Neuperlach is a district in southeast Munich that has been built on the " green field " since 1967 and belongs to the city district 16 ( Ramersdorf-Perlach ) of the Bavarian capital. The quarter, which is mainly composed of large housing estates on the former Perlacher Haid east of the old village of Perlach , is one of the largest German satellite cities . Neuperlach borders the districts of Ramersdorf and Perlach to the west, the districts 14 ( Berg am Laim ) and 15 ( Trudering-Riem ) to the north, the Waldperlach district to the east and the Unterbiberg district of the Neubiberg community to the south . The district is traversed in the western area from south to north by the Hachinger Bach ; it also flows through the western part of the east park .
Planning and building history
Since the city of Munich grew rapidly in the 1950s and was faced with a major housing shortage, the Munich city council decided in 1960 to build "relief cities". Locations in Oberschleißheim , Freiham and Perlach were considered. In the area of district Perlach the Building Department created from 1961 to 1966, a planning study and a comprehensive structural plan for a satellite city of 80,000 (later 70,000) inhabitants. The planning group responsible for this had been under the direction of Egon Hartmann since 1963 , who won the 1951 competition for the development of East Berlin's Stalinallee . The union-owned company Neue Heimat was entrusted with the land management and the coordination of the structural implementation .
According to the specifications of the structural plan, there were five construction phases (north, north-east, east, center, south), of which the north, north-east and east building areas were completed in quick succession after the laying of the foundation stone on May 11, 1967. For the second major stage of construction, the center Neuper salmon with shops, workplaces, cultural and social facilities, an urban design competition was in 1967 awarded and been to decide in favor of the young Berlin architect Bernt Lauter (drafts had u. A. And Josef Paul Kleihues , Albert Speer jr. , Alexander Freiherr von Branca , Thomas Sieverts and Harald Deilmann submitted).
Lauter's plan provided for a huge eight-sided ring of residential buildings, which should rise to a height of 18 stories and encompass an open space of around 400 to 500 meters in diameter. To the east, this development was to continue in two vertically penetrating, funnel-like open building brackets to the north, east and south of up to 17 storey high residential and office slabs. In this design, the actual center of the overall system consisted of two intersecting open shopping arcades between the clasp buildings, which should be accessible underground via underground car parks and the subway and from the level of the Neuperlach path system via ramps and stairs. A community center with a branch of the Munich adult education center and the Munich city library , an artists' yard with studios and a cinema center were to be integrated into the complex; the city's Richard Strauss Conservatory with concert halls as well as a Catholic and a Protestant church were planned within the "living ring", an indoor swimming pool and an ice rink should be located in the immediate vicinity.
In the following period there were significant changes to the plan; In the interest of a more economical, additive construction, the idea of interlinking different urban functions in favor of a clear separation of residential, shopping, office, cultural and sports areas was initially rejected; later the sports facilities were also omitted, the cultural infrastructure was almost completely abandoned and reduced to a town house (which has been reduced in size to this day and not yet implemented). Egon Hartmann, the main planner of Neuperlach, had warned in vain that the center of the district would be degraded to an "air-conditioned general store" with no real urban life; the architect Bernt Lauter distanced himself from the project during the revisions to his design, in which he was no longer involved.
The laying of the foundation stone was postponed until 1974 due to the numerous redesigns. The living area of the center was essentially completed by 1978, the first stage of the shopping complex by 1979 (extension in 1989), the commercial buildings followed gradually until the very latest.
The building draft for the south construction section was created in 1972 on the basis of an urban planning report by Thomas Sieverts and Ferdinand Stracke. However, the start of construction was delayed until 1980 due to financing difficulties and profitability problems. The construction of the south residential area in two successive phases was largely completed with the opening of the central pedestrian zone in the second section in 1991.
Mission statement and meaning
Neuperlach is the largest West German settlement project after the Second World War. It is regarded as an example of urban planning in the 1960s and 1970s , as a product of a time of upheaval in which old and new urbanist models confronted one another. As a “city next to the city”, Neuperlach was to become a relatively independent, lively and attractive community through the integration of living, working, shopping, culture and sport, through a high population density as well as an urban dimensioned and designed center, with a catchment area of around 400,000 Radiate people in the southeast of Munich. By including urban planning critics ( Hans Paul Bahrdt , Alexander Mitscherlich ) who were well-known in the zeitgeist in the planning of the city center, the aim was to avoid features of prewar architecture that were perceived as urban planning errors.
Despite the so already executive renaissance of Urbanitätsgedankens are in the actual implementation is still very clear premises elderly tend to city enemy models effectively: the strictly held separation of traffic into pure footpaths and often oversized streets along the lines of "car-friendly city" and " organic urban development " Hans Bernhard Reichows , the small-scale greening, as envisaged in the concept of the" structured and loosened city "by Johannes Göderitz , Roland Rainer and Hubert Hoffmann , and finally the insufficient mix of urban functions in practice, which is still more reminiscent of functionalist ideas of Le Corbusier's Athens Charter as reminiscent of the previously theoretically formulated urban goals.
These conceptual inconsistencies significantly shape the image of at least the three older building sections in Neuperlach: the contemporary catchphrase “urbanity through density” - which meant above all a condensation of urban life, the atmosphere, the functions - was not better translated into architectural reality than by increasing the overall height; an excessive attention to the "healthy life" (greening, uniform building orientation to the south, traffic separation, separation of the residential areas from work and shopping areas) due to the then still valid "organic" and "functional" concepts went along with the planning neglect of the residential areas and experience qualities of public space , in which the spatial structures of the traditional city with structurally designed streets and squares are replaced by a flowing, open “ city landscape ”. The main use of concrete as a building material does the rest to create an architectural monotony.
These time-typical symptoms, the lack of affordability, especially the projected cultural institutions and a growing disinterest of Munich next to the project since the completion of the planned end of the 1960s after the measures came in the aftermath 1972 Olympic Games had to be .
In the two newer, southern construction sections, compared to the urban planning concepts of the early days, a shift towards more traditional spatial profiles with block perimeter development and green inner courtyards as well as an attempt to achieve a stronger mix of functions can be observed.
Around 55,000 people live in Neuperlach. Despite the high-quality residential development and the good infrastructural equipment, the district suffers from the reputation of a satellite city, although the social indicators do not differ significantly from other Munich districts.
In the meantime, many of the original social housing have been converted into condominiums , and the residents have often lived in the neighborhood for decades.
Architecture and art
In addition to the functional residential development that is typical of the period, some high-quality buildings were also built in Neuperlach:
- Wohnring (living area of the Neuperlacher Zentrum) / Architects: Bernt Lauter and Manfred Zimmer / 1974–1978
- Administration building of the State Insurance Institute of Upper Bavaria (today DRV Bayern Süd) / Architect: Alexander Freiherr von Branca
- Research and Development Center of Siemens AG / Architects: Johannes Hendrik van den Broek and Jacob Berend Bakema
- Serbian Orthodox Church Center / Architect: Stephan Braunfels / 1993
- Administration building of Allianz-Versicherung (formerly Vereinte Versicherungen) / Architects: Ulrike Lauber and Wolfram Wöhr / 1990–1996
- Administration building of Bosch-Siemens Hausgeräte / Architects: Büro Denk, Mauder, Wisiol / 2003
- Alexisquartier (under construction)
Munich Depression is the title of a work that the American land art artist Michael Heizer realized in May 1969 for the Galerie Heiner Friedrich on a still undeveloped site in Neuperlach: a four-meter-deep earth funnel with a diameter of thirty-five meters that was accessible so that at Descending the first already existing residential rows of the "relief city" disappeared from the field of vision and finally only the sky could be seen. With an excavation of around 1,000 tons, Munich Depression was Heizer's first major landscape-related work. Since the site was built over a little later, the Munich sinking can only be experienced today as photographic documentation (360-degree projection under the title Actual Size: Munich Rotary , owned by the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, first complete there in 2002 Installed).
Art in public space
Of Neuperlach's freely accessible works of art, the following are to be highlighted: Louis Constantin's “Blue Spiral” (1972) at the Heinrich-Wieland-Strasse / Albert-Schweitzer-Strasse entrance to the district, George Rickey's “Space Churn” (1972) in front of the former administration of the Neue Heimat, Leo Kornbrust's “Innere Line” (1981) in front of Allianz Insurance, Albert Hiens “Object in the Lake” in Perlach Park (southern construction section) and Jai Young Parks “Only man is the place of images” (1999) on Ständerstraße , as well as by Kay Winkler Scheile Walls (2003).
Local public transport
Due to the size of Neuperlach and its location on the outskirts, an efficient transport connection to the city center was necessary from the start. This was initially realized by tram . On September 12, 1970, lines 11 and 29 were initially extended from the previous terminus at Michaelibad to Neuperlach Nord (Heinrich-Wieland-Straße at Karl-Marx-Ring). In 1972 the line system of the Munich tram was fundamentally changed, so that line 24 now went to Neuperlach Nord. On September 28, 1973, line 24 was extended to Neuperlach Zentrum, where it turned in front of the pep at the location of today's bus station . Just two days later, on September 30, 1973, construction work began on the subway to Neuperlach (Olympiazentrum - Scheidplatz - Hauptbahnhof - Neuperlach Süd), which was then still known as U-Bahn line 8. This underground line with its four stations in the Neuperlach area ( Quiddestrasse , Neuperlach Zentrum , Therese-Giehse-Allee and Neuperlach Süd ) was officially opened on October 18, 1980 after seven years of construction. At the same time, the tram to Neuperlach was discontinued and the route was largely dismantled in the following period. Even today, however, there are some remains of the track of the former line 24 at the confluence of Fritz-Schäffer-Strasse and Heinrich-Wieland-Strasse. From autumn 1988 the route of the underground to Neuperlach was served by the U5 line in addition to the U2 line (former U8 line). When the U-Bahn was extended to Messestadt Riem in 1999 , the U2 was moved to this branch. Since then, the U5 and, since December 2013, the U7 on school days, have served the Neuperlach branch. From Neuperlach center, the Ostbahnhof can be reached in seven minutes, the main station in 15 minutes. In the 1970s, the tram took 18 minutes to get to the Ostbahnhof.
Neuperlach has also had extensive bus connections to the neighboring districts of Trudering , Ramersdorf and Waldperlach since the 1970s . The central hub for bus traffic is the Neuperlach Zentrum bus station. From the Neuperlach Süd underground station, numerous regional bus routes also offer connections to the surrounding communities of Ottobrunn , Neubiberg , Putzbrunn and Unterhaching . Neuperlach Süd is also on the Munich-Giesing-Kreuzstraße railway line and is therefore also a stop on the Munich S-Bahn line S7.
In addition to seven primary schools, Neuperlach has two secondary schools (Albert Schweitzer secondary school and Gerhart Hauptmann secondary school), three secondary schools (Werner von Siemens secondary school, Wilhelm Busch secondary school and Wilhelm Röntgen secondary school) and two grammar schools ( Heinrich -Heine-Gymnasium and Werner-von-Siemens-Gymnasium ). The European School Munich offers the European Abitur as a final qualification. There is also a learning and language school and, as the only institution of its kind in Bavaria, an orientation level that is independent of the school type .
- The Roman Catholic parish Christ the Redeemer was created in 2009 by amalgamating the five previous parishes of Neuperlach St. Jakobus, St. Monika, St. Maximilian Kolbe, St. Philipp Neri and St. Stephan, which were the parishes of the mother parish of St. Michael Perlach . It belongs to the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising . The previous parishes will be continued as five church centers; St. Jakobus was demolished in 2012 and reopened as a new building in 2019.
- Lätare Church and Dietrich Bonhoeffer Church of the Evangelical Lutheran Lätare Congregation
- Baptist Christ Church of the Evangelical Free Church Congregation
- Reformed Church of the Evangelical Reformed Congregation
- Serbian Orthodox Church of the Holy Martyr King Jovan Vladimir
The Neuperlach Clinic , opened for the 1972 Summer Olympics, currently has 545 beds and provides clinical care for the south-east of Munich.
In 1975 the newly built fire station 9 was put into operation.
The establishment of its own police station in Neuperlach (PI 24) had been in operation since the 1970s, but was only completed in 1997 with the move to a new building on Adenauerring.
The SVN Munich e. V. (Sports Club Neuperlach) is the largest sports club in the district with 6,000 members (as of May 2017). The main concern of the association is the promotion of popular sport . For its members it offers a sports center with a three-field tennis hall, three sports rooms, a fully equipped gym and a wellness area . In addition, there are numerous sports activities - also for non-members - in the sports halls of the Neuperlachs schools. On April 23, 2016, the construction of the "SVN Sportpark", a triple sports hall with climbing hall , was completed on the grounds of the Bert-Brecht-Allee district sports facility.
In November 2016, Neuperlach came into the media because of the construction of a refugee home with a four-meter high soundproof wall.
The Diakonie Hasenbergl is also active in the district.
Neuperlach, which was not intended to be a dormitory town from the start, but rather to offer a variety of work opportunities close to home, has developed into an administrative location for companies primarily from the insurance and high-tech sectors:
- Research and development center and IT of Siemens AG (former headquarters of Siemens IT Solutions & Services - SIS, formerly Siemens Business Services - SBS, today part of Atos and the CT technology department)
- Wacker Chemie headquarters
- Headquarters of the German Pension Insurance Bavaria South
- Headquarters of Die Bayerische , formerly Bavarian Officials Insurance / BBV
- German headquarters of Generali Insurance
- Headquarters of the private health insurance division of Allianz SE (formerly United Insurance)
- Headquarters of the legal protection insurance DAS
- Head office of BSH Hausgeräte
- Head office of Capgemini sd & m - software design & management
- Headquarters of the Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse Bayern (AOK Bayern)
At the latest, the comedian duo Erkan and Stefan made the quarter famous throughout Germany (even if the two actors John Friedmann and Florian Simbeck from Ingolstadt, who appear under pseudonyms, are actually behind Erkan Maria Moosleitner from Hasenbergl and Stefan Lust from Neuperlach).
The singer and Grand Prix participant Gracia Baur , the musician, two-time Echo award winner and Grammy nominee Lou Bega (made famous through his world hit Mambo No. 5 from 1999) as well as the TV producer and Grimme were actually born in Neuperlach - Award winner Tommy Krappweis (the inventor of Bernd, the bread ).
The graphic designer Wolfgang Niesner lived in one of the studio apartments in Neuperlach since 1970 and dealt with the architecture and life in this architecture in numerous prints.
The chemist, writer and slam poet Jaromir Konecny has been living in Neuperlach for several years.
Erich Kästner died in Neuperlach in 1974.
- Petra Dorsch: A new home in Perlach. Settling in as a communication process. Diss. University of Munich , Munich 1972.
- Christian Hartard: Neuperlach. Utopia of the urban. Concepts and cityscapes from an experiment in the 1960s. Mag.-Work. Univ. München, München 2003 ( full text ) - Presentation of the planning and construction history, analysis of the conceptual premises and the urban development models that are relevant for the planning.
- Christian Hartard: Come on, let's build a city. How the dream of the urban failed in the 1960s due to the decay of public space. Some remarks on the outskirts from Munich-Neuperlach. From: Mitteilungen der Geographische Gesellschaft in München 88. 2006 ( full text as PDF ) - summary of the previous text.
- Egon Hartmann / Dieter Wahls: Perlach district. In: State Capital Munich, Building Department (Ed.): Building in Munich 1960 to 1970. Munich 1970, pp. 37–47 - a brief introduction to the history of planning and basic urban planning ideas.
- Florian Hüttner: Michael Heizer's earth sculptures in the 'desert' of Perlach. In: Helmut Draxler (Ed.): The Utopia of Design. Exhibition cat. Munich 1994, no p.
- Alexander Mitscherlich: Meditations in front of the drawing board. Munich-Perlach as an example of urban development. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung from 16./17. October 1970 (reprinted in Merian booklet Munich 1972) - critical, but overall positive analysis of the urban planning concept; Interesting because Mitscherlich, one of the most important urban planning critics of the 1960s, was himself a consultant for the Neuperlach center planning.
- New home Bavaria (ed.): Relief city Perlach in Munich. Munich 1967. Collected volume with various articles on structural planning, land management, model from the contemporary point of view of those responsible for planning; many pictures and maps.
- Siegfried Schober: “Munich sinking” and “Five funnels”. Michael Heizer's excavations in Perlach and the Mojave Desert in California. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung of May 20, 1969.
- Vinzenz Stauner: Conception of the large housing estate Neuperlach - a success? Technical thesis in the advanced course in geography, Heinrich-Heine-Gymnasium Munich , 2008 ( full text as PDF ).
- Christoph Titze: 25 years of the Neuperlach district. In: Georg Mooseder / Adolf Hackenberg (ed.): 1200 years of Perlach. Munich 1990, pp. 873-906. A brief outline of the building history and the planning principles as well as a description of the individual building phases from the retrospective perspective of one of the responsible urban planners.
- Sabine Tzschaschel: Neuperlach. Quality of life in a satellite city. In: R. Geipel et al. (Ed.): Munich. A socio-geographical excursion guide. (Münchner Geographische Hefte, No. 55/56, published by the Geographical Institute of the Technical University of Munich). Munich 1987, pp. 503-535. Analytical tour through Neuperlach.
- Andres Lepik, Hilde Strobl (eds.): Die Neue Heimat (1950–1982). A social democratic utopia and its buildings. Munich, 2019.
- Neuperlach: The boundaries of the district
- Irene Kleber: Proportion of foreigners in the population: The whole world is at home in Munich. In: www.abendzeitung-muenchen.de. March 1, 2013, accessed March 7, 2018 .
- Website of the Catholic parish of Christ the Redeemer
- Abendzeitung Germany: Munich: New House of God for Neuperlach. Retrieved February 11, 2019 .
- Sports park. Retrieved September 15, 2017 (German).
- Munich's Neuperlach district builds a four-meter-high wall
- Archive link ( Memento of the original dated December 2, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Neuperlach in the Munich Wiki Article largely copied from Wikipedia, but with further links to schools, parishes and the like. a.
- neuperlach.info: Neuperlach district page with numerous links
- neuperlach.org: Website with a focus on the Neuperlach district
- District Committee 16 Ramersdorf-Perlach Page with further links to associations, organizations, churches and parties in Neuperlach
- Art in Perlach, Neuperlach and Ramersdorf: extensive overview of works in public space
- Ramersdorf-Perlach cultural history trail: information on history, culture and art in Neuperlach, Perlach and Ramersdorf