A satellite city is a settlement in the vicinity of a larger city and, in contrast to the relatively independent satellite city, is economically and functionally dependent on the core city. It consists mainly of residential areas for commuters and is characterized by a low job density. It has little of its own infrastructure and this is limited to rudimentary functions, such as retail stores for everyday needs and schools. Satellite cities are a modern phenomenon. They were built to meet the housing needs for the core city.
In contrast to satellite cities, satellite cities have grown through the planning of individual quarters, but also through overall planning of the settlement. Some key elements such as high school, large shopping malls, medical centers, etc. The like are further away in the actual core city, which is why satellite cities have a higher commuter balance.
The definition of the terms satellite city and satellite city is controversial. Burkhard Hofmeister defines it in his standard work Urban Geography as it is done here, and as it is more common internationally. Rudolf Hillebrecht and Heinz Heineberg use the two terms in exactly the opposite way in their work Grundriß Allgemeine Geographie: Stadtgeographie .
Considered clearly, a satellite town is a fully fledged small town in the vicinity of a large city. The satellite city, on the other hand, is more of a dormitory city that residents leave in the morning for the big city and return to after work and shopping. The garden city is considered a positive variant of the satellite city .
Satellite cities are referred to as satellite cities in English , cité satellite in French , barrio satélite in Spanish and 2nd order gorod sputniki in Russian . In the Soviet Union , many cities and settlements were built in the form of satellite cities. Some of these have a smooth transition to the core cities. Administratively, too, the distinction between core and satellite cities is blurred by the division into microrajons . Microrajons were not only functionally independent city quarters with their own supply infrastructure, but also residential quarters that were built in many cities in the Soviet Union as a replacement for old residential areas in large panel construction, partly in the immediate center, partly near the city center.