Garden city

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The first garden city concept by Ebenezer Howard , 1902: Residential cities are arranged in a ring around the core city and linked with it in a star shape by roads, railways and subway and connected to one another in a ring shape.
Urban design for the Ludwigshafen garden city: school, square and church
Raschigstrasse in the Ludwigshafen garden city

The garden city is originally a model of the planned urban development designed by the British Ebenezer Howard in England in 1898 as a reaction to the poor housing and living conditions as well as the increasing land prices in the rapidly growing cities .

Colloquially, the term is used today for particularly green cities. This often leads to incorrect associations when using the technical term.

Background and goals

Ebenezer Howard was a cooperative socialist and after a failed settlement experiment in America returned to London, where he worked as a parliamentary stenographer. His aim was to control the rapid growth that large British cities (especially London ) had experienced in the course of industrialization. Instead of an uncontrolled growth of new districts on the edge of the existing city or further densification in the city center, which leads to the formation of slums , Howard proposed the complete re-establishment of cities in the surrounding area.

The speculative gain in converting cheap agricultural land into valuable building land should benefit the (co-operative) community of the new city and bear a large part of the construction costs. The land remains jointly owned by a cooperative and is only leased on a long lease . In 1898 Howard's book was still called To-morrow - A Peaceful Path to Real Reform , meaning the cooperative-socialist solution to the land question . Only the second edition was called Garden Cities of Tomorrow .

The book brought about the emergence of the garden city movement , which initially aimed to found such garden cities and thus also combined ideas of social reform . The co-determination of the residents and lifelong tenancy law were important.

The structure of the garden city

The garden cities were to be re-established in the surrounding areas of large cities on previous agricultural land. They were to consist of seven separate parts, medium-sized cities separated by wide agricultural belts and linked by railways. This was intended to abolish the previous strict separation of town and country in order to avoid the disadvantages of the big city and to retain its advantages (such as easily accessible good cultural institutions).

A frequently forgotten aspect of the garden city concept is the separation of uses: The individual functions should be arranged concentrically and separated from one another by wide strips of greenery. The public buildings should be arranged around a garden-like central square. A first parking ring (58 hectares in size) should be arranged around this, which is surrounded by a ring about 600 meters deep with residential buildings. In the middle of the residential ring, the Grand Avenue should be created, which has a green belt in which schools, churches and playgrounds should be arranged. The industrial and commercial workplaces should be located outside the residential ring.

The English garden city movement

The English " Garden City Movement " organized itself in the Garden City Association (Gartenstadtgesellschaft), which finally bought large areas of land in the English county of Hertfordshire and from 1903 built it in the spirit of the movement, Letchworth Garden City was created . In 1920, another English garden city, Welwyn Garden City, was founded . After the Second World War , dozens of state-founded English New Towns around London followed.

Howard's sketches for building a garden city were very regular geometric: circular in concentric circles, but by no means intended as blueprints. The first garden city of Letchworth , which was built according to plans by the architects Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker , is, however, markedly irregular with deliberately "crooked" streets along the contours of the terrain; the houses are built in the traditional English style.

This particular construction of the first garden city Letchworth, d. H. the architectural and aesthetic concept became the model for many settlements at home and abroad, which also called themselves “garden cities”, although they have nothing at all to do with the originally underlying cooperative socialist model.

The resulting “garden city movement” was an urban development trend. It propagated a life in the country, that is, settlements with gardens for self-sufficiency, parks and small industry, the single-family house with garden became the ideal form of living.

The German garden city movement

The garden city idea was also very well received in Germany , where as early as the middle of the 19th century similar ideas had been developed for the establishment of large villa colonies for the bourgeoisie ( Marienthal in Hamburg, Lichterfelde-West , Alsen and later Grunewald in Berlin, the Dresdeners Villas ). The Dresden writer and fruit grower Arthur Rothe (1867–1959) called for Germany to be transformed into a kind of “garden city” in 1910. In Germany, as industrialization progressed, non-profit building companies emerged from 1900 as an answer to the problems and needs of workers. A largely unchanged garden city settlement , the Knerling settlement built between 1912 and 1955 , is located in Altena . It was built by the Altena construction company and placed under protection on April 29, 2010 by the monument area statutes of the city of Altena.

German Garden City Society (DGG)

In 1902 the German Garden City Society (DGG) was founded in Berlin. The founders included the brothers Bernhard Kampffmeyer and Paul Kampffmeyer , Heinrich Hart and Julius Hart as well as Wilhelm Bölsche and Gustav Landauer , who came from the circle of Friedrichshagen poets and the New Community . Heinrich Hart became the first chairman of the DGG. The first board members included Wilhelm Bölsche, Julius Hart, Fidus , Magnus Hirschfeld , Bernhard Kampffmeyer, Adolf Otto and Franz Oppenheimer . After Heinrich Hart's death, Bernhard Kampffmeyer took over the chairmanship of the DGG in 1906. Paul Schirrmeister was also a board member .

The DGG was not set up as a construction company, but initially wanted to advocate the idea of ​​garden cities as a life and social reform organization. Paragraph 1 of the statutes said: “The German Garden City Society is a propaganda society. It sees its main goal in winning over the people for the establishment of garden cities. "

Lecture and photography events ensured the spread of the garden city idea. A garden city magazine was also published.

Goals of the German Garden City Society

The founders formulated their social reform goals in the statutes as follows: "A garden city is a systematically designed settlement on inexpensive land that is permanently owned by the community, so that any speculation with the land is impossible."

With this original objective, one went far beyond what villa colonies or company housing construction wanted to achieve. The goals of the German Garden City Society relate to the following two key points:

  1. In terms of urban planning, healthy apartments are to be created with a spacious and low construction method of the garden cities, which also include access to their own garden.
  2. According to the cooperative principle, there is common ownership of land. The increase in value achieved by converting farmland into newly created living space remains in the community and land speculation is avoided. Rents are charged according to the cost recovery principle and remain permanently low. The tenants are also members of the cooperative and receive a permanent right of residence that is practically non-cancellable by the cooperative.

The first German garden cities

Typical house in the garden city of Hellerau

Hellerau (a district of Dresden since 1950) was - planned from 1906, built from 1909 - the first, at the same time most complete and radical realization of a garden city in Germany. With the festival hall , the place also gained importance as a cultural center at an early stage.

In Nuremberg , following the design principles of the garden city idea, the residential colony at the marshalling yard was built by German Bestelmeyer u. a., as a railway settlement. From 1910, the Gartenstadt district was built south of the city according to plans by Richard Riemerschmid u. a., as well as the MAN factory settlement in Werderau . All three settlements are under monument and ensemble protection . see also: Ensemble of workers' housing estate , marshalling yard , architectural monuments in the garden city of Nuremberg and architectural monuments in Werderau

Augsburg's Thelottviertel is also known as Germany's first garden city. Construction began in 1907 and was completed in 1929.

The Margarethenhöhe Krupp estate in Essen, which was built in 1909, is also often referred to as the first German garden city (planned by Georg Metzendorf / Kruppsches Baubüro), but it is only a “garden city” in terms of its construction. A cooperative concept is completely missing here. Another early garden city emerged in Neumünster from 1910, see Neumünster # garden city .

The garden city cooperative, co-founded in Karlsruhe-Rüppurr in 1905 by Hans Kampffmeyer , the younger cousin of Bernhard Kampffmeyer, on the other hand, follows the holistic, socially influenced demands of the English garden city movement and formed a kind of alliance between economists, social reformers, architects, hygienists, local politicians, cooperative members and Publishers together.

Realpolitik and change

As early as 1904, the Garden City Society said goodbye to the utopia of social renewal and from then on only wanted to campaign for consistent land reform . The idea of ​​the self-sufficient and autonomous garden city was increasingly abandoned in favor of housing estates, garden suburbs and the expansion of cities in the sense of the garden city. So you orientated yourself to what is common and feasible. With this bourgeois-reformist line, for which Hans Kampffmeyer essentially stood, the garden city movement opened up to wider sections of the population.

In 1909, the board of the German Garden City Society had only a few of the original founding members: Bernhard Kampffmeyer , Paul Kampffmeyer , Adolf Otto and Franz Oppenheimer . There were also Carl Johannes Fuchs , Paul Schultze-Naumburg , Werner Sombart , Joseph August Lux , Ferdinand Avenarius , Peter Behrens , Richard Riemerschmid , Hermann Muthesius and Karl Schmidt . Schmidt, Muthesius and Riemerschmid were already significantly involved in founding Hellerau in 1906 and brought real experience to the board.

In 1909, Bernhard Kampffmeyer and Adolf Otto carried out a DGG excursion to English garden cities, which had a decisive influence on further development. In 1909 the term garden city was already being used in an inflationary manner for the most varied of forms of settlements and in some cases it had become the plaything of construction companies. Kampffmeyer complained: "The word garden city has become a big collective term, in which today the most diverse settlement structures are thrown into it with almost no distinction - regardless of social foundations and goals." Bernhard Kampffmeyer developed some theoretical considerations on the terms from the experience of the study trip. Gartenstadt ',' Gartendorf 'and' Gartenvorstadt ', which he published together in 1919.

Balance of construction activity

The beginning of the First World War initially stopped or prevented the execution of many plans, and construction work had to be temporarily suspended.

At the end of and after the First World War, there were serious supply, food and accommodation shortages in the German Reich due to a labor shortage in agriculture, reparation claims , the released and unemployed soldiers and the influx of refugees. The term turnip winter is still partly remembered today. Immediately after the First World War, housing estates were built in many places on former farmland with very little structural effort as part of cooperative models, which should quickly provide people with cheap living space and the possibility of self-sufficiency. That is why the houses had sufficiently large garden plots (e.g. around 1200–1300 m² for two families) in order to be able to grow vegetables and fruit and to keep small animals to a certain extent.

An example of this is the Daheim settlement of the cooperative association of the same name in Berlin-Mariendorf, east of the trotting track. Here, two-storey semi - detached houses for four families each were built according to type plans from 1919 to 1923 in an economical construction method on acquired farmland and gradually completed in the following years according to the financial possibilities of the cooperative. The outer walls were z. B. built as cavity walls with bricks standing on the narrow side ( Tauberwand ) in order to reduce the material requirement. The joist layers of the false ceilings and the roof structures have relatively large distances of about one meter; Reclaimed wood from demolished houses was also often used. The cooperative members were involved in building the settlement.

After the First World War, the architect Paul Schmitthenner became one of the most important representatives of this type of construction. He had been involved in the execution of various garden cities since 1913 and who often published on garden cities and “people's houses” based on their principles.

After the end of the Second World War, all that remained of the idea of ​​the garden city was the single-family house as an ideal residential area.

The residential units created directly in garden cities remained a very small number compared to the residential units created by other housing associations and company housing. The effect of the garden city idea, however, had a lasting influence on urban planning.

The reception by National Socialism

Model of the garden city (Bad Neustadt an der Saale) , published in 1939 in the magazine Bauen, Siedeln, Wohnen . At the beginning as a four-year plan settlement , it was clearly in the spirit of the rulers of the time when it was founded

In sharp contrast to the emancipatory content of Howard's original garden city idea, its reception by right-wing movements stands. As early as 1896, two years before the first English edition of Howard's book was published, a similar concept had appeared in Germany, where it was associated with anti-Semitic polemics. From then on, the conceptual connection between “rural” city and “community” leads to the time of National Socialism. In 1941, Hans Bernhard Reichow published the essay Basics on Urban Development in the Old Reich and in the New German East , in which he set up guidelines for the new cities expected of him, especially in the "colonization areas of the new German East", which were essentially based on the idea of ​​the “ City landscapes ”, that is, the garden cities, are oriented. Despite the formulation "Here [...] the intellectual and ideal ties of the new urban development with regard to the overall shape of the city and its appearance as an expression of a regained and new community" are missing in Reichow's essay the reflection on the nature of this community as well their relationship to the structural shape of the new cities. The traces of the garden city presentation can be traced back to official announcements by the National Socialist regime. In a general order of January 30, 1942 (guidelines for the planning and design of the cities in the incorporated German eastern territories) of the Reichsführer SS, Heinrich Himmler, in his office as Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Nationhood , it says:

“The green areas are to be designed as a coherent system that leads from the city center to the open landscape. [...] By means of a network of public footpaths and cycle paths connected to the residential areas, the inner-city green areas are to be brought into connection with forests, water areas and other scenic parts of the area. "

- Teut p. 355

Garden cities in the air war

In the cited article Reichow wrote: “Within the framework of this overall organization, the form of settlement develops from a cellular structure that corresponds to the new political structure and at the same time takes military and air protection aspects into account.” What he was probably thinking of was already in the 1938 guidelines for the structural air raid protection in urban development , which the Reich Minister of Labor had issued. The development should be spacious, with large open spaces between the buildings, because loosened-up development is not as susceptible to destruction by bombs as the narrow construction method of traditional cities, and because the spacious areas between the houses offer the population more opportunities to escape and escape .

At the beginning of 1944 Konstanty Gutschow and Rudolf Hillebrecht , both members of the Task Force for the Reconstruction of Bomb-Destroyed Cities, reported on behalf of Albert Speer about the destruction of war in German cities and developed concepts for reconstruction. Also here it says:

“The urban development deficiencies of a modern city in the narrow garb of a historic old town are underlined by the aerial warfare (counter-example Paris). [...] Low population density in terms of urban planning and air defense advantages. Bandstadt Term for loosened up, structured development with many advantages. [...] Also other tasks set by urban planners on new, loosened up and structured urban development with low population densities and low-rise buildings are underlined as correct by aerial warfare experience. "

- after Durth p. 216

The thought of the aerial warfare did not seem absurd in the Federal Republic either. Rudolf Hillebrecht, after the war, who had been the city planner of Hanover for many years, had a great influence on the reconstruction in the Federal Republic, said in 1981:

"[...] if you have seen thousands of people burned to death on the streets and curled up like small packages, then this experience could have a say in the dimensioning of aisles - of aisles that, for economic reasons, can only be thought of as roads - and could not allow as green stripes. […] With this air raid motif, I have to admit that it was 'top secret' among us; nobody talked about it. [...] we said to each other that this is a subject that we cannot bring to the public and which we cannot say in the Council. "

- after Durth p. 216

Garden cities as a global concept

Concerns about the relatively large amount of land used in Europe (and especially in the Federal Republic of Germany) initially prevented further spreading, while in the United States large-scale residential areas emerged and a house with a garden could be built for almost all population and income groups. The high level of motorization achieved by the Americans at an early stage, combined with a significantly cheaper timber construction, accelerated this development.

Even before the urban planning models of the Bandstadt and the Ville Radieuse by Le Corbusier , the garden city model became the most momentous model of urban planning in the 20th century.

Songjiang New City is a 604 km² new housing estate in the district of the same name in Shanghai. The garden city is the English theme one of nine settlements in the One City, Nine Towns project . It was built from 2001 for a population of 500,000. It contains the Thames Town .

Garden cities in the DA-CH region

Real garden cities have not been founded in German-speaking countries. Hellerau occupies an exceptional position: At the time of its founding, apart from formal independence, all the criteria of a real garden city were met. At that time Hellerau belonged to Klotzsche , but was managed by the Gartengesellschaft Hellerau mbH. It was incorporated into Dresden in 1950.


Around 1900 Alexe Altenkirch showed with her paintings how she imagined the Gronauerwald garden settlement as an artist.
Master settlement of the Gerresheimer Glashütte
Staaken , view along the street Am Pfarrhof
The garden city Am Schmalen Rain in Gotha (1927/28)
Garden city of Hanover- Kirchrode
Entrance of the Garden City Weiche in Flensburg


Freidorf BL settlement


European Garden City Network

In 2008 the European Garden City Network was founded. The aim is a garden city partnership of associations and initiatives of garden cities from Europe, who exchange ideas about their own interests and want to keep the public interested in the garden city alive. Also included is the Hampstead Garden Suburb near London, one of the very first garden cities, with the garden city Karlsruhe one of the oldest German garden cities, as well as Hellerau (Dresden), Falkenberg (Berlin), Podkowa Lesna (Warsaw), Marga (Senftenberg), Wandsbek (Hamburg) and the Mannheim garden city. Garden cities from Austria and the Czech Republic have already expressed their interest in joining the network.


See also


Garden city and garden city movement in general

  • The German garden city movement. Summary of the current state of the movement. Verlag der Deutschen Gartenstadt-Gesellschaft, Berlin 1911. Digitized edition of the University and State Library in Düsseldorf
  • Hans Kampffmeyer : The garden city movement - 2nd edition - Leipzig: Teubner, 1913. Digitized edition of the University and State Library in Düsseldorf
  • Simons: The German garden city: its essence and its types today / by Gustav Simons. - Wittenberg (district Halle): Ziemsen, 1912. Digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf
  • Werner Durth , Niels Gutschow : Dreams in ruins. Plans for the reconstruction of destroyed cities in western Germany 1940–1950. - Volume 1: Concepts ; Volume 2: Cities . Braunschweig / Wiesbaden 1988 (publications of the German Architecture Museum on the history of architecture and architectural theory).
  • Werner Durth: German Architects. Biographical entanglements 1900–1970. 2nd revised edition Braunschweig / Wiesbaden 1987 (writings of the German Architecture Museum on the history of architecture and the theory of architecture).
  • Robert Fishman: Urban Utopias in the Twentieth Century, Ebenezer Howard, Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier. Basic, New York 1977, MIT Press, Cambridge 1982, ISBN 0-465-08933-X , ISBN 0-262-56023-2
  • Kristiana Hartmann: German garden city movement. Cultural policy and social reform. Heinz Moos, Munich 1976, ISBN 3-7879-0094-2 .
  • Julius Posener (ed.): Ebenezer Howard . The garden cities of tomorrow. The book and its story. Bauwelt Foundations Volume 21, Berlin Frankfurt / M. Vienna: Ullstein, 1968 (German v. Garden Cities of Tomorrow. First in 1898 as Tomorrow, a peaceful path to real reform ).
  • Bernhard Kampffmeyer: From the garden suburb to the garden city . German Garden City Society V. Berlin-Grünau 1919.
  • Bernhard Kampffmeyer: From the small town to the garden town . Pamphlet - German Garden City Society. Vol. 11. Berlin-Schlachtensee 1908.
  • Hans Kampffmeyer: The garden city movement. BG Teubner, Leipzig 1909.
  • Paul Kampffmeyer: The building cooperatives as part of a national housing reform plan . The Housing Question and the Reich. Vol. 3. German Association for Housing Reform e. V., Göttingen 1900.
  • Thomas Krückemeyer: Garden City as a Reform Model. Settlement concept between utopia and reality. Siegen: Carl Böschen Verlag 1997, ISBN 3-932212-03-7 .
  • Mervin Miller: Letchworth . Phillimore, Chichester Sus 1989, 2002, ISBN 1-86077-213-7 .
  • New worlds of life! - Garden Cities in Germany , Issue 1 Horticultural History, German Horticultural Museum Erfurt, 2006.
  • Anna Teut : Architecture in the Third Reich. 1933-1945 . Berlin / Frankfurt (M) / Vienna 1967.
  • Thomas Will, Ralph Lindner (Ed.): Garden City: History and Future Viability of an Idea . WEB Universitätsverlag, Dresden 2012, ISBN 3-942411-33-4 .
  • Martin Neitzke, Gustav Wolf: Building for life, new living between tradition and modernity , Wasmuth, Tübingen / Berlin, 1991, ISBN 3-8030-0155-2
  • Leo Adler (architect) , editor: Modern rental houses and settlements, 1931 / with an afterword by Myra Warhaftig, Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-7861-1845-0

Individual garden cities

  • Kristiana Hartmann: The Berlin garden city Falkenberg, a planning example of the German garden city movement. In: Bernhard Kirchgässner, Joachim B. Schultis (eds.): Forest, garden and park. On the functional change of nature for the city. Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1993, ISBN 3-7995-6418-7 , pp. 83-97.
  • Friedrich Wolff: Garden cities in and around Berlin. Hendrik Bäßler Verlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-930388-44-8 (148 pages)
  • Garden city of Hellerau. A report on the purpose, the organization, the settlement conditions. the achievements so far and the goals . Verlag der Gartenstadt Hellerau, Hellerau near Dresden 1911.
  • Claudia Beger: Garden City Hellerau. Architecture guide. DVA, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-421-03700-8 .
  • Clemens Galonska, Frank Elstner: Gartenstadt Hellerau / Garden City of Hellerau. Palisander Verlag, Chemnitz 2007, ISBN 978-3-938305-04-1 .
  • Thomas Nitschke: The garden city of Hellerau as an educational province. Hellerau-Verlag, Dresden 2003, ISBN 3-910184-43-X .
  • Thomas Nitschke: The garden city of Hellerau in the tension between the cosmopolitan reform settlement and the nationalist-minded folk community. Halle (Saale) 2007, DNB 988227517 (Dissertation. Martin Luther University, Halle, Department of History, Philosophy, Social Sciences, 2007, 287 pages).
  • Thomas Nitschke: The history of the garden city Hellerau. Hellerau-Verlag, Dresden 2009, ISBN 978-3-938122-17-4 .
  • High wait. Illustrated bi-monthly publication for the artistic, intellectual and economic interests of urban culture. Theme booklet Garden City Hellerau . R. Voigtländer, Vienna / Leipzig 3. 1907, 20.
  • Emil Dettwiler : The garden city of Neu-Mönchenstein. A contribution to solving the housing issue in Basel with special consideration of medium-sized apartments. Basel 1912.
  • Jörn Richter u. a .: Garden City Gablenzsiedlung Chemnitz. Heimatland Saxony, Chemnitz 2002, ISBN 3-910186-38-6 .

Web links

Commons : Garden Cities  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Robert Jütte : History of Alternative Medicine . From folk medicine to today's unconventional therapies. CH Beck, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-406-40495-2 , p. 158 and 299 .
  2. ^ Knerling memorial area statutes of April 19, 2010 ( Memento of December 4, 2018 in the Internet Archive )
  3. ^ Theodor Fritsch: The city of the future. Leipzig 1896. According to Durth / Gutschow vol. 1 pp. 168 and 223, note 25
  4. printed in Teut p. 332 ff.
  5. printed in Teut p. 347 ff.
  6. Teut p. 340
  7. after Durth p. 216 f.
  8. ^ Shape of the City: Thames Town :: Shanghai Squared. Retrieved February 25, 2017 .
  9. Concentrated rent increase causes unrest. In: Badisches Tagblatt , February 28, 2013
  10. ^ Ensemble Gartenstadt Werderau. In: (PDF)
  11. ^ History of Mainz-Kostheim . Archived from the original on February 4, 2010. Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved July 13, 2011. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  12. - The Loher Moos - Ziegelstein settlement ( Memento of the original from March 27, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  13. Construction files in the Schwerin city archive , holdings MD / BA
  14. Bylaws for the monument area "Hindenburgstrasse, Bad Oeynhausen" from August 4, 1983 ( Memento of the original from September 16, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 713 kB), as of October 1991, accessed on June 7, 2010 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  15. ^ AW Schwerte - Kreinberg settlement . In: . Retrieved June 10, 2010.
  16. Guided tours through the Kreinbergsiedlung . In: . Retrieved May 23, 2016.
  17. ^ "Living at the Pheasant Garden" - Stadtwiki Karlsruhe. Retrieved June 15, 2018 (German (Sie-Salutation)).
  18. Leuna craftsmen's settlement. In: , accessed on April 28, 2016
  19. Commemorative publication for the 10th anniversary of the Lower Saxony agricultural cooperative. G. mb H., Hanover: 1919-1929
  21. Polzergasse in Graz • . In: . ( [accessed on April 4, 2017]).
  22. ^ Ludwig Odstrcil: The garden and industrial city of Strasshof ad Nordbahn b. Vienna . Vienna 1913.
  23. Christine Baumgärtner: Professional experience: Freelance. In: Linkedin . Retrieved April 8, 2020 .