiations were successful, the construction of the S-Bahn network was approved on July 21, 1965. On September 16, 1965, the financing of the first expansion stage of the S-Bahn network was secured by the so-called consortium agreement. In the consortium agreement, the participation of the Deutsche Bundesbahn and the federal government in the Munich tunnel company was ensured. The contract also decided to finance the first expansion stage of the S-Bahn network. The first expansion stage included the construction of the connecting line from the Ostbahnhof to Pasing, the introduction of the suburban railways into the connecting line and the expansion and electrification of the existing suburban railways. A total of 490 million DM was estimated for the realization of the first expansion stage . Two thirds of the required money should be provided by the federal government, one third by the Free State of Bavaria. The state capital of Munich contributed DM 31 million and the Deutsche Bundesbahn contributed DM 40 million to a third of the Free State of Bavaria. The Deutsche Bundesbahn was responsible for purchasing the required vehicles. The removal of the level crossings on the suburban railways was also left to the Deutsche Bundesbahn.
|line||West branch||East branch
as of 1972
(Holzkirchner wing station)
(Holzkirchner wing station)
(Holzkirchner wing station)
According to plans by the Deutsche Bundesbahn in 1963, an hourly cycle was planned as the basic cycle on all S-Bahn lines. In the rush hour, due to the higher volume of traffic, the plan was every 20 minutes. In 1972 the Deutsche Bundesbahn assumed a 20- and 40-minute cycle because the traffic volume was misjudged in 1963. The 20-minute intervals to suburbs close to the city and the 40-minute intervals to the terminal stations could not be adhered to in the early years due to a lack of vehicles, as only 101 of the 120 multiple units ordered had been delivered by 1972. The missing multiple units were replaced by locomotive-hauled trains, which, however, could not keep the short travel times of the multiple units. A dwell time of 20 to 30 seconds was calculated at the stations.
The first stage envisaged connecting seven line branches from the west with five line branches from the east. However, the project had to be accelerated by the decision made by the International Olympic Committee on April 26, 1966 in Rome to host the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, which is why the introduction of suburban railways from Wolfratshausen and Deisenhofen via Solln was postponed for the time being. When assigning line numbers, the western branches of the line, starting in Freising, were numbered in a counter-clockwise direction. An exception was the S-Bahn line to Wolfratshausen, which was given the line number S 10, as the trains ended in the Holzkirchen wing station of the main station. The six western branches of the line that lead across the trunk line were coupled with the five eastern branches of the line. Care was taken to ensure that a line did not run in the west and east over a route prone to delays, for example double-track routes on which numerous regional and long-distance trains run in addition to the S-Bahn trains. The exception was the S 4 S-Bahn, which ran over the Bavarian Allgäu Railway and the railway line to Rosenheim.
Until the opening of the S-Bahn network in 1972, the Deutsche Bundesbahn carried out the following construction work:
- The trunk line was rebuilt as a connecting line. In addition, the above-ground area of the main line had to be rebuilt and equipped with new platforms that were as handicapped as possible. With the construction of the main line, the Munich East and Munich-Pasing stations were rebuilt, and separate platforms were created for the S-Bahn. The removal of the S-Bahn tracks from the mainline tracks was carried out at the same level as possible in order to avoid lengthy construction work at crossings. The S-Bahn lines from Deisenhofen and Kreuzstrasse were connected to the S-Bahn platforms of the Ostbahnhof with a 350-meter-long crossing structure.
- Furthermore, the platforms of 115 stations of the total of 136 stations of the S-Bahn were brought to a platform height of 76 centimeters and a platform length of 210 meters. An exception was the section of today's S-Bahn line S 2 from Ottenhofen to Erding , which was only equipped for a length of 140 meters, so the S-Bahn line can only be served by full trains. On the S 7 in the direction of Kreuzstraße, only full trains can drive between Höhenkirchen-Siegertsbrunn and Kreuzstraße. 39 train stations received a new platform underpass to avoid level crossings. A further 64 stations in the area close to the city received a platform roof.
- The five stations Oberschleißheim , Leienfelsstraße, Neugilching , Sankt-Martin-Straße and Fasanenpark were newly built.
- A storage facility for S-Bahn trains was set up in the west of Pasing, and a workshop in Steinhausen .
- 143 kilometers of the railway network were electrified, branch lines became main lines . The German Federal Railroad limited itself to the construction of its own lines for the S-Bahn in addition to the main line on the Pasing– Lochhausen and Ostbahnhof– Berg am Laim section . The only double-track line expanded in the course of the S-Bahn construction was the Leuchtenbergring –Ismaning line.
- A central operational monitoring system was set up at the Donnersbergerbrücke, which controls the entire S-Bahn operation.
- Several level crossings were replaced by overpasses or underpasses. New parking spaces were built at the stations and the park-and-ride system was introduced. Most recently, the old train station buildings at S-Bahn stations were modernized or demolished.
- The Deutsche Bundesbahn ordered 120 new S-Bahn vehicles of the DB class 420 for S-Bahn operations .
Trunk line tunnel
After the federal government, the Free State of Bavaria, the state capital of Munich and the Deutsche Bundesbahn had signed the contract for the construction of the Munich S-Bahn and the main line in 1965 and the 1972 Summer Olympics had been awarded to Munich on April 26, 1966, construction work stood under enormous time pressure. The four-kilometer trunk route tunnel had to be operational for the Olympic Games in Munich within six years. The line between the main station and Karlsplatz is 476 meters long, and between Karlsplatz and Marienplatz the length of the section is 748 meters. The section between Marienplatz and Isartor is 735 meters long. The length of the route between Isartor and Rosenheimer Platz is 939 meters and between Rosenheimer Platz and Ostbahnhof is 1056 meters. The route has a maximum gradient of 32 per thousand. This is carried out on the ramp between the trunk line tunnel and the Ostbahnhof. The minimum radius in the trunk line tunnel is 300 meters, with the exception of a curve with a minimum radius of 280 meters. The maximum speed is 80 km / h. With the exception of the Isar crossing, the route runs under streets so that no buildings had to be tunnelled.
On June 15, 1966, the first ram to build the trunk line tunnel was made on the occasion of the start of the Munich S-Bahn construction in Arnulfstrasse opposite the Starnberg train station. The plans made by the Deutsche Bundesbahn from 1963 onwards were completed beforehand. During the construction period, around two million D-Marks were raised each month to build the tunnel. The main route was divided into eight sections. A total of 200 to 50 meters deep bores at a distance of 25 meters were carried out. In addition, the groundwater level of 330 groundwater levels had to be checked during construction. The sections Hackerbrücke –Karlsplatz and Ostbahnhof – Rosenheimer Platz were built using the open construction method with girders and diaphragm walls . The Isar and some of the buildings in section 7 were crossed under with the help of a shield drive so that no excavation pits were necessary. Since the groundwater level in Munich is relatively high, the remaining sections between Isartor and Karlsplatz had to be built using a closed construction method to prevent the groundwater from penetrating. The S-Bahn stations at Karlsplatz and Marienplatz were built by the City of Munich together with the U-Bahn stations . Before and after the Isar crossing, a weir chamber gate with a weight of 25 tons was installed to prevent flooding of the remaining trunk lines as well as the first trunk line of the subway in the event of water ingress. The tunnel stations were designed in five different colors for better recognition. The platform height of 95 centimeters made height-free access to the S-Bahn trains possible.
On February 25, 1971, the topping-out ceremony was celebrated in the main line's tunnel. After a few test drives, the official opening of the tunnel took place on April 28, 1972. On the same day, shuttle trips between the main and east stations were introduced with the new 420 series vehicles. From May 1, 1972, the shuttle trains drove to the Hackerbrücke. On May 28, 1972, regular operations in the entire S-Bahn network began.
As early as 1972, the S-Bahn operated on the main line with line train control (LZB) with driver's cab signaling . Due to poor availability and other factors, the system was taken out of service in 1983. In 2004, improved LZB technology was installed on the main line to increase the throughput of the line from 24 to 30 trains per hour in each direction. According to Deutsche Bahn, this makes it the busiest railway line in Europe.
Start of operation in 1972
In May 1972, the first S-Bahn train of the 420 series was used on the Pasing – Gauting line . Regular preliminary operations started there on September 1, 1971 with push-pull trains . On April 28, 1972, the S-Bahn main line (Hauptbahnhof – Marienplatz – Ostbahnhof) was opened for trial operation. On May 28, 1972, the Munich S-Bahn was officially opened by the Deutsche Bundesbahn with over 360 kilometers of tracks and 101 trains of the 420 series in the then current pop paint scheme of green blue / pebble gray. It was the first time that a S-Bahn network in Germany went into operation on such a large scale on a key date. The prognoses before commissioning were based on 240,000 travelers per day, after one year the number of daily passengers was already 400,000. Initially, due to a lack of vehicles, it was only possible to offer a 40-minute cycle, which was reduced to 20 minutes in sections.
Just three months after the first run in 1972, the then German President Gustav Heinemann opened the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. During the Games, in addition to the existing S-Bahn lines, two special S-Bahn lines, the so-called Olympialinien, were used via the Nordring to the Olympiastadion station , which was closed in 1988 and now decaying . The new Munich S-Bahn system proved its worth during the Olympic Games and transported 3.18 million passengers in 7,138 journeys to and from the sports facilities in 17 days. The special lines were used for several years for important football games and other major events in the Olympic Stadium.
On December 1, 1972, the first class was suspended by the abolition of a corresponding surcharge regulation after the unexpectedly heavy use of the S-Bahn had led to public criticism of the often under-used first-class areas. It was officially abolished when the timetable changed on May 29, 1983.
Southern route introduction
The line to Wolfratshausen - today's S 7 - entered the Munich S-Bahn network as line S 10 when it opened, but was still operated with older n-carriages - push-pull trains that ran from the Holzkirchen wing station of the main station. The use of locomotive-hauled trains, which required longer travel times, meant that the S-Bahn lines in the direction of Wolfratshausen and Deisenhofen could only run every 30 or 60 minutes. Since there was no connection from the Südring to the main S-Bahn line, the S-Bahn trains ended in the Holzkirchen wing station, which resulted in longer transfer times.
After the connection of the southern lines to the main line was postponed by the Deutsche Bundesbahn, investigations began again in 1972 to determine how the southern lines should be connected to the main line. As a result of the investigation, it was stated that the area around the Donnersbergerbrücke stop would be the only section suitable to accommodate the additional lines and to create a transfer option to other lines. After the start of the S-Bahn operation, the construction of a southern route was again called into question because the timetable routes were urgently needed by other western lines. Alternative plans arose that provided for the connection of the southern lines to the Donnersbergerbrücke stop, whereupon the S-Bahn was to end in the Starnberg wing station. Another alternative project was the construction of another breakpoint on the south side of the Donnersbergerbrücke. In 1976, the Deutsche Bundesbahn decided to enable a connection to the main line at the Donnersbergerbrücke stop and thus make it possible to continue on the main line or to the Starnberg wing station of the main station.
In order to reach the main line from the south side of the track system, a so-called south line tunnel, which crosses under ten long-distance tracks, had to be built. Another platform should be set up at the Donnersbergerbrücke to enable direct transfers. For the execution of the tracks in the direction of the Starnberg wing station of the main station, another crossing structure had to be built between the Hacker Bridge and the Donnersberger Bridge. As an additional measure on the southern route to Wolfratshausen, the decision was made to expand the connecting curve to the Isar Valley Railway from Solln to Großhesselohe Isartalbahnhof to double track . All platforms in the S-Bahn area had to be adapted to the S-Bahn operation. Because of the higher power consumption of the S-Bahn trains, a substation was built in Wolfratshausen , as well as a connection to the traction power line to Kochel am See . On June 28, 1976, the introduction of the southern route was approved by the Munich Tunnel Company.
Construction work on the southern tunnel began shortly after the project was approved. The tunnel is double-track and 260 meters long. An 85 meter long ramp, which is supported by a retaining wall made of bored piles and sheet piling , connects the tunnel with the south ring. An open trough with a length of 35 meters and two single-track ramps with a length of 110 and 120 meters each connect the tunnel with the Donnersbergerbrücke station. The tunnel was built using the top-down method in order not to restrict traffic on the long-distance railways as much as possible. During the construction of the tunnel, the ceilings and bored piles were inserted into the tunnel in ten construction phases in order to block the individual long-distance tracks as short as possible. The materials required in the construction phases were brought to the respective construction phase via a tunnel. The gaps between the bored piles, which are 1.7 meters apart, were filled with shotcrete . The tunnel, the trough structure and part of the ramp were equipped with a total of 260 meters long groundwater basin, as the groundwater level was only six meters.
Another construction measure was to create a crossing structure between the Donnersbergerbrücke and the Hackerbrücke. This structure was necessary in order to thread the S 7 tracks, which were still separate at the Donnersbergerbrücke, into the main line. In addition, the structure is used to transfer the tracks from the main line to the Starnberg wing station. Since there was only limited space between the Donnersbergerbrücke and Hackerbrücke, the structure was designed as a trough and bridge structure. The length of the structure could thus be reduced to 180 meters. The upper track is 4.5 meters above the lower track, the upper track, which leads to the Starnberg wing station, has an incline of up to 40 per thousand, the lower track leading into the main line has an incline of up to 32 per thousand. In the spring of 1978 the building was inaugurated. After the railway lines had been prepared for S-Bahn operations and the southern line tunnel was completed, the new lines S 7 Wolfratshausen – Ostbahnhof and S 27 Deisenhofen – Hauptbahnhof were put into operation on May 31, 1981. The push- pull trains previously used were replaced by class 420 railcars.
After the opening of the S-Bahn network at the beginning of 1972, around 150,000 to 160,000 passengers use the Munich S-Bahn every day. The forecasts before the opening of the S-Bahn network, which foresaw 240,000 passengers, were already exceeded by the end of the year with 250,000 passengers a day. However, individual external routes still had to be operated by push-pull trains, as only 101 of the 120 vehicles ordered were available. By the beginning of 1973, all 120 S-Bahn vehicles had been delivered, but their number was still not sufficient as the volume of traffic was underestimated, especially during rush hour, and trains had to be reinforced on other external routes already used by multiple units. In the fall of 1976, Munich was able to use six more vehicles, so that the east branch of the S 1 line from Hohenbrunn to Kreuzstraße, which was previously operated with n-car push-pull trains, could also be operated with S-Bahn traction vehicles. Furthermore, the use of the railcars on the east branch of the S 3 from Ostbahnhof to Ismaning was possible, before the traffic on the route was carried out with buses. After the Munich S-Bahn had more vehicles of the second series available in 1975, the east branch of the S 2 from Deisenhofen to Holzkirchen could also be extended and class 420 multiple units could also be used on the S 22. However, these vehicles were used on the S 7 after the southern route was introduced, so that the now renamed S 27 line S 22 was operated again with push-pull trains. It was not until 1983 that S-Bahn railcars could be used again on the S 27, as 187 vehicles were now available.
In the following years up to the end of the 1970s, the number of passengers doubled to 430,000 passengers per working day. In 1987, 639,000 passengers used the Munich S-Bahn every day on weekdays. This was mainly due to the fact that the number of inhabitants in the Munich area increased; the communities with a direct S-Bahn connection were most affected by the growth. The number of passengers continued to rise over the next few months. As a result, the trains were often overcrowded during rush hour, which is why passengers asked for service improvements. In addition, the 40-minute intervals on most of the outdoor routes were described as insufficient. In the next few years, a remedy could be found with the use of longer full and long trains. In 1974 the number of multiple units of the Munich S-Bahn was increased from 126 to 138 vehicles, so that a 20-minute cycle could be ensured on the routes with the highest traffic volume. Due to the further expansion of the route in the 1980s, a 20-minute cycle could be introduced all day on weekdays. Since 1996, the entire network in the vicinity of the city has been served every day at 20-minute intervals.
Second expansion stage
Overview / planning
The first stage of expansion was limited in time by the Olympic Games in 1972. Because of the enormous time pressure, not all routes could be equipped for a 10 or 20-minute cycle.
The second expansion stage was necessary mainly because of the increasing volume of traffic. In 1973 and 1974, the German Federal Railroad determined the following construction measures: Separate S-Bahn tracks were to be built on the lines from Lochhausen to Nannhofen (now Mammendorf) and from Munich East to Grafing to accommodate long-distance and regional traffic no longer obstruct corresponding routes. Since new settlement areas arose in Esting , Neuperlach in the south and in Unterschleißheim , the new stops in Unterschleißheim were built in 1977, Neuperlach South in 1977 and Esting in 1980. The railway line to Herrsching was to be expanded to two tracks between Freiham and Weßling .
The plans also envisaged improving the traction power supply in order to enable the use of more and longer S-Bahn trains. The Steinhausen railway depot was to be expanded to enable the stationing and parking of additional locomotives.
The operations center at Donnersbergerbrücke should also be expanded. In addition, further park-and-ride parking spaces were to be created at important stations.
In addition, the construction of its own S-Bahn tracks from Laim to Dachau (today S 2) and Oberschleißheim (today S 1), as well as the double-track expansion from Giesing to Höhenkirchen-Siegertsbrunn (today S 7) and from Weßling to Herrsching (today S 8) planned, which would have made a 10-minute cycle on these routes possible. However, these construction measures were postponed again.
On January 1, 1971, it was decided to finance the second expansion stage, for which 830 million DM were estimated. The federal government paid 60 percent of this.
S 3-West towards Nannhofen (today Mammendorf)
On the S 3 line between Munich-Pasing and Lochhausen, separate S-Bahn tracks have existed since the S-Bahn network opened. The increasing volume of traffic on the long-distance railway to Augsburg and the S-Bahn to Nannhofen made it necessary to build separate tracks between Lochhausen and Nannhofen. The frequency between Lochhausen and Maisach has thus been increased to a 20/40 minute cycle. Up to Nannhofen a 40/80 minute cycle was planned, due to the short cycle sequence one S-Bahn track was sufficient on the section. The route was divided into three construction phases. The first construction phase between Lochhausen and Olching was opened in December 1976 after a five-year construction period. Then the construction of the second section between Olching and Maisach began. However, work was delayed due to difficulties in acquiring land. During the construction work, the Maisach and Olching stations were rebuilt. On May 28, 1980, the S-Bahn tracks went into operation. Three years after the start of construction in 1985, the single-track third construction section from Maisach to Nannhofen was completed in May 1988, the construction work was delayed mainly due to renovations at Nannhofen station.
S 4-east to Ebersberg
Separate tracks were available on the S 4 S-Bahn line between Munich-Berg am Laim and Munich-Trudering . These were initially shared by freight trains until a separate freight track could be built in 1973. Because of the close succession of long-distance trains in the direction of Rosenheim , the S-Bahn from Munich- Trudering could only run every 40 or 60 minutes. A further increase in the number of passengers made the route the most frequented eastern branch and made it necessary to compress it to a 20-minute cycle. However, this could only be achieved by building our own S-Bahn tracks. In 1973 it was decided to build two additional S-Bahn tracks, and the Deutsche Bundesbahn then divided the line into three construction phases. In 1974 work began on the first construction phase from Munich-Trudering to Haar. This section could be opened on November 3, 1979. Problems with the land acquisition delayed the construction of the S-Bahn tracks for the next construction phase from Haar to Zorneding , which is why it only went into operation in the winter timetable of 1988. During construction, additional park-and-ride parking spaces were created at stations with high traffic volumes. The opening of the last construction phase from Zorneding to Grafing could only take place in 1999 due to further difficulties with the routing. The construction costs for the S-Bahn tracks amounted to 114 million D-Marks.
S 5-West (today S 8) to Herrsching
Expansion measures were also necessary on the western branch of the S 5 line to Herrsching (today S 8) as part of the second expansion phase. The section from Munich-Pasing to Freiham had been double-tracked since 1913 due to the already high volume of traffic. Since 1972, a 20-minute cycle has been offered on the entire route to Herrsching. However, the 20-minute intervals were not sufficient during rush hour, so that sometimes a ten-minute interval was offered. The amplifier trains could not run at a fixed frequency, however, because there were not enough stations for the trains to cross. In order to enable a fixed 10-minute cycle on the entire route, the route should be expanded to double-track in the second stage. In 1980 the financing of the two-track expansion was secured. Construction work could begin one year later, and after a construction period of three years, the second track was put into operation in 1984 to Unterpfaffenhofen-Germering . In 1985 the construction of the second track between Gilching-Argelsried and Weßling was completed, in 1986 the entire line to Weßling was double-track. The end section to Herrsching is still single-track with an intersection in Seefeld-Hechendorf . During construction, park-and-ride parking lots and new train stations were created at the stations. With the expansion, a ten-minute cycle could be offered during rush hour to Germering-Unterpfaffenhofen or Weßling.
Central area in the east
Another part of the second expansion stage was the conversion of the tracks around the Leuchtenbergring station . Separate tracks were created up to Berg am Laim for the S-Bahn traffic in the direction of Markt Schwaben . In addition, a separate double-track storage line to the Munich-Steinhausen depot was created. With the completion of this work, a continuous 20-minute cycle was largely possible on the entire S-Bahn network.
Park and ride spaces
As part of an expansion project, 14,600 park-and-ride spaces were built at 90 S-Bahn stations by 1996. New parking spaces also had to be created for bicycles due to the increasing number of passengers who went to the train station by bike. In 1996, 27,000 parking spaces were available in the entire S-Bahn network, and the number of cyclists rose by up to 400 percent in the mid-1990s.
S 8-east route to the airport
On March 17, 1992, the S-Bahn line to Ismaning was extended to the newly opened Munich Airport and the previous Ismaning terminus was replaced by a new tunnel station. Line S 8 has been running on this route since then.
S 1-West route to the airport
Six years later, on November 29, 1998, the western branch of the S 1 from Neufahrn was extended to the airport.
Line A Dachau - Altomünster
Introduction of the ten-minute cycle
Expansion of the S-Bahn network
Due to the very busy S-Bahn trains during rush hour, it was necessary to increase the number of times. In rush hour traffic, the 20-minute intervals could be increased with additional trains, but these were not possible on all routes or did not run at a fixed frequency. Furthermore, the passage of the trains through the main S-Bahn line was not possible due to capacity bottlenecks in the main line tunnel, which meant additional transfers at the Munich-Pasing and Munich East stations. In order to improve the situation, in 1991 the State Ministry commissioned the Munich Federal Railway Directorate to enable a 10-minute cycle on three western and three eastern branches. This required the expansion and construction of our own S-Bahn tracks on some routes.
The capacity of the eastern branch of line S 2 from Giesing to Deisenhofen, today's S 3, was exhausted during rush hour. However, a 10-minute cycle was only possible through a double-track expansion. The section between Munich East and Munich-Giesing was already double-tracked due to the shared use of the section with today's S 7. In 1995 construction work began on the DM 90 million project. During the construction work, park-and-ride parking spaces were created at the S-Bahn stations, and the stations were also upgraded to accommodate the disabled. The disability-friendly expansion measures at Deisenhofen station forced the construction work to be extended, as all the track systems had to be redesigned. The construction work was completed in 2004.
The western branch of the S 2 was also overloaded during rush hour. A further consolidation of the intervals was not possible because the route was also used by some long-distance and regional trains. In 1992, 33,500 passengers used the S-Bahn between Laim and Obermenzing every day, and around 19,000 on to Dachau. In order to be able to provide additional seats, a 10-minute cycle was planned during rush hour. In addition to the long-distance railway tracks, a separate double-track S-Bahn line was to be built between Laim and Dachau. In 1996 the construction of the two more tracks began. The construction work was delayed by major renovations at Dachau station, and some station buildings had to be demolished. At the intermediate stations, platforms and park-and-ride facilities were built for the disabled. The construction project, which cost 200 million Deutschmarks, was completed on December 12, 2005. In 2004, the section from Dachau to Petershausen was also equipped with its own track in order to separate long-distance traffic on the high-speed line to Nuremberg from the S-Bahn traffic. Between Hebertshausen and Röhrmoos, the otherwise single-track, separate S-Bahn line was given a double-track encounter section.
The east branch of the S 6, today's line S 2, was fully used during rush hour traffic. Since the population of the neighboring communities continued to rise, a higher number of passengers was to be expected. In order to be able to cope with this, the Deutsche Bundesbahn planned to introduce a 10-minute cycle during rush hour on this branch as well. A 10-minute cycle was only possible by separating the long-distance tracks to Mühldorf and the S-Bahn tracks. In the following years the construction of a separate double-track S-Bahn route was planned. As far as Riem, the long-distance railway tracks were to be relocated to the site of the former Munich East marshalling yard; in the further course, a new double-track route was to be created next to the long-distance railway line. In addition, the commissioning of a new Poing West stop was planned. The train stations should be made accessible to the disabled and new park-and-ride facilities should be built. The 500 million D-Mark construction project has not been implemented to this day, with the exception of the relocation of the mainline tracks in the Berg am Laim-Riem area in 2003 to the former marshalling yard in Munich East, so that only a limited 10 -Minute intervals with express S-Bahn trains is possible.
The construction of its own S-Bahn tracks on the western branch of the S 4 to Geltendorf to Buchenau was also planned. This became necessary due to the population growth in the region of the city of Fürstenfeldbruck. The high frequency on the Allgäu Railway initially did not allow a 10-minute cycle during rush hour, which is why the Deutsche Bundesbahn commissioned studies on the layout of two more S-Bahn tracks in 1991. In 1992 the planning was discontinued, today the resumption of planning is planned. Today, due to the lack of tracks, traffic during rush hour can only be increased by individual repeater trains.
In the course of these line extensions for the ten-minute cycle and the extensions for the second stage, a continuous 20-minute cycle was initially implemented. From December 2004, clock 10 was then on the S 3 (today between Maisach and Munich S 3, between Munich and Zorneding S 4) between Maisach and Zorneding, and on the S 5 (today between Deisenhofen and Munich S 3, between Munich and Germering-Unterpfaffenhofen S 8) was introduced between Deisenhofen and Germering-Unterpfaffenhofen, as it still exists today. Since December 2005, rush hour traffic has also been offered on the west branch of the S 2 between Munich and Dachau, every 10 minutes. All “Takt-10-Linien” now run on their own tracks, separated from other traffic.
Strengthening the main line
In January 2003, as part of the implementation of the Takt 10 project, another major S-Bahn construction project was started. A new signaling system was installed on the main line between the Pasing and Leuchtenbergring stations. For this reason, the trunk line tunnel was not used at night or on 49 weekends until February 2004, and rail replacement services on the surface were offered. In addition, a new electronic signal box (ESTW) with sub-centers near the Donnersbergerbrücke and at the Ostbahnhof was built for the main line , which is operated from the operations center near the Donnersbergerbrücke.
Since the fall of 2004, operations on the main S-Bahn line have been carried out with LZB CIR-ELKE II. This signaling technology enables driving from an electronic point of view with very dense train sequences. The capacity of the tunnel increased from 24 trains per hour with traffic light signals to 30 trains per hour with LZB driver's cab signaling; the capacity expansion was necessary for the 10-minute intervals planned from December 2004 during rush hour on some S-Bahn lines.
In order to be able to adhere to the scheduled holding times of 24 to 42 seconds required for this, two employees are deployed to guide travelers at each of the 13 stations on the main route during rush hour.
With the timetable change on December 12, 2004, the ten-minute cycle was introduced on the S 4 from Maisach to Zorneding and on the S 5 from Germering-Unterpfaffenhofen to Deisenhofen during rush hour, the number of train journeys has increased from three to six each Hour doubled. Since December 12, 2005, a doubling of the clock rate has also been offered on the western section of the S 2 to Dachau.
By 2007, the federal, state and railways invested around two billion euros in expanding the route network.
Further development of the S-Bahn network
In 2001, the Munich S-Bahn, previously operated by DB Regio , was founded as an independent company with limited liability within the DB Group , but was reintegrated into DB Regio on November 1, 2005 .
In August 1998 the federal government, the Free State of Bavaria and Deutsche Bahn decided on a so-called 266 million euro package , within the framework of which projects that could be implemented to introduce a ten-minute cycle were resolved in the foreseeable future and a financing agreement was concluded at the end of 1998. The main point was the modernization of the control and safety technology between Pasing and Ostbahnhof, including the installation of a line train control. Between 2001 and 2005, construction work on the external routes continued as part of the € 266 million program for double-track expansion. As part of this program, new S-Bahn stations were opened on June 10, 2001 in Starnberg North (S 6 West) and on December 11, 2005 in Untermenzing (S 2 West). Some of the existing train stations on the external routes could still be made barrier-free within the financial framework of the project. On November 21, 2005, the section of the airport line S 8 in the area of the Unterföhring community between Johanneskirchen and Ismaning was relocated underground, with the new Unterföhring tunnel station being built at the request of the community. On December 13, 2009, a new stop at the Hirschgarten was inaugurated on the main S-Bahn line between Laim and Donnersbergerbrücke .
In June, July and August 2012, the main line was closed on seven weekends in order to renew the track systems in the above-ground area. 18 of the total of 27 points on the main line were equipped with heaters to prevent freezing in winter. In addition, the fire protection systems in some tunnel stations were renewed, new glass structures were built around the escalators to prevent the smoke from spreading in the event of a fire. During the closure, replacement rail traffic was set up and the S 8 was diverted via the Südring. Since not all points could be equipped with heaters due to a lack of funds and the installation of the fire protection systems has not yet been completed, the trunk line closures were continued in summer and autumn 2013. During this time, the Donnersbergerbrücke train station in particular was modernized and equipped with lifts for wheelchair access. The closures began on July 22, 2013 and lasted until December 20, 2013. On six weekends in the summer, the main line was completely closed and a replacement rail service was set up. On the remaining weekends, commuter trains run between Pasing and Ostbahnhof as well as Hackerbrücke and Ostbahnhof every 20 minutes. For remaining work at the Donnersbergerbrücke station, there were again closures on the weekends and in late traffic from March to June 2014. Rail replacement services were set up between Pasing and Hackerbrücke on two weekends, otherwise shuttle S-Bahn trains ran.
On September 14, 2013, the Freiham stop was opened on the S 8 line, which is to connect the new Freiham residential area . It is located one kilometer east of the Freiham train station, which was closed in 1975. Construction work began on June 12, 2012.
On December 15, 2013, the S 27 from the main station to Deisenhofen was discontinued, the journeys are taken over by the half-hourly Meridian trains of the Bavarian Oberlandbahn , which are extended during rush hour via Holzkirchen and the Mangfalltalbahn to Rosenheim . In addition, the end point of line S 20 was relocated from Deisenhofen to Höllriegelskreuth on the Isar Valley Railway. The Munich – Holzkirchen railway line between Solln and Deisenhofen is therefore no longer served by S-Bahn trains.
In 2014, the Dachau – Altomünster railway line previously used by Line A was electrified. In addition, a double-track meeting section between Bachern and Schwabhausen and an additional crossing station in Erdweg were built. The plan approval procedure was completed in January 2013. From April 28 to December 13, 2014, operations on Line A between Dachau and Altomünster for route electrification were discontinued and class 628 railcar journeys were replaced by rail replacement services with buses. After completion of the renovation work, electrical operation began on December 14, 2014. Instead of the previous hourly service, a 30-minute service is now offered during rush hour. The route is served as a wing route by the S 2. The last estimate was based on EUR 47 million. Construction was originally scheduled to begin in 2012, with completion scheduled for 2013.
Since the timetable change in December 2016, the 10-minute intervals that had been offered Monday to Thursday were also offered on Fridays during the afternoon rush hour. This means more than 100 additional journeys or up to 23 additional journeys per line.
New transport contract
On June 16, 2017, BEG put out tenders for the transport services for the Munich S-Bahn network across Europe. In a first operating stage, around 21.3 million train kilometers are to be provided annually from December 2019 at the earliest. With the commissioning of the second main line (probably December 2028), a second, not yet precisely planned operating stage begins with a significantly increased traffic volume. The exact contract term is to be negotiated and will end in December 2027 and December 2034 at the latest. The railway company is to procure new vehicles during the term, which are to be financed by the Free State and handed over to the next operator after the end of the contract. Initially, the use of used vehicles is permitted from 1993 onwards. The application deadline for interested parties was March 23, 2018. It was criticized that the conditions of the tender were oriented towards the needs of Bahn AG.
Modernization of the vehicle fleet
The class 423 multiple units have been modernized since July 2018. The last multiple unit should be modernized by the end of 2020.
Customers can recognize modernized vehicles by the colorful LED exterior displays, the changed interior and the large monitors in the interior. The trains are being modernized because the previous version did not offer enough space for passengers. This problem is solved by removing one seat per seating group.
On New Year's Eve in 1988 , a train driver in Ebersberg left the cab of a train arriving from Munich without having applied the brakes. The class 420 multiple unit, which was no longer occupied with passengers, then started moving along the sloping route . He rolled into the Wasserburg train station, where the dispatcher could direct him to a siding.
On August 16, 2003, a serious accident occurred at Neufahrn train station: an S 1 train was split into two parts as planned in order to travel to Freising and the airport. Due to a chain of unfavorable circumstances (including heavy fog, incorrect structures in the Neufahrn train station, incorrectly assigned control codes due to construction work on the main line), the rear part of the train collided with the front part at a speed of approx. 50 km / h. Approx. two dozen passengers were injured, the driver of the approaching part of the train was trapped and seriously injured. The two railcars that crashed (423 225 and 423 227) could be repaired and returned to regular service after about two years.
On May 8, 2004, an S-Bahn (423 190) at the Leuchtenbergring station collided with a construction train that disregarded several signals showing stops. 54 of the 110 passengers were injured, seven of them seriously.
On the evening of November 3, 2008, the first and so far only child was born in a Munich S-Bahn train on line S 8 at Munich-Pasing station. As a birth present, it received lifelong free travel authorization for all Munich S-Bahn journeys from Deutsche Bahn.
On September 12, 2009, Dominik Brunner was murdered by two young people at the Solln S-Bahn station . Previously, he wanted to protect four students from the young people who wanted to blackmail the students. Brunner died with serious injuries in the Großhadern Clinic due to cardiac arrest. In the following days Dominik Brunner was honored several times, whereupon the Dominik Brunner Foundation for Civil Courage was founded.
On the evening of February 21, 2013, a broken-down car transporter was caught by a S-Bahn line 4 at the level crossing in Emmering and torn to pieces. The 62-year-old driver of the truck was killed by flying debris. The driver of the S-Bahn remained uninjured despite considerable damage to the two vehicles (423 125 and 423 143). Only one passenger was slightly injured and was able to receive outpatient care on site. Both vehicles have been in use again since August 2013 after several months of repair work.
On May 7, 2014, a serious accident occurred in Olching: An S-Bahn collided with the boom of a two-way excavator. The train, which was traveling at around 100 km / h, was ripped open by the shovel and badly damaged. Since it was an empty trip, no passengers were injured; the driver of the train, however, was seriously injured and had to be taken care of by an emergency doctor. The badly damaged train (423 206) was released after all investigative measures had been completed and could be rebuilt by the manufacturer. After extensive test and acceptance runs, the vehicle has been back in passenger service since September 2017.
Part of the S-Bahn operation is controlled by the Munich operations center of DB Netz AG near the Donnersbergerbrücke . The data from train monitoring and from the signal boxes on the outside routes are evaluated with the help of timetable data via three computers . The driving behavior of the S-Bahn trains is displayed to the S-Bahn department dispatcher via several monitors , with operational deviations in traffic being specially marked. In the event of operational disruptions or train failures, the decisions about the further course of operations are made by the area dispatcher in consultation with the dispatcher at the S-Bahn control center. The dispatchers for the western routes of lines S1, S2, S3, S4, S6 and S8 are located in the same building , the eastern branches of the respective lines are still controlled by dispatchers on the route. The control center is located in the administration building of the S-Bahn at Munich East station .
Passenger information system
All mainline train stations and stations at which at least two S-Bahn lines stop were equipped with two to six train destination indicators per platform in 1972 . The displays were designed as drop-leaf displays , on which the track number, the train destination and the train length were displayed. Initially, the train lengths long train , full train and short train were written in text form, later the text was replaced by symbols. The displays are automatically controlled via a central process computer in the operations center, this is done via the saved timetable, the track occupancy at other stations and via axle counting. Dispatchers could make changes to the displays manually in the event of operational disruptions. With the opening of the S-Bahn line to the airport in 1992, liquid crystal displays (LCD) were used for the first time at the airport instead of falling leaf displays. After 2000, the drop- leaf indicators in the main line stations were replaced by LED train destination indicators. LED or LCD displays were used at the outer stations. In addition, new LCD displays were installed at most of the stations shared by regional trains, as well as at busy stations. Passengers at train stations are informed of operational disruptions by loudspeaker announcements without electrical displays. The announcements within the trains were recorded by Regina Wallner (German) and Graham Baxter (English).
After the opening of the S-Bahn network in 1972, all S-Bahn vehicles were handled by the driver , and on long trains by a train attendant . The train attendants were necessary in the outer stations because not all platforms could be designed without inclination. Since the opening of the S-Bahn network, local staff have been present in three main line stations, in the main train station, in the Ostbahnhof and on Marienplatz. With the help of cameras and monitors, this processes the trains via loudspeaker announcements on the platform. In the 1960s, the Federal Railroad Central Office had tests carried out to wirelessly transmit video images from the platforms to the driver's cab. Antennas on the vehicles' bogies enable wireless transmission at some train stations with great inclinations. As a result, train attendants are no longer used in long trains, the trains are handled by the driver.
The Munich S-Bahn currently employs around 1,100 people. A total of 538 train drivers make up the majority. At the beginning of 2012 and 2015 there were some train cancellations due to a lack of staff, as some were sick due to a wave of illness or others switched to the better-paid freight transport. Deutsche Bahn is therefore now training 20 trainees to become train drivers instead of the previous 12. For the start of training in 2016, only 14 will be hired instead of the previous 20 trainees. At the same time, five functional training courses will take place in 2016. As part of this shortened functional training, the train drivers are trained in nine months instead of the usual three years. Another 164 employees work as maintenance technicians at the Steinhausen depot. The control center of the Munich S-Bahn is staffed by 54 employees, another 70 work in administration. In addition, there are 120 employees for customer service, this area forms three sub-areas, passenger control, passenger information and local supervision. Local supervision only exists in the main line stations and is used for information and announcements on the platform. In addition, the Munich S-Bahn trains 84 trainees every year in all areas of the Munich S-Bahn.
|Emergency doctor use||19th||12||3|
|Disturbance with switches
and overhead lines
|Signal box malfunction||10||10||2|
In 2009 there were 237 operational disruptions while the Munich S-Bahn was in operation. The western branches are the most susceptible to failure with over 40 emergency doctor and police operations. The S 1 line is the most frequently delayed S-Bahn line, as the S-Bahn tracks are also used by regional trains in the direction of Landshut. Due to the close cycle sequence in the trunk line tunnel, the delay of the delayed train is carried over to the following. With around 15 business interruptions, the main line was the least likely to have disruptions. In the event of an interruption in the S-Bahn service on the main line, a so-called emergency program is used so that the S-Bahn trains end at the Ostbahnhof or the Starnberg wing station of the main station. In the event of a partial closure of the trunk line tunnel, the tunnel can still be used by individual trains on the Ostbahnhof –Isartor or Isartor – Ostbahnhof sections due to the turning option at the Isartor .
In March 2012, there were frequent breakdowns of the amplifier trains on lines S 2, S 3 and S 8. This was mainly due to the only 500 or so train drivers who were available for the Munich S-Bahn, as some were canceled due to a wave of illness. Furthermore, 37 train drivers traumatized by suicides were sidelined in the past year.
In the summer of 2015, numerous amplifier trains were canceled due to a lack of staff. In mid-2016, the S-Bahn had around 600 drivers, 60 fewer than needed for stable operation. From June 1, 2016, drivers from other DB Group companies will be temporarily transferred to the Munich S-Bahn. The S-Bahn operator pays special premiums for this and provides apartments.
The existing Munich railway depot , namely Neuaubing and Munich East , did not have the capacity to additionally service the S-Bahn trains in the long term, especially since the expansion of S-Bahn traffic was already foreseeable. The Deutsche Bundesbahn then decided to build a new depot for maintenance, cleaning and parking. In the Steinhausen district , part of the former Munich East marshalling yard was available, which is close to an industrial area. The depot was put into operation on February 1, 1972. Initially, his hall had four tracks with a length of 210 meters. There was space for a total of twelve vehicles in the hall. All tracks were given an inspection pit . Three tracks were equipped with an overhead line, on the fourth track the pantographs could also be examined and replaced. A hydraulic bogie sink on another track should enable the bogies to be exchanged and repaired. The track systems and the depot are controlled by a signal box in the two-story administration building adjoining the hall. From 1975 to 1978 the hall was expanded so that it could be expanded to eight hall tracks. In addition, a multi-purpose building was built to take on further administrative tasks. A washing system was installed for external cleaning and three cleaning platforms were set up for internal cleaning.
On December 30, 2011, the planning approval decision was issued to expand the plant by an additional 27 parking spaces, a two-sided connection, interior cleaning platforms and the expansion of a full electronic control system. 45 million euros were budgeted for the construction. On May 31, 2017, the Federal Railway Authority approved the construction of a six-track workshop hall for the S-Bahn trains. On July 12, 2017, the construction work to erect the parking facility began with the groundbreaking ceremony . In April 2020, the parking facility with seven additional sidings including an electronic interlocking was put into operation. The costs amounted to around 70 million euros.
A class 420 and 423 S-Bahn multiple unit consists of almost 70 meter long units. On the Munich S-Bahn, one, two or three traction units form a train. A single locomotive is known as a short train and is mostly used on low-traffic Sundays and public holidays. A two-part set is mostly used in normal operation; this is referred to as completion . During rush hour, three-part trains, known as long trains, are used on some lines due to the high number of passengers .
Part of the route network is not suitable for long trains due to the length of the platform. For example, the platforms of the S 7 between Wolfratshausen and Großhesselohe are only as long as a two-part building.
Vehicles currently in use
Since the opening of the S-Bahn network from 1972 to 2004, vehicles of the 420 series were used in the Munich S-Bahn network . In 1972, however, only 101 of the 120 locomotives ordered were available, so that until 1975 push-pull trains still had to be used on some routes. The first 120 vehicles came from the first series of this series. In the following years, around 30 vehicles of the second series came to Munich due to the higher demand for vehicles. The number of trains in the second series varied because these were also exchanged with vehicles from other cities. From 1979 to 1982 vehicles of the fifth and sixth series also came to Munich, but after 1982 these were used again in other S-Bahn networks. From 1992 some vehicles of the seventh and from 1996 the eighth series were added, so that the vehicle fleet in Munich in 1996 comprised 209 vehicles. Since the delivery of the 423 series vehicles, the 420 series trains have been given to other cities, sold or scrapped. The last regular passenger service in the Munich S-Bahn network for the time being was driven by a train of this series, the so-called "Olympic railcar", on December 5, 2004 on an amplifier circuit of the S 8 line and since then has only been seen in museum service on regular special trips.
Due to the electrification of Line A and the resulting shortage of vehicles, class 420 multiple units have been in use again since December 2014. These were initially 15 units of the 8th series taken over by the Stuttgart S-Bahn , which were modernized before their return to regular service of the Munich S-Bahn in order to make the vehicles appear more contemporary, especially in the passenger compartment. However, due to the lack of regular train control, they could not initially travel on the main route during rush hour. From Monday to Friday, they only took over the shuttle service on the S 2 between Dachau and Altomünster as well as amplifier trips on the western branch of the S 4 and S 20 lines. Since June 2017, the trains have also been on the S 2 and S 4 lines at weekends used and also operated on the main line. At the end of 2018, the Munich S-Bahn and BEG planned to bring more units from Stuttgart to Munich in order to cope with the growing demand. A total of 21 additional railcars of the 8th series were transferred from Stuttgart to Munich. These were also modernized and, together with the 15 existing units, gradually equipped with the liner train control system so that the vehicles could also be used on the main route on weekdays without any problems. In the meantime, almost all 36 units have been retrofitted accordingly and have been taking on additional services on weekdays on the complete S 6 as well as the S 2 and S 8 amplifiers.
However, since the demand for vehicles continued, two vehicles were borrowed from the Cologne S-Bahn and one from the Rhein-Ruhr S-Bahn from mid-January 2020 , which temporarily expanded the vehicle fleet. Due to the temporarily restricted traffic offer due to the COVID-19 pandemic , the loan operation , which was actually planned until May or June, was not realized over the entire period, but the vehicles were returned at the beginning of April. During the loan operation, the Munich S-Bahn considered integrating the loan vehicle 420 427 of the 7th series permanently into the fleet. The transport contract did not allow this, however, so the decision was made to buy another 8th series railcar from the S-Bahn Rhein-Ruhr, which is currently being modernized accordingly.
From autumn 2000, the class 420 multiple units, some of which were over thirty years old, were replaced by new class 423 vehicles . The new vehicle deployments were implemented line by line, as the trains could not be coupled with each other. Line S 7 was the first to be served by the new locomotives. 211 traction units had been delivered by 2003. A further 23 units were procured for the Takt 10 program in 2004. In 2005, four more trains were delivered, so that there are 238 locomotives today.
From January to July 2008, Deutsche Bahn installed video cameras in 105 Munich S-Bahn trains. These were requested mainly because of brutal attacks in the previous months. In addition, vandalism in the vehicles should be prevented, as this causes damage of over five million euros annually. After 2008 the installation of video surveillance continued. The installation funded by the Bavarian Railway Company (BEG) is to be completed by mid-2013. The vandalism on the S-Bahn trains has decreased significantly to this day. The damage within the trains, for example, decreased from around 630,000 euros in 2008 to around 520,000 euros in 2011.
In spring 2018, the modernization of all class 423 railcars began so that they could be used until the mid-2020s. The redesign of the interior is intended to improve the flow of passengers.
The doors of all vehicles of the 423 series of the Munich S-Bahn can be opened centrally from the driver's cab, which shortens passenger switching times, especially on the busy main route.
From October 2019, four vehicles from the 425 series of the Rhein-Main S-Bahn, freshly modernized for the local S-Bahn operation, were temporarily used at the Munich S-Bahn , which were supposed to defuse the tense vehicle situation. However, when the timetable changed in December 2019, these vehicles were returned. Since the beginning of 2020, vehicles of the 425 series have been used again, but this time they come from different regions (e.g. Hesse , North Rhine-Westphalia and Trier ) and have not been modernized beforehand. These are also used as usual in regional traffic. All these rental vehicles were and are used on the S 20 and the S 4 amplifiers (Geltendorf - Buchenau - Hauptbahnhof Nord).
Previously used vehicles
Since the route on line A from Dachau to Altomünster was not electrified, six two-part diesel multiple units of the 628 series ran on it until April 2014 . These were located in the depot of the Südostbayernbahn in Mühldorf am Inn . The vehicles were procured for the route in 1998, previously was on the line A n cars - pull trains with diesel locomotives used. However, the entrances to the trains were not barrier-free due to the stairs. After the electrification of the line, vehicles of the 420 and 423 series have been in use since December 13, 2014 .
n-car push-pull trains
Since not enough locomotives of the 420 series were available after the opening of the S-Bahn network in 1972, the S 1 (today S 7) between Hohenbrunn and Kreuzstrasse on the east branch of the S 2 (today S 3) between Deisenhofen and Holzkirchen on the S 22 (later S 27) and on the S 10 (today S 7) push-pull trains with n-wagons are used. After further vehicles of the second series of the 420 series came to Munich in 1975, the S 2 could be served on the entire route and the S 22 with vehicles of the 420 series. In autumn 1976 the push-pull trains on the east branch of the S 1 were replaced by class 420 railcars. In 1981 the S-Bahn multiple units on the S 27 were withdrawn in order to be able to serve the western branch of the S 7 (previously S 10) with them. With the delivery of new vehicles in 1983, the S 27 could also be driven with S-Bahn railcars again. In addition, push-pull trains with diesel locomotives of the 212 series ran on the A line until 1998 .
Experiment with a double-decker car
The German Federal Railroad tested between 28 May and 21 June 1989 at the S 4 between Geltendorf and Ebersberg a train of four DDM double-deck coaches of the Dutch State Railways , the two electric locomotives of the 120 series in Sandwich traction was covered. With 600 seats and 440 standing places, this train offered around 20 percent higher capacity than a train consisting of two class 420 railcars and was only ten meters longer. But that didn't work. Because this train has fewer doors, the passenger switching times were much longer.
Plans for further expansion
Second trunk line
The second main line of the Munich S-Bahn has been controversial since the 1990s. The expansion project of the Munich S-Bahn consists of a tunnel connection between the main train station and the Ostbahnhof, which runs north of the existing tunnel connection, the only trunk line to date . This new route, leading from Laim via the main train station, Marienhof and Ostbahnhof to the Leuchtenbergring, should relieve the strain on the first trunk line. In addition to the S-Bahn trains stopping at all stations, express S-Bahn lines are also planned. On the sections Weßling – Pasing, Maisach – Pasing and Leuchtenbergring – Grafing Bf, these should only stop at selected stations. The S-Bahn system is also to be switched to a 15/30 minute cycle. The only exceptions to this are the Petershausen – Holzkirchen and Wolfratshausen – Kreuzstrasse lines.
The first groundbreaking for the second main line took place on April 5, 2017, and commissioning is scheduled for 2028.
As an alternative to the second inner city tunnel, plans were drawn up to upgrade Munich's Südring for S-Bahn traffic. The three train stations Heimeranplatz , Poccistraße (new, near the old Munich South train station ) and Columbusplatz (new) each offer transfer connections to the underground. An expansion of these three stations is also part of the concept for a circular line consisting of a north and south ring.
In 2009, Vieregg-Rössler proposed a north tunnel as a further expansion, which should connect the main station via the art area (with the three art galleries) and Münchner Freiheit with the north of Munich ( Münchner Nordring , football stadium, Garching, airport). In the inner city area, the planned route corresponds roughly to that of the planned underground line U9 . In addition to the S-Bahn, the route would also accommodate regional and long-distance traffic, in this way the central alignment of the Munich local transport system to the city center is to be replaced. The north tunnel was not pursued any further, partly due to higher costs and lower profitability.
Since 2015 there have been considerations to upgrade the Munich Nordring , which is currently (as of 2020) only used for freight traffic, to also be used for passenger traffic. The car manufacturer BMW in particular is pushing this development, as around 15,000 more jobs are to be created in the future through the expansion of the research and innovation center in Milbertshofen. The Free Voters worked with the Vieregg-Rössler planning office to develop a development concept which, in the maximum variant, includes 14 train stations from Pasing to Trudering, 6 of which, however, already exist on the current lines. The north ring would lead from Pasing via a new Berduxstrasse station (new building) to Moosach. After that, stations would be built at the following points: Lasallestrasse, Lerchenau, Knorrstrasse, Ingolstädter Strasse, Freimann to Oberföhring (in the plan “Unterföhring Süd / West”). Then the S-Bahn would turn onto the S 8 route and there lead via Johanneskirchen, Englschalking and Daglfing to Trudering with an optional stop at “Berg am Laim (Ost)”. The costs were estimated at around 500 million euros, which would result in a benefit-cost factor of 5 given a daily passenger volume of around 70,000 people.
Transfer connections to the underground are available at the stops Pasing (future U 5), Moosach (U 3), Lassallestrasse (U 1 if continuing from OEZ), Knorrstrasse (U 2), Freimann (U 6), Englschalking (U 4 if continuing from Arabellapark) and Trudering (U 2). Further branches into the existing S-Bahn lines to Karlsfeld, Unterföhring, Riem and Giesing are also possible.
- Strengthening the Sendlinger Spange between Pasing and Heimeranplatz (S 20)
- Construction of a new stop at Am Moosfeld between Berg am Laim and Riem (S 2 Ost)
- In May 2014, BMW suggested the construction of a S-Bahn stop on the Nordring, near Knorrstrasse, in order to better develop the planned expansion of the company premises in the Milbertshofen / Am Hart district. This S-Bahn stop would require the north ring to be upgraded for S-Bahn traffic, as previously requested by various parties. A connection to the lines S 1 and S 8 in the direction of the airport or the establishment of a ring railway to improve the southern ring would be possible.
In January 2011, in an amendment to the 2nd update of the Munich local transport plan , decided in 2012, the construction of the Berduxstraße stop between Obermenzing and Laim (S 1 / S 2 West) was no longer pursued. On the one hand, this is justified by the fact that the surrounding area is sparsely populated - to the east of the railway facilities is only the Nymphenburg Palace Park . On the other hand, the Neulustheim flyover was built at this point in 2008 , which would make the construction of platforms considerably more expensive.
Firmly planned measures
- Erdinger Ringschluss : Double-track connection of the ends of the S 2-Ost (Erding), the S 1 and S 8 at the airport, with the continuation of the S 2 via the new Mintraching stop and the Neufahrner counter-curve with a subsequent four-track expansion to Freising as the first stage of the "East Bavaria connection" and as an alternative to the "Marzlinger Spange". The planning approval for the first section from Freising – Airport is planned for 2014, the completion for 2020.
- S-Bahn connection of the Hörlkofen , Walpertskirchen , Thann-Matzbach and Dorfen stations on the Munich – Simbach railway line by winging the S 2-Ost in Markt Schwaben . The existing single-track line would at least have to be electrified. The four-track expansion of the S 2 East between Feldkirchen and Markt Schwaben as well as the swiveling of the S 2 East route to the Messestadt with a stop (Messestadt-Nord) , however, were not included in the requirement plan for federal railways, which makes it unlikely to be implemented in the near future .
- Extension of the S 7 to Geretsried with the stations Gelting , Geretsried Mitte and Geretsried Süd . The planning approval procedure has been prepared for this stretch, but has been stopped because of the large number of objections to the planning of a level crossing for Sauerlacher Strasse in Wolfratshausen. In 2016, planning began in the lower ground, and at the end of 2019 the Federal Railway Authority (EBA) approved. Construction should start in 2024.
- Three-track expansion of the S 4-West between Buchenau and Pasing (in planning), as an increase in long-distance and freight traffic towards Switzerland ( Gotthard tunnel ) is expected, in a first construction phase from Pasing to Puchheim. For cost reasons, the expansion should no longer take place as far as Buchenau, but only as far as Eichenau.
- Connection of Moosburg , Langenbach and Marzling to the S-Bahn network (currently regional train Freising – Landshut)
- Connection from Odelzhausen and Dasing via a new line to Karlsfeld . The connection from Munich to Odelzhausen, which forms a gap in the radial S-Bahn network, is currently ensured by the MVV express bus line 732 (Pasing – Odelzhausen – Gaggert), which runs between Pasing and Haidhof without stopping on the A8 .
- Connection from Aichach via Altomünster
- Construction of a new stop in the Eching / Neufahrn industrial park on the S 1
- With the introduction of the Augsburg S-Bahn (planned), possible transition to its network at the Mammendorf terminus of the S 3-West and possibly the S 4-West at the Geltendorf terminus
There are still plans to connect Munich Airport to Munich city center more quickly. In addition to the construction of the second trunk line, the S 8 must also be upgraded to four tracks in the Daglfing – Johanneskirchen area. In March 2012 a corresponding tunnel was decided by the city council. This would make it possible to use the Munich Airport Express, which runs every 15 minutes and is intended to reduce the travel time between the airport and the main train station by around 15 minutes.
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