|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||75 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||240.34 km 2|
|Residents:||45,752 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||190 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||06886, 06888, 06889|
|Primaries :||03491, 034920, 034928, 034929|
|License plate :||WB, GHC, JE|
|Community key :||15 0 91 375|
|LOCODE :||DE WTG|
|City structure:||19 districts|
City administration address :
06886 Lutherstadt Wittenberg
|Lord Mayor :||Torsten belonging (non-party)|
|Location of the city of Lutherstadt Wittenberg in the Wittenberg district|
|Luther memorials Eisleben and Wittenberg|
|UNESCO world heritage|
|Criteria :||(iv) (vi)|
|Reference No .:||783|
|UNESCO region :||Europe and North America|
|History of enrollment|
|Enrollment:||1996 (session 20)|
Wittenberg , officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg since 1938 , is a town in the eastern part of Saxony-Anhalt and the seat of the Wittenberg district . It is located on the Elbe between Dessau-Roßlau in the west, the Fläming in the north, the Dübener Heide in the south and the Elbe-Elster-Land in the east, almost 100 kilometers southwest of Berlin and about 70 kilometers north-northeast of Leipzig .
Wittenberg attained outstanding importance as one of the most important German centers of political, cultural, historical and artistic endeavors in the 16th century: The town church of St. Marien , the castle church , the Lutherhaus and the Melanchthonhaus have been UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1996 .
Wittenberg is located in the north German lowlands in the east of Saxony-Anhalt . The city center and most of the urban area are located on the north bank of the Elbe . Its surface appearance today is the result of the earlier glacial period and the ice formation of the Saale , and therefore the Wittenberg urban area has the characteristics of an old moraine landscape . Wittenberg belongs to the area of the Breslau-Magdeburg glacial valley , which is bordered here in the north by the Fläming and in the south by the sandy areas of the Düben Heath . The average altitude is .
In terms of landscape, the city is part of South Fleming and, together with the suburbs south of the Elbe ( Pratau , Seegrehna ), part of the Elbe . To the north of the city there are extensive pine forests, while the Elbe meadows south of the city are flat and unforested. The Middle Elbe Biosphere Reserve extends west of the city down the Elbe to Schönebeck . 16 river kilometers east of the Wittenberg gauge the Schwarze Elster and 46 river kilometers west the Mulde flows into the Elbe.
Wittenberg borders on the following cities and communities:
Rabenstein / Fläming
( Potsdam-Mittelmark district )
( Teltow-Fläming district )
|Coswig (Anhalt)||Zahna Magpie|
The city is located in the temperate climate zone . The average air temperature in Wittenberg is 9.1 ° C, the annual precipitation 533 millimeters (weather data 1982–2012).
The rain shadow of the Harz as an area of influence and the sandy surroundings of the city in Fläming and the Dübener Heide have a decisive influence on the city's climate . The Elbe also forms a weather lane as a climatic factor.
The storage of heat in the sandy sediment layers can lead to climatic phenomena. This was shown, among other things, by the effects of Hurricane Kyrill , when a tornado in 2007 damaged a residential area in Wittenberg-West so severely within a few minutes that many apartments were uninhabitable. The origin of the hurricane was a sudden heavy precipitation, which was accompanied by thunderstorms and encountered warm air in the sandy sediment of the city in the area of the district of Piesteritz . Wind trousers can also be seen frequently in the Wittenberg area. As early as 2002, a tornado (on an almost identical line) damaged a shopping center in the Teuchel district and devastated an industrial area.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Wittenberg
Source: (data for the period 1961–1990)
Archaeological finds from various prehistoric epochs on the territory of Wittenberg indicate that the urban area was settled at an early age around 10,000 years ago. In a document dated April 12, 965 (which is probably a forgery from the year 1000) it is recorded that the area in which today's Wittenberg is located was referred to as the Slavic Gau Nizizi . This stretched along the Elbe from the mouth of the Black Elster (in the east) to the mouth of the Mulde (in the west).
The first reliable mentions that directly apply to today's territory of the city come from the years 973/1004. There the today's districts of Pratau (Broth, 973) and Seegrehna (Grodisti, 1004) are mentioned. The first mention of the name Wittenberg can be found as early as 1174 when a Count Thiedrich von Wittburc is mentioned, who was obviously the castle man of the burchwardum […] Wittenburg mentioned in a document from Bishop Balderam of Brandenburg for the Leitzkau monastery around 1187 , which also mentions a church that is to be seen as the forerunner of today's city church .
From 1200 to 1486
The development of the city is closely linked to the politics of the Ascanians . After Bernhard of Saxony had received the ducal dignity of Saxony in 1180, his son Albrecht I inherited the area around Wittenberg and the ducal dignity of Saxony. According to a document dated September 11, 1227, his wife Helena of Saxony built a Franciscan monastery , which indicates a preferred position of the district among the Ascanians; the monastery belonged to the Saxon Franciscan Province ( Saxonia ). Her son Albrecht II , who ruled together with his brother Johann I von Sachsen-Lauenburg , had received the electoral dignity through his abdication from his father-in-law Rudolf von Habsburg . After about 20 years of his unfortunate reign, Johann I relinquished the right to govern to his sons in 1282 and appointed Albrecht II as guardian while they were underage; he himself entered the Franciscan monastery in Wittenberg and became its head ( Guardian ). There he died on July 30, 1285.
Since Albrecht II stayed permanently in Wittenberg, the place became his residence for Saxony-Wittenberg , and a dispute with the Saxon-Lauenburg line broke out . Wittenberg itself had developed from a district with farmers, craftsmen and merchants, favored by its convenient location, to a place with an existing community. In order to secure the loyalty of his subjects, Albrecht II granted Wittenberg town charter on June 27, 1293 . This created the prerequisites for a middle class to develop in Wittenberg.
Through the further acquisition of righteous persons , the influence of the citizens of Wittenberg increased, so that a self-administration emerged, which is first recorded as a council in 1317. In 1332 the city gained lower jurisdiction and was able to give the developing trades of bakers, butchers, shoe and cloth makers a regulated and developed framework. This also includes the market rights granted in 1354 , the ferry regulations received in 1380, but also the permission to build city walls granted with the city rights. The Hussites were able to besiege the city in 1429, but not take it.
Although the influence of the Ascanians in the city declined with the acquisition of justice, they played an increasingly important role in imperial politics. Especially Rudolf I led Saxony-Wittenberg with a clever territorial policy in 1356 from the duchy to the confirmed electorate. With this, Wittenberg achieved the status of a capital city of Electoral Saxony. This phase should not last long. With the death of Albrecht III. in 1422 the Ascanians lost the Saxon electoral dignity to the Wettins . With this, the status of an electoral residence also disappeared. All rights acquired up to then were confirmed by Frederick the Disputable Wittenberg and extended to include higher jurisdiction in 1444, but Wittenberg initially continued to develop as a town without any particular significance. His successor, Friedrich the Meek, authorized the city to produce its own Heller in its Wittenberg mint from 1451 onwards .
As a result of the division of Leipzig in 1485 , the Wettins split into an Ernestine and an Albertine line. Although Ernst von Sachsen inherited the electoral dignity as the older brother, the university city of Leipzig and the main seat of government in Meißen fell to Albrecht the Brave . Elector Ernst was therefore forced to choose new residential cities. Above all Torgau, Weimar and Wittenberg, at that time the most populous of the three cities mentioned, developed into the centers of his rule. When the elector died, however, the expansion of the Wittenberg residence had barely progressed: the old Ascanian castle was in ruins, butchers' shops were located in the previous building of today's town hall and the existing sacred buildings were not very representative.
Expansion of the residence under Elector Friedrich the Wise (1486–1525)
With the accession of the Ernestine Elector Friedrich III. , called the Wise, Wittenberg's heyday began in 1486. Thanks to the rich income from silver mining in the Ore Mountains , Friedrich III. about the financial resources for the architectural redesign of Wittenberg. Thanks to the establishment of his residence and university, Wittenberg was ultimately able to become a spiritual center of humanism and, as Martin Luther's place of work, became the focus of the Reformation . Wittenberg's status as a UNESCO World Heritage Site mainly dates back to this period. According to the elector's claim, the city should be able to compete with the Meissen Albrechtsburg , the headquarters of the Albertine line.
Friedrich moved the electoral residence to Wittenberg for three reasons: Firstly, a historical reference to the old capital of the Ascanic electorate of Saxony-Wittenberg (1365–1423) was intended to legitimize his rule. Second, the geographical location of Wittenberg between Halle an der Saale and Magdeburg , the two main places of residence of the Magdeburg archbishops , made it possible to exercise political and strategic control over the Archbishopric of Magdeburg . In 1489, Friedrich's brother, Ernst II of Saxony , succeeded in appointing Magdeburg as archbishop. The close family ties to Friedrich guaranteed security for the individual, partly unrelated, sovereign territories in Central Germany. Thirdly, Wittenberg and the Elbe were on an important waterway.
The elector had the wooden Elbe bridge built in 1487 strategically secured with the construction of a new, three-wing renaissance castle from 1490. With that, Friedrich III. the southern entrance of the city under his control. The bridge replaced a previous building that had been destroyed by heavy ice drift in 1428. Until the new construction, ferries had maintained the traffic, because grain, wine, wood and herring were shipped from northern Germany to Bohemia via the Elbe. Although Wittenberg was not a major trading town, the traders had to reload their goods at the bridge, offer them for sale in the city and pay the elector duty before they were allowed to travel on.
Since the reconstruction of the old Askanierburg would have been too expensive, Friedrich III had it in 1489. remove, which is why nothing is known about their appearance today. The construction of the new Renaissance castle turned out to be a logistical challenge: Sandstone had to be laboriously brought in from Pirna, limestone from Magdeburg and other stone material from the old castle in Torgau, which was also being demolished. The timber came from the Dübener Heide and Decin in today's Czech Republic, where the construction workers against the Elbströmung treideln had to go at all for mining area. Frequently, low water or ice on the Elbe threatened the continuation of their work. First the southwest wing of the castle with the residential tower of Frederick the Wise was built. The first interior work began there as early as 1492/1493, but little is known about it. The wood paneling and canvases of the castle there were probably designed by the court painter Lucas Cranach the Elder . Fatally, the south-west wing with its strong walls also formed part of the city fortifications, so that it was later exposed to heavy artillery fire during the Seven Years' War. The middle west wing with the north-west tower, in which Friedrich's brother and successor Johann the Constant lived, was built next. The east wing and the castle church were the last part of the castle complex. By 1509, the construction of the castle and castle church was essentially complete.
The castle church served both as a repository for Friedrich's reliquary collection, the so-called Wittenberg Heiltum, and as a burial place for the Ernestine electors. On every second Sunday after Easter, the elector had his relics on public display here for pilgrims. According to the late medieval understanding, believers were promised forgiveness of sins if they looked at the relics and made a donation ( indulgence ). In the so-called Wittenberg healing books of 1509, which were distributed throughout the Holy Roman Empire by printing, Lucas Cranach recorded a total of 5005 relics from the castle church in 119 wood engravings. The pilgrims should be able to buy 501,300 days of forgiveness of sins with it. Even after Martin Luther posted his theses, Friedrich continued to expand his collection to prevent his Saxon subjects from spending their money in places of pilgrimage outside the country. At the same time the castle church was also an expression of the deep piety of Frederick III. With his donations, 8,994 masses were held in the castle church each year and 81 clerics were employed. He had the church equipped with Venetian panes and 20 altars. In the tower of the castle church there was Friedrich's room, which led up to the church gallery via a staircase. He was to be buried in the castle church in 1525 and Elector Johann in 1532 .
Since 1509 the fortifications in Wittenberg have also been renewed and expanded. The essentials in this area only happened after the reign of Frederick, when a warlike conflict with Emperor Charles V became more and more apparent.
Since the Ernestine Electorate of Saxony no longer had its own state university since Leipzig was partitioned in 1485, Friedrich III founded. in Wittenberg 1502 a university . The corresponding deed of foundation dated July 6, 1502, with which the Roman-German King and later Emperor Maximilian I confirmed the founding, is a novelty, because before either the Pope or the Emperor and Pope jointly granted permission to found a university. The imperial seal of the University of Wittenberg made reference to the sovereign. It shows the portrait of Friedrich III. with the Latin signature: "ME AVSPICE CEPIT WITENBERG DOCERE" ( Wittenberg started teaching under my protection ). Papal recognition did not take place until June 20, 1507. Nevertheless, the sovereign protection of the elector prevented the church from having direct access to the university. These unusual freedoms enabled the institution to break free from medieval educational traditions in line with the humanistic spirit. This new approach is supported by the interest of Friedrich III. explainable to train theologians, lawyers and doctors who were able to shape the early modern statehood in administration and society. From then on, the electoral court became a magnet for creative forces. Other buildings such as the Fridericianum (Old College) as the first building of the university in 1503 and the “ Black Monastery ” of the Augustinian Hermits in 1504 supported this tendency; they shared three professorships with the Franciscans, who were also based in Wittenberg. University operations required additional living space for teachers and students. Many residential buildings will be raised to accommodate the latter.
However, Wittenberg was still missing one attribute of the university town: since the town, unlike the large “trading metropolises” Strasbourg , Augsburg and Nuremberg, did not have a financially strong middle class, printing was initially of no importance. It was not until the in-house printing works founded by two professors from the university heralded the beginning of Wittenberg printing. In 1508 the printer Johann Rhau-Gronenberg , who probably came from Grünberg in what is now Hesse, moved to Wittenberg. His workshop, located in the Augustinian monastery, copied lecture texts for students. In 1513, 1515, 1516 and 1517, the theology professor and later reformer Martin Luther had texts printed here. The single-sheet print of the 95 theses , Luther's indictment against the papal church's indulgence trade , was not produced in Wittenberg, but by the printer Melchior Lotter the Elder in Leipzig . Luther's writing activity moved more printers to move to Wittenberg in the 1520s.
Martin Luther was appointed to the Saxon residence city in 1508 by a founding professor of the University of Wittenberg, Johann von Staupitz . Luther should continue his theology studies here. In contrast to Erfurt , where Luther had started his studies and already 24,000 people lived, Wittenberg still lacked an urban appearance. For this reason Luther expressed himself very disparagingly about the city:
“The Wittenbergers live on the edge of civilization; if they had continued to settle, they would have got into the middle of barbarism "
At the time of Luther only about 2000 people lived in Wittenberg. Apart from a few stone buildings such as church and town houses, the roofs of most of the mud huts were often covered with straw. Between 1500 and 1550 only 54 new houses were built within the fortress ring. The gaps in the streets were just beginning to close, for example between the market and the town church . Smaller craft houses with no backyards were built between Collegienstrasse and Mittelstrasse. For almost 40 years - from 1508, with a brief interruption, until 1546 - Luther lived in the Augustinian hermit monastery in Wittenberg . In the tower room there, for the first time in his life, he was able to work alone and unsupervised in his own, even heated room. After the dissolution of the monastery and Luther's marriage in 1525, Elector Friedrich III. the reformer and his family the building.
Renowned artists such as Lucas Cranach the Elder were also supported by the Elector, one of the most important patrons of his time. In 1505 the painter entered the service of the elector. Before that, Cranach had lived in the much larger Vienna . In order to keep the artist in the provincial Wittenberg anyway, Friedrich gave his court painter numerous perks: he paid him an annual salary of 100 guilders, which was ten times the income of a student. He was taken care of by the castle kitchen and received court clothes. The support of the elector made Cranach so wealthy that in 1512 he was able to purchase a house at Markt 3 and 4, the nucleus of the later Cranach courtyards . However, the property quickly became too small for the growing family and the workshop, so that Cranach moved to Schlossstrasse 1. In 1522, however, the artist bought back his property at Markt 4 to use it for print production.
From 1517, the spread of Martin Luther's 95 theses contributed to the fact that Wittenberg could exert a great attraction on scholars and students. In 1518 the chair of the Greek language was established for the first time. Friedrich III. personally wanted to assign the professorship and asked the philosopher and diplomat Johannes Reuchlin for a recommendation. In the reply, Reuchlin praised the theologian, philosopher and poet Philipp Melanchthon . It is not known where Melanchthon first found shelter. Presumably in 1520 or shortly after his marriage, however, he moved to Collegienstraße 62. The local, relatively small residential building was referred to as “Bude” in the city directory and had already become so dilapidated in 1536 that Melanchthon had to tear it down. Under the second successor of Frederick the Wise, Elector Johann Friedrich I , a representative new building with a garden was to be built at Collegienstraße 60. Since Melanchthon had to take on and care for students in his house as a mentor, he could not raise the financing necessary for the new building on his own. The elector contributed 500 guilders and the university 200 guilders. The building known today as the Melanchthon House was completed as early as October 1536. The financial support of the new elector was mainly done to keep the scholar from leaving Wittenberg. This would have meant an enormous loss of prestige for the electoral university.
The beginning of the Reformation movement is generally considered to be the posting of Martin Luther's 95 theses on the entrance portal of the Wittenberg Castle Church in 1517. Whether the so-called posting of theses actually took place is controversial. The Catholic church historian Erwin Iserloh argued in 1961 that it was only Philipp Melanchthon who even mentioned a thesis posting. Melanchthon cannot have been an eyewitness to the event. When Melanchthon's publication in 1546, Martin Luther was no longer alive. The supporters of the theses, on the other hand, refer to the fact that the Theological Faculty of the University of Wittenberg stipulated that invitations to academic disputations be posted on church doors. In his research, the historian Daniel Jütte also came to the conclusion that church doors played an important role as information boards in public space during Luther's time. It is possible that putting up posters was so commonplace that Luther did not mention them in his writings. However, according to the historian, posters were glued on with glue or sealing wax and not hammered, as Melanchthon claimed.
As the birthplace of the Reformation , after Luther's departure from the Roman Catholic Church, with the burning of the papal “ canonical rights ” and the bull threatening exsurge domine of Pope Leo X in front of the Elstertor , Wittenberg gained further importance through the events of the Wittenberg movement . Wittenberg, which was jokingly referred to as the “Rome of the Protestants”, provided decisive impulses for the entire world at that time.
Even if Wittenberg had to relinquish its function as the Saxon capital city to Torgau after the death of Frederick the Wise , its position as the center of the Reformation movement remained. B. in the Wittenberg Agreement and the creation of the first Luther Bible . In order to meet the increasing demands of the growing population in the then territorially restricted city, extensive construction work took place during this time. In 1526 work began again on expanding the fortifications. A new town hall and in the late 16th century a drinking water supply system, Röhrwasser , were built. The Franciscans, who opposed the Reformation mainly at the instigation of the convent in Jüterbog , lost their monastery in Wittenberg in 1535, after only one brother had lived there since 1530.
As a result of the Reformation movement, conflicts arose that culminated in the Schmalkaldic War . This led to the Wittenberg surrender , whereby Wittenberg passed as the center of the spa district to the Albertine line of the Wettins . Since a consistory and before that a court court had developed during the Reformation , Wittenberg retained its importance for the Albertines. In the Electorate of Saxony as well as in the other Protestant countries, denominational disputes increasingly developed, with the Gnesiolutherans in particular asserting themselves and Jena established as the center of Lutheran orthodoxy , while the theologians around Philipp Melanchthon who remained in Wittenberg were called "Philippists".
Witch trials (1540–1674)
The reformer Martin Luther was convinced of the existence of the devil . Luther himself even believed he was being persecuted personally by the devil. So Luther quickly took the step towards believing in witches. Although he did not organize witch hunts in Wittenberg, he actively called for the killing of alleged witches from the pulpit. In 1526 Luther proclaimed in the city church of Wittenberg :
“It is a very just law that sorceresses should be killed, because they cause a lot of damage, which is sometimes ignored… When you see women like that, they are devilishly shaped, I have seen some. That is why they are to be killed. "
With his sermons Luther contributed to the fact that the witch hunt began in Wittenberg as early as 1540: Prista Frühbottin was arrested by the electoral governor because she was accused of poisoning the cattle on the pasture with the help of her son and two servants. In truth, a drought had killed the cattle. However, after the trial and torture, the accused were tied to oak stakes in the market square on June 29, 1540 and burned alive by the fire that had been ignited below. The artist and eyewitness, Lucas Cranach the Younger , made a woodcut of the pyre. The Wittenberg executioner Magnus Fischer was also suspected of having been in close contact with Prista Frühbottin. He was arrested and sentenced to death by fire, carried out in Eisleben on July 7, 1540. In Wittenberg at least 21 people were persecuted by witches from 1540 to 1674. Eight executions are attested; T. the outcome not known. In the context of the trial of Prista Frühbottin, records that have survived state that many others were imprisoned and sentenced.
On October 30, 2013, the Lutherstadt Wittenberg Council announced a socio-ethical rehabilitation of the victims of the witch hunt.
17th and 18th centuries
At the beginning of the 17th century names like Daniel Sennert , Friedrich Taubmann or August Buchner had drawn important students to the city, this changed with the beginning of the Thirty Years War . In order to be armed against the demands of a military conflict, the fortress walls and the fortress personnel were reinforced by citizens capable of fighting in 1626. Although Wittenberg got off lightly during this time, the smaller towns in the area in particular suffered from arson. Their population sought refuge in the protective walls of the city. The lack of food, which was accompanied by the plague, which was often rampant in the city, decimated the population, so that additional death books had to be created. Nevertheless, the city was able to defend itself against the attacks of the Swedish general Johan Banér in 1637 . When he did not reach his goal, he burned down the wooden bridge over the Elbe, Frederick the Wise, on January 17th.
The military actions and their consequences had an impact on the university environment. The brutalization of the people often led to clashes between the students and the mercenaries based in Wittenberg, which usually ended in bloodshed. Therefore at that time the Wittenberg executioners had their hands full. In addition, there were the incipient witch trials, as a result of which many people found an agonizing death at the stake or the scaffold on the Wittenberg market square. When academic life recovered a little, thanks in part to such important professors as Abraham Calov and Konrad Samuel Schurzfleisch , a certain economic recovery in the city was noticeable in the period that followed.
The city, which was in turn ravaged by the Northern War , quickly overcame the consequences of the Swedish occupation. Well-known students such as Anton Wilhelm Amo and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing testify to the attraction of Wittenberg. With the beginning of the Seven Years' War , Wittenberg was exposed to changing occupations with the result that the Prussians came back into possession of the fortress town on August 27, 1759. After the Prussian army had burned down the suburbs in order to have a clear field of fire, the city commandant refused to surrender to the imperial army in 1760. As a result, Wittenberg was so shot at by the Imperial Army on October 13, 1760 that the castle and its church burned down completely. The Prussians capitulated. Much of the houses were destroyed. The original thesis door was also a victim of the flames.
In 1764 the Saxon government revoked the right to fortress for the badly damaged city. The construction work was carried out slowly. It was not until August 6, 1770 that the Wittenberg Palace was inaugurated in late Baroque style. The Elbe Bridge, which was destroyed in the Thirty Years War, was opened to traffic in 1787 after a three-year construction period. Students were no longer so drawn to the destroyed city. In 1795 the university had only 366 students.
After the united Prussian-Saxon army had been defeated by Napoleon in the battle of Jena and Auerstedt on October 14, 1806 , the Saxon Elector Friedrich August paid homage to and submitted to the Emperor of the French. He made peace with him on December 11, 1806 and joined the Rhine Confederation . Thereupon Napoleon elevated Friedrich August to king of Saxony. Since then, the Saxon king was Napoleon's ally and provided military support to the French emperor. After Napoleon visited Wittenberg on October 23, 1806, the city was rebuilt into a fortress on his orders. The Wittenberg University was relocated to Bad Schmiedeberg , and the Wittenberg citizens had to provide quarters for the French troops. As a result, Wittenberg became a French transit quarter, with the citizens having to pay for supplies as usual. A total of 160,000 French moved through the city. 60,000 soldiers were permanently on site as a crew.
During the liberation wars, Wittenberg again moved into the public eye. General Lapoype , who headed the commandant's office in Wittenberg on March 20, 1813, had the houses in the suburbs, the trees and fences that surrounded the fortress town torn down to 900 paces on April 6 to create a clear field of fire. After the Battle of Wartenburg , the attacks of the opposing allies on the fortress intensified, so that on September 25th the city was heavily bombarded by the Prussians. While the French commander had capitulated in Torgau, Lapoype refused for Wittenberg. In the city itself there was increasing need, the water supply was destroyed and food was rationed. Destruction, hardship, misery, disease and hunger were the order of the day in the city due to the siege.
After the commander had been offered to surrender again on January 12, 1814, which he again refused, there was another intense bombardment from 12 noon to 1 a.m. During this period, 2,477 cannon shots were fired at the city. Under the eyes of General von Tauentzien and Prince August of Prussia as well as under the Prussian General von Dobschütz , the city was stormed at 1 a.m. after the cannonade. After losing 100 men and 8 officers, the Prussians had conquered the city and imprisoned Lapoype in the basement of the castle . This also suffered great losses: while his troops were still 3,000 men strong in October 1813, after the conquest only 2,000 men were fit to fight. 800 men were in the hospitals. On the same day the governor was brought to Tauentzien's headquarters in Coswig and interrogated there. As a result of this conflict, all 259 houses in the suburbs of Wittenberg and 37 houses in the city center were destroyed. 100,000 trees fell victim to Lapoypes' firefighting measures, including the Luther oak . The mortality rate was four times higher than usual since October 1813, so that the population of the city decreased by a third.
By resolution of the Congress of Vienna , three fifths of the state of Saxony , including Wittenberg, went to Prussia . In 1817, the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm III met. the momentous decision to dissolve the Wittenberg University and to merge it with the Halle University . As a replacement, Wittenberg received an evangelical seminary. In 1820 Wittenberg became a garrison town with the arrival of the 26th Infantry Regiment. The Wittenberg Castle was converted into a barracks, and the old university building also had to give way to a barracks building.
Wittenberg experienced the process of change typical of that time as a fortress town. Schools and high school continued to develop. With the first line of the Berlin-Anhalt Railway , which opened on August 28, 1841 , Wittenberg was connected to the German rail network. In 1847 a new bridge over the Elbe was handed over. The events of the March Revolution of 1848 did not leave their mark either. Numerous political associations were founded, whereby the conservative influence prevailed. After the first Protestant Kirchentag had taken place in the castle church, the Inner Mission was founded by Wichern on the second Kirchentag of 1848 , which is a forerunner of today's Diaconal Work .
On the orders of Kaiser Wilhelm I by cabinet order of May 30, 1873, on June 11, 1873 , under the direction of Fritz Eunike, the demolition of the fortress walls around the city began. Green spaces were created at the site of the fortress. In 1876 Wittenberg was connected to the telegraph line between Berlin and Halle, and in 1893 the city received a new post office. Due to the favorable traffic situation in the city, businesses quickly settled, so that in 1894 the Westfälisch-Anhaltische Sprengstoff-Aktiengesellschaft with an explosives factory had already settled in what is now the Reinsdorf district . Mechanical engineering, an iron foundry and a rubber factory also found a home in Wittenberg during this time.
Increasingly, a culture of remembrance of the Reformation period emerged in Wittenberg. 1821, the Luther monument was inaugurated on the square in Wittenberg, replanted the still existing Luthereiche 1830, 1858 donated a bronze thesis door of the Castle Church, 1865 Melanchthon monument unveiled in the market place, from 1877 to 1883 a reformation history museum in Luther's house set up on 31 October 1892, in the presence of Kaiser Wilhelm II, the restored castle church was inaugurated and in 1894 the Bugenhagen monument was unveiled on the church square.
The trend of industrial settlement that started in the 19th century continued in the 20th century. In 1906, today's Wikana factory started operations as the Kant chocolate factory. With the construction of the municipal power station, the city began to be electrified. In 1915, a nitrogen plant was built in what is now the Piesteritz district based on plans by Karl Janisch . As part of this construction work, the town planners Paul Schmitthenner and Otto Rudolf Salvisberg were won over, who designed the Piesteritz factory estate, which is now a listed building.
The more Wittenberg developed into an industrial city, the more the domestic political events in Germany, such as the shortage of the First World War , the consequences of the November Revolution , the Kapp Putsch or the beginning hyperinflation , had an impact on the city. Every event was reflected in Wittenberg and shaped life in the city. In 1919, Wittenberg temporarily lost its status as a garrison town. In the course of industrialization, the population grew steadily, so that on April 1, 1922, Wittenberg received the status of an independent city. Subsequently, the city administration and the city council decided in May 1922 to use the name " Lutherstadt Wittenberg". Official recognition did not take place until 1938 due to difficulties in obtaining the permit.
During the Nazi era , on June 13, 1935, the worst explosion accident occurred since the WASAG's Reinsdorf explosives plant was founded , killing over 100 people and destroying large parts of the plant. In the same year, a branch of the Arado Flugzeugwerke was established in Wittenberg , where women from the Ravensbrück concentration camp were forced to work under inhumane conditions . Wittenberg was again a garrison town of the Wehrmacht in 1936 . On the night of the pogrom in 1938, riots broke out in front of Jewish shops and homes. As a result, Jewish residents were arrested and deported. The memorial book of the Federal Archives for the victims of the National Socialist persecution of Jews in Germany (1933-1945) lists 26 Jewish residents of Wittenberg who were deported and mostly murdered .
After the beginning of the Second World War , the units trained in Wittenberg were relocated to the front and supplementary units took their place. The death notices of the dead increased. Numerous air raids meant that the workers in the armaments factories could hardly rest and still kept the machinery running at full speed alive. Although the bomber groups mainly flew to Berlin, Anglo-American bombs in 1944 damaged several houses in the eastern part of the city, the train station and the Filmburg cinema in Mittelstrasse. In order to maintain the armaments industry, a satellite camp of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp was set up in Wittenberg in the summer of 1944 . Before the Red Army marched in on April 26, 1945, the Elbe bridge and the flood bridge in today's Pratau district were blown up.
After the arrival of the Soviet soldiers, as in other German cities, there were attacks on the civilian population in Wittenberg. It was only gradually that the headquarters of the Soviet troops was able to end the chaotic situation. Gradually, life in the city returned to normal after the worst war damage had been repaired. Until their withdrawal in 1991, the Soviet Army occupied several city quarters (including the area around today's New Town Hall, Arsenalplatz or the residential area around the eastern Thomas-Müntzer-Strasse).
In 1946, a cabaret developed into a theater (later the Elbe-Elster-Theater), and in the same year the Lutherhalle was reopened. The armaments factories were destroyed and civil production resumed. Construction of the Julius Riemer Museum began in the castle in 1948 . In 1949, a HO shop was opened at Collegienstraße 91 , where you could shop without ration cards , but very expensive. With the founding of the GDR, the city council regained its duties to exercise its office. On July 1, 1950, Wittenberg lost its status as an independent city. Even if there were protests in smaller factories during June 17, 1953 , they were stopped in large factories by colliding with tanks.
The influx of many expellees from the areas east of the Oder and Neisse rivers and from the Sudetenland at the end of the Second World War led to a housing shortage in Wittenberg. In the Kleinwittenberg district, apartments were first built in large block construction between 1957 and 1963. Life in Wittenberg developed along the typical lines of a city in the GDR. On December 5, 1979, as part of the “unilateral Soviet troop withdrawal” (20,000 soldiers and 1,000 tanks), the 6th Guards Armored Division, which had been stationed in the city since 1945, was publicly adopted.
After the 450th anniversary of the founding of the Wittenberg University had been celebrated in 1952, the 400th anniversary of the death of Lucas Cranach the Elder followed in 1953. Ä. and in 1967 a great historical pageant to celebrate the 450th anniversary of the Reformation. An international symposium and an academic ceremony by the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg were the highlights of these celebrations in 1967. A memorial museum was opened in his former home in honor of Philipp Melanchthon.
A large number of events were dedicated to the Luther anniversary in 1983. The GDR's Deutsche Post (November 9, 1982 and October 18, 1983) and the Deutsche Bundespost (October 13, 1983) issued special postage stamps on this occasion. A new organ was consecrated in the town church at Pentecost. After structural redesign and museum redesign, the Luther Hall opened its exhibition on the occasion of the 500th anniversary of Martin Luther's birthday. The restoration work on the tower of the castle church and on the thesis door has been completed. Guests from 15 countries took part in the Protestant Church Congress. Pastor Friedrich Schorlemmer had a sword forged into a ploughshare.
The Piesteritz nitrogen plant was expanded from 1970 to 1976 with the construction of two ammonia and three urea plants. In connection with this, a large residential area in prefabricated construction was built from 1971 to 1980 on the northern outskirts of the city.
In the 1980s, dissatisfaction with the economic and political conditions among the population became more and more pressing. In 1989 there were demonstrations in Wittenberg with 10,000 protesting citizens. After the reunification of Germany , a radical shutdown of companies led to high unemployment. Since the economic backing in the city had broken down, there was a massive wave of emigration, especially among the younger generation.
Since the turn of the millennium
The demolition of the prefabricated building areas from the GDR era is largely complete. Since then, Wittenberg has been characterized by renovation and new construction work, economic recovery and the development of tourism as a “pilgrimage site of the Reformation”. Since 2008 the city has been preparing for the 500th anniversary of the Reformation with the Luther Decade , which took place in 2017. Numerous buildings were restored, the infrastructure was partially renewed and numerous new attractions were created in the city. The first planting of the Luthergarten took place in 2009 . A total of 500 trees were planted. These form a new park south of the old town. Construction of the first shopping center on Arsenalplatz near the historic city center began in May 2011. The "Arsenal" opened on October 18, 2012. This investment totaled around 42 million euros, creating 250 new jobs. In 2014, Lutherstadt Wittenberg was awarded the honorary title “ Reformation City of Europe ” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe . At the end of 2016, Germany's second climate-friendly train station went into operation in Lutherstadt Wittenberg after Horrem . Extensive park-and-ride areas for visitors are planned in the vicinity .
The artist Yadegar Asisi opened his 360 ° panorama under the title Luther 1517 in October 2016 , which will be on view until 2021.
Wittenberg was a garrison of the Prussian army from 1820 to 1919 . The soldiers were housed in the castle and in the Fridericianum , which had been converted into barracks. In 1883 the Kavalierkaserne (later Tauentzienkaserne ) was opened in Lutherstrasse (since 2000 the new town hall ). The original Tauentzien barracks in today's street Am alten Bahnhof existed from 1913 to 1918. The bridgehead barracks in the suburb of Pratau on the other bank of the Elbe were built in 1893. After an interruption in the interwar period as a result of the disarmament provisions of the Versailles Treaty , the Wehrmacht in the New barracks were built in the 1930s, such as the Beseler barracks on Teucheler Weg, the Nordend barracks in Nordendstrasse and a barracks in the suburb of Apollensdorf . Wittenberg became a garrison town again in 1936. The barracks were used by the Soviet troops after 1945 . After 1979/80, when the 6th Guards Panzer Division was relocated from the Wittenberg area to Belarus , the Soviet / Russian garrison Wittenberg existed to a significantly reduced extent until the withdrawal in 1992/93. The bridgehead barracks was converted into a marina camp in the following years.
The population numbers are listed according to the respective territorial status. Up to 1791 these were mostly calculated estimates, then census results or official updates from the respective statistical offices or the city administration itself.
from 2012: update based on the 2011 census
On May 26, 2019, 40 voluntary city councilors were elected in the local elections. They are distributed among the individual parties and groups of voters as follows:
|Party / list||Seats|
|Free voters (FW)||8th|
|Citizens' Alliance (AdB)||1|
The names of the Wittenberg mayors have been handed down since the 14th century. The first Lord Mayor of Wittenberg was Johann Ludolph Quenstedt , who was awarded the title on March 25, 1703 by special electoral order. Only later, from 1922 to 1950, did all city leaders officially carry the title of Lord Mayor. This has been the case again since 1994.
- 1894–1918 Friedrich Schirmer
- 1918–1922 Georg Nottebohm
- 1922–1933 Arnold Wurm
- 1933–1934 Werner Faber
- 1934–1935 Hans-Herbert Dengler (acting)
- 1935–1936 Otto Rasch
- 1936–1937 Otto Holtz (acting)
- 1937–1939 Theodor Habicht
- 1939–1945 Fritz Hofmeister
- 1945–1947 Oskar Gerischer
- 1947–1950 Friedrich von Basse
- 1953–1963 Hertha Teichmann
- 1963–1982 Siegfried Merker
- 1982–1989 Klaus Lippert
- 1989–1990 Hans-Joachim Schmidt
- 1990–2015 Eckhard Naumann
- 2015– Torsten belonging
On February 22nd, 2015, 85.7 percent of the valid votes were elected Mayor of the city for seven years. He took office on June 16, 2015.
Other famous mayors of the city were:
- 1537–1544 Lucas Cranach the Elder
- 1565–1566 Lucas Cranach the Younger
- 1566–1584 Hans Lufft
- 1585–1615 Samuel Selfisch
- until 1246 Duchy of Saxony
- 1246 Duchy of Saxony-Wittenberg
- 1356 Electorate of Saxony
- 1806 Kingdom of Saxony
- 1815 Prussia ( Province of Saxony )
- 1947 State of Saxony-Anhalt
- 1952 Halle district
- 1990 State of Saxony-Anhalt
When Wittenberg received town charter in 1293, a "Vocatus" (Vogt) ran the town. Until then , the residents of the village had mostly been serfs who gradually organized themselves as citizens in guilds . The earliest establishment of the cloth makers' guild dates back to the year 1300. A council with a proconsul (mayor) and seven consuls (councilors) is first mentioned in 1317. This took over the administrative rights of the city and its four guilds (cloth makers, shoemakers, butchers and bakers), of which it was composed. Due to the constant need for money of the regents, this council was able to gradually acquire various rights and property from them against payment. A patriciate had formed over the course of a century as a result of family elections to the council . This was changed by the regent around 1425 with new statutes. The council now consisted of three special councils with a total of 24 members who took turns in government every three years and required electoral confirmation. In the course of the development of the city, the demands on the council also increased. While initially the council members mainly fulfilled advisory functions, functions were gradually linked to the council members ( syndic , judge, treasurer , builder, assessor, mayor, etc.). This led to the size of the council. In 1696 the structure of the council was changed to a permanent service period. In the period that followed, functions in the council developed into commissions that discussed specific city issues.
The title of Lord Mayor was already awarded on an honorary basis by royal decree in 1703 and 1918. When Wittenberg had a population of 25,000 in 1922, it received the status of an independent city . With this, the mayor officially received the title of Lord Mayor. Due to the administrative reform of July 1, 1950, the status of the independent city was abolished, making the title of Lord Mayor obsolete. On the same day, the previously independent communities of Kleinwittenberg, Piesteritz, Trajuhn and Wiesigk were incorporated. The administration of these districts and of Teuchel and Labetz was centralized in the city administration.
In 1994, in accordance with the municipal code of Saxony-Anhalt, the title of mayor was reintroduced, and its alderman has the title of mayor. The incorporated districts of Abtsdorf, Apollensdorf, Boßdorf, Griebo, Kropstädt, Mochau, Nudersdorf, Pratau, Reinsdorf, Schmilkendorf, Seegrehna and Straach have a local mayor and a local council.
coat of arms
Blazon : “In silver over blue water in which a silver fish swims, a red castle , consisting of two crenellated towers connectedwith a crenellated wall , between them a small unreinforced tower, all three with pointed blue conical roofs and golden knobs , flanking the castle of two low red pinnacle towers; all windows (heraldic) closed ; the castle wall is covered with two shields leaning against each other, the (heraldic) right one divided by black over silver, covered with two diagonally crossed red swords , the left one divided nine times by black and gold, covered diagonally right with a green diamond wreath .
The city colors show red - silver (white). "
Reasons for the coat of arms: The coat of arms was approved on December 5, 1995 by the Dessau Regional Council and registered in the Magdeburg State Archives under the coat of arms roll number 117/1995.
The Wittenberg coat of arms conveys a piece of city history with its symbols. On June 27, 1293, Wittenberg was granted city rights by Duke Albrecht II. A medieval township emerged with the council as the highest administrative body. This council, first recorded in 1317, was given the task of governing the city in the interior through law and legislation and administering the city's revenue. The administration used its own seal for authentication. A representation on what is probably the oldest Wittenberg city seal stamp, which was used by the administration and which dates from the 1st half of the 14th century, forms the basic outline of various city coats of arms up to the present day.
The coat of arms symbolizes a city that has been heavily fortified since 1409 through the wall crowned with battlements, the towers behind and the free-standing towers.
The two shields in the center together form the coat of arms of Saxony. On the right is the Saxon diamond-shaped wreath coat of arms, in which the black and gold bars refer to the house colors of the Ascanian parent company. The green diamond wreath above adorned the shield of the city's founder, Duke Albrecht II of Saxony-Wittenberg.
In 1356, Emperor Charles IV confirmed the electoral dignity of the Duke of Saxony-Wittenberg. Wittenberg became the electoral residence. The left shield, covered with swords, stands for the office of arch marshal of the Roman-German Empire , which Rudolf I brought to Wittenberg, which is inextricably linked with the electoral dignity . Both the Saxon diamond wreath coat of arms and the coat of arms with the course swords were continued by the Wettins after the Ascanians died out in 1422.
The flowing water shown in the base of the shield symbolizes the location of Wittenberg on the Elbe. The fish swimming in the water represents a salmon, which used to be abundant in the Elbe and testified to the abundance of fish. Like every trade in the city, the fishermen were given their own rules in 1422, and the salmon found its way into the coat of arms.
The city flag was approved on July 4, 1997 by the Dessau Regional Council. It has black and yellow stripes. The city coat of arms is placed in the middle of the flag.
- Göttingen ( Germany ) since 1988
- Bretten (Germany) since 1990
- Springfield (Ohio) ( United States ) since 1995
- Békéscsaba ( Hungary ) since 1999
- Haderslev ( Hadersleben, Denmark ) since 2004
- Beveren since 2019
- Mediaș since 2019
- Mahiljou since 2019
Wittenberg is made up of several districts: the old town with the associated original districts Elstervorstadt, Schlossvorstadt (1417), Friedrichstadt (1301 as Broder Annendorf) and Rothemark (1391). Teuchel and Labetz were incorporated in 1938, Kleinwittenberg in 1945, Wiesigk, Piesteritz in 1950 and Trajuhn in 1950, and Apollensdorf in 1974. After the reunification the following were incorporated: 1993 Reinsdorf with Dobien incorporated there in 1937 and Braunsdorf incorporated in 1950 , 1993 Pratau with wax village incorporated in 1929, 1993 Seegrehna with the former Vorwerk Bleesern, 2005 Nudersdorf and Schmilkendorf, 2008 Griebo , 2009 Abtsdorf with the districts of Euper and Karlsfeld as well as Mochau with the district Thießen, 2010 Straach with the districts Berkau and Grabo, Boßdorf with the districts Assau, Kerzendorf and Weddin and Kropstädt with the districts Jahmo, Köpnick and Wüstemark.
Furthermore, the districts Apollensdorf Nord, Birkenbusch, Hohenroda, Kienberge, Luthersbrunnen and the provost of Wittenberg belong. These are assigned to the corresponding local administrations.
Wittenberg is divided into the following districts (residents with main and secondary residence, as of December 31, 2016):
Culture and sights
Lutherstadt Wittenberg has a wide range of cultural sites. Most of them are located within the historic old town along the Wittenberg culture mile .
- Castle Church
- One of the main attractions of the city is the castle church, which is mainly connected with the courageous attack on the indulgence practice of the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century with the publication of Martin Luther's 95 theses . The castle church was redesigned from 1883 to 1892. According to the intentions of the builders, the importance of the castle church in world history was to be expressed. In the spirit of the historicist era , the statement was based on the forerunners and bearers of the Reformation and thus a Reformation memorial was created. On the occasion of the 500th anniversary of the posting of the theses in 2017, the church has been extensively renovated.
- City Church
- The town and parish church of St. Marien is the mother church of the Reformation. The first Protestant service was held in it in 1521 by Justus Jonas the Elder and Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt. As Martin Luther's preaching church, it has been the official church of the general superintendent of the Saxon spa district since the Reformation . After the Congress of Vienna it became the official residence of the Wittenberg superintendents. The artistic equipment is well preserved and includes works by Lucas Cranach the Elder and Lucas Cranach the Younger . Epitaphs on the inner and outer walls indicate the work of many important personalities. The cemetery chapel for the holy corpse stands south of the town church and was once part of the walled cemetery area of the church.
- Catholic Church Immaculate Conception
- The church in Mauerstraße was consecrated in 1872 by Bishop Konrad Martin . It was renovated in 1999/2000.
- Christ Church
- The Christ Church was built as another church in 1907/1908 in the suburb of Kleinwittenberg in historicizing forms.
- Augusteum and Lutherhaus
- The representative Augusteum façade building was once an extension of the University of Wittenberg "Leucorea". Martin Luther's former home is located in the inner courtyard of the Augusteum . Today the building houses the Reformation History Museum with its collections of pictures, writings and contemporary exhibits from the Reformation period . When the Lutherhaus was renovated, some of its medieval charm was lost.
- Melanchthon House
- The style of the Melanchthon House on Collegienstraße, expressing the self-confident modernity of the Renaissance , is an architectural sight. The reformer Philipp Melanchthon lived and died in this house . There is an exhibition in it.
- University of "Leucorea" Wittenberg
- The University of Leucorea, founded in 1502 on Collegienstraße, was and is not just a teaching facility. For example, the famous personalities of the Reformation Martin Luther and Philipp Melanchthon worked in it . In the history of the university, steeped in tradition, innovations have taken place that not only affected Germany but also large parts of the world.
- Hamlet House
- The Hamlethaus in Collegienstraße is part of the city's ensemble.
- The Bugenhagenhaus next to the town church is the oldest Protestant rectory in the world and is one of the most important memorials of the Reformation. Since the Reformation until 1997 it was the place of residence and work of the Wittenberg superintendents. Johannes Bugenhagen was the first pastor to live here until his death in 1558. Between 2004 and 2007 the building was completely renovated and today it serves as a spiritual community and meeting center.
- The townhouse is a modern building complex on Arsenalplatz that includes various historical buildings. Their origins go back to the 13th century. The townhouse includes in its perimeter important remains of medieval buildings of the former monastery church of the Franciscan , in turn, as a grave lay the Askanier was used. As early as 1536, the building was converted into a granary by Conrad Theiss and heavily reshaped by adding several levels. The medieval windows were clogged and pouring openings built in. During the Seven Years' War , the building was badly damaged and rebuilt with a lower building height. Multiple construction activities in the following period have greatly changed the appearance of the building. At the end of the 19th century, one storey was added and large window openings were broken into on the south side. Between 1945 and 1992, Arsenalplatz with the town hall was occupied by the Red Army and therefore not accessible. The city's central visitor reception was opened in 2014/2015 on the site of the former Franciscan monastery. It includes the Stadthaus event center, the historical city information center , the council archive and the tourist and city information center.
- Old town hall and market square
- In the center of the old town is the generously dimensioned market square, on which a harmonious ensemble of town houses has grown over the centuries. The Renaissance town hall, the monuments of Martin Luther (designed by Schadow ) and Philipp Melanchthon (by Drake ) and the market fountain are located on it . Since the city administration has been located in the former Tauentzien barracks in Lutherstrasse (New Town Hall) since 2000, the town hall on the market square is called the Old Town Hall and has served more representative purposes ever since.
- Cranach courtyards
- The Cranachhöfe are evidence of the work of Lucas Cranach the Elder , Lucas Cranach the Elder . J. , Hans Cranachs , Augustin Cranachs and Lucas Cranach III. in Wittenberg. The building at Markt 4 and the pharmacy with courtyard at Schlossstrasse 1 show points of contact with the personality of Lucas Cranach and his descendants.
- Lucas Cranach the Elder set up the printing room in the Cranachhof as his own printing shop in the once famous printing town of Wittenberg. Among other things, the 95 theses , the first part of the Luther Bible, Luther's table speeches and numerous woodcuts were printed in this. After the reconstruction of the Cranachhöfe, a historical printing room was set up again in Schlossstrasse, in which texts (e.g. Luther's table speeches) and illustrations (in linocut) are produced as private printed matter using letterpress printing. At show events, the historical Gutenberg press in Cranachhof Markt 4 shows how it was printed in the Middle Ages.
- The Wittenberg Castle is the former residence of the Saxon electors . After the destruction in 1760 and 1814, it was used as a barracks as part of the defenses. The castle has been used for civil purposes since the First World War .
- Hundertwasser School
- The Luther-Melanchthon-Gymnasium in Schillerstraße has been redesigned according to designs by the Austrian artist Friedensreich Hundertwasser , whereby the standard type panel building school Erfurt II became the Hundertwasser school. In the playful, unusual and at the same time stimulating educational facility, which is also the European school, the students grapple with ecological relationships and develop their artistic creativity. Special features of the school are the observatory, the onion dome, which symbolizes tolerance towards other religions and people, and the fruit capsule, a tower dedicated to nature. The roof terraces, the trees protruding out of the windows ("tree tenants") and the auditorium with colorful columns are further elements of the school.
- Hundertwasser managed the renovation from his home in New Zealand through his architecture office. He was not present at the initiation; shortly afterwards he passed away. He has never seen his only project to convert an existing architecture.
- Main post office in Wittenberg
- The historicist building, which is now used as a post office, is considered the first telecommunications office in the world, Wilhelm-Weber-Straße 1.
- old trainstation
- The building was built in 1841 and is one of the oldest train station buildings in Germany. After 2000, at least structurally secured, the interiors are currently not open to the public, street Am alten Bahnhof 31.
- Chemistry Pavilion
- The listed pavilion is located at Schlossplatz 15.
- World cultural heritage Lutherhaus , Collegienstraße 54
- World cultural heritage Melanchthonhaus , Collegienstraße 60
- Cranach-Höfe , Markt 4 (changing exhibitions)
- Old Town Hall (changing exhibitions)
- Christian Art Foundation Wittenberg with a permanent exhibition and changing special exhibitions in Wittenberg Castle (access via visitor center)
- House of History (living culture of the 20th century and especially the former GDR), Schlossstrasse 6
- Museum of the municipal collections in the armory (city history; Julius Riemer collection: natural history, ethnology), Arsenalplatz
- Science Center futurea , Markt 25
- Historical town information and burial place of the Ascanians in the monastery church, Arsenalplatz
- Luther Oak at the southern end of Lutherstrasse, where Martin Luther burned the Pope's bull of excommunication in 1520, thereby separating him from the Roman Catholic Church.
- Röhrwasser, historical water pipe system. In the 16th century, the steady increase in the population of the city of Wittenberg made a supply of fresh and clear water more and more necessary. The existing wells and streams were no longer sufficient as they were increasingly polluted with rubbish. This changed with the reed water. With the pipe water connection, the citizens had fresh spring water available day and night, summer and winter. It was not until 1883 that the pipe water lost its importance due to the central water supply. Today the Wittenberg Röhrwasser with its around 20 existing wells is the only still functioning pipe water pipe system from the Middle Ages north of the Alps and therefore a technical monument. Parts of the streams flowing through the city have been open since 2002.
- Wittenberg Council Archives , Juristentrasse 16
- Church research center , Friedrichstrasse 1a
- Luthergarten , park with 270 trees from all over the world near the castle on Kurfürstenring (formerly Hallesche Straße)
- Panorama round picture Luther 1517 by Yadegar Asisi , Wilhelm-Weber-Strasse near the Lutherhaus .
- Wittenberg Zoo , Juristenstrasse
- Alaris Butterfly Park, Rothemarkstrasse
- K building (commandant building), to accommodate the planned study collection of the municipal collections, with adjoining lecture and conference center, Juristenstrasse 14
- Research library on the history of the Reformation in the castle
- Lutherstadt Wittenberg City Library, Schlossstrasse 7
Leisure and sports facilities
- NABU center “In the city forest” (including an animal enclosure and nature trail); Reinsdorf way
- Arthur Lambert Stadium; Wallstrasse
- Town hall; Sternstrasse
- Outdoor pool; Piesteritz
- Swimming pool; Piesteritz
- Lido; Reinsdorf
- Marina; Pratau
- city Park
- Volkspark; Piesteritz
- Wittenberg May Flower Festival
- This festival is dedicated to the traditionally bred lilies of the valley in Wittenberg . Gardeners and horticultural companies in the region decorate the entire market with spring flowers and trees at the beginning of May.
- Wittenberg Cycling Days and Regio Pedals
- During the two-day sporting event in early May, criteria will be driven through the old town of Wittenberg. On the second day, the Regio Pedale cycling tour is organized. Large groups of cyclists go to various points in the region.
- Luther's wedding
- Every year on the second weekend in June, one of the largest themed city festivals in Germany takes place at the original locations of the Reformation in Wittenberg. The festival commemorates the wedding of Martin Luther and Katharina von Boras in 1525. The highlight is the historical parade on Saturday.
- Wittenberg cultural summer with the Wittenberg court concerts
- The Wittenberg Court Concerts take place on three weekends in summer.
- Wittenberg Adventure Night
- Every year on the 3rd weekend in August, tours and insights into city life then and now, accompanied by music and culinary offerings, are offered in the museums, the old town courtyards, in the castle and in the churches.
- Wittenberg pottery market
- Over 80 pottery workshops from all over Germany presented themselves on the market square on the last weekend in September. A historic farmers' market takes place in the Cranachhof.
- Wittenberg Renaissance Music Festival
- Since 2006, professors and lay people, concert musicians and music students, instrument makers and listeners have been gathering in the week prior to Reformation Day to pay tribute to Protestant church music as well as medieval works. The annual Renaissance dance ball is a highlight of the supporting program. The festival takes place as part of the Saxony-Anhalt Music Festival .
- Reformation Festival
- Every year on October 31, the Reformation Festival is celebrated with festive church services, concerts, disputations and historical goings-on in the market and in the courtyards of the old town.
- Wittenberg Christmas Market
- The market square and the old town courtyards provide the backdrop for the Christmas market, which takes place every year from the first to the fourth Advent.
Media and telecommunications
- Transmitting system for VHF and TV on the Gallunberg
Wittenberg on postage stamps
Buildings that have meanwhile been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, as well as world-historical events in Wittenberg, have repeatedly provided motifs on postage stamps in recent decades. So that gave German post office of the GDR out several special stamps from 1952 to 1983. The Deutsche Bundespost (also Deutsche Bundespost Berlin ) dedicated the 1 DM value to the Melanchthon House in its definitive series German Buildings from Twelve Centuries (1966). In 2009, Deutsche Post AG issued 145 euro cents with Luther memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg.
At the end of the 19th century, Wittenberg increasingly became an industrial location. Internationally operating companies (including SIG Combibloc GmbH and Upfield Holdings' Pratau margarine plant ) as well as a large number of municipal and medium-sized companies (such as Wikana ) determine the current economic structure. A large local company is SKW nitrogen works Piesteritz with around 830 employees. The largest employer, however, is the city and district administration with 1150 employees, followed by the Paul Gerhardt Stift hospital (850 employees). As a railway junction, with the federal waterway Elbe, with good road connections, a modern sewage treatment plant and a distinctive resource connection in the five industrial areas, Wittenberg offers an innovative settlement environment. For example, PCI Augsburg , Agrolinz Melamine International and other companies, particularly the chemical and processing industries , were able to settle here . The Feldbinder Spezialfahrzeugwerke produce at the site Reinsdorf silo and tank wagons. In 1991, Feldbinder took over Apparate- und Chemieanlagenbau Wittenberg GmbH, the successor to VEB Apparate- und Chemieanlagenbau-ACA. The Stadtwerke Leipzig entertain in Wittenberg since 2008 its biomass cogeneration plant.
In Wittenberg-Apollensdorf, Germany’s largest vegetable greenhouse, measuring 500 × 300 meters and where tomatoes are grown, has stood since 2013. 600,000 plants grow in the hall. They are marketed as Luther tomatoes. 7,000 tons of tomatoes are harvested annually.
Lily of the valley as an export hit
Around 1880, in addition to growing vegetables, nurseries began growing lily of the valley sprouts and their rhizomes . The demand increased to such an extent that in the 1890s 300,000 to 400,000 flowering germs were exported annually, mainly to Russia. Traugott Blumenthal (born January 23, 1841) was the main promoter and disseminator of the “May flower culture”. He gave professional advice to other gardeners on how to cultivate them. The drifting germs were loaded for export each autumn. Other buyers were Hamburg export companies who shipped the majority of the germs to England, America and China. At the beginning of the 20th century, the average annual dispatch of packaged germs was 2.5 million. The number increased to up to 3.5 million in years with optimal growth conditions. After the First World War , the demand for germinating lilies of the valley remained unbroken, which is why growers had to pay their taxes in US dollars during the inflationary period in 1922 and 1923. After a further boom in the 1930s, the Wittenberg “ May flower culture” came to a standstill in World War II . Now the focus was on growing vegetables. In the post-war years, the cultivation of the "May flowers" was slowly resumed on a reduced cultivation area, but ended in 1961 with the construction of the wall.
Today Wittenberg reminds with the annual "May Flower Festival" of the great importance of the lily of the valley for the city.
- Elementary schools
- Primary school "Diesterweg"
- Elementary school "Friedrich Engels"
- Primary school "Geschwister Scholl"
- Elementary school "Käthe Kollwitz"
- Primary school "Ferdinand Freiligrath" (district Abtsdorf)
- Elementary school Nudersdorf (district Nudersdorf)
- Elementary school "Katharina von Bora" (Pratau district)
- Elementary school "Heinrich Heine" (district Reinsdorf)
- Secondary schools
- Friedrichstadt secondary school
- Secondary school "Rosa Luxemburg"
- Secondary school "Heinrich Heine" (district Reinsdorf)
- Evangelical Comprehensive School "Philipp Melanchthon"
- High schools
- Special schools
- "Pestalozzi" special needs school
- "Sunshine" special school
- Vocational schools
- Training center for work and business (BBW)
- Vocational training center Elbe
- Vocational school center Wittenberg
- German Adult Education Center (DEB)
- Euro Academy Wittenberg
- Euro schools in Wittenberg
- Other schools
- Nursing school of the Paul Gerhardt Foundation
- District media center
- District Music School
- District adult education center
- Painting school of the Cranach Foundation
- Education center Lindenfeld
- Evangelical Academy of Saxony-Anhalt
- Paul Gerhardt Diakonie-Akademie in the Bugenhagenhaus
- Council Archives of the Municipal Collection
- Wittenberg campus
- Training center for work and business (BBW)
- ConAct - Coordination Center for German-Israeli Youth Exchange
- Luther Society
- LWF Center Wittenberg
- Wittenberg Center of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
- Wittenberg Center for Global Ethics
- Lutherstadt Wittenberg Community Foundation
- Cranach Foundation Wittenberg
- Evangelical Academy
- Evangelical Wittenberg Foundation
- Paul Gerhardt Foundation
- Christian Art Foundation
- "LEUCOREA" Foundation
- Luther Memorials Foundation in Saxony-Anhalt
- Wittenberg Center for Global Ethics Foundation
The Luther memorials, which are under the protection of UNESCO, play an important role for city tourism in Wittenberg. In 2009 there were 140,843 overnight stays. The annual events, especially Luther's wedding , attract tens of thousands of guests.
Wittenberg can be reached via the A 9 motorway (junction 6: Klein Marzehns , junction 7: Köselitz and junction 8: Coswig (Anhalt) ). The federal highways 2 and 187 cross in the city. South of the Elbe , the federal highways 100 and 182 begin at the federal highway 2 in or near the district Eutzsch of the city of Kemberg .
The following train stations and stops are located in Wittenberg:
- Lutherstadt Wittenberg-Piesteritz
- Lutherstadt Wittenberg old town
- Lutherstadt Wittenberg Hbf
- Lutherstadt Wittenberg-Labetz
Wittenberg received a railway connection in 1841 when the main line of the Anhalter Bahn (former route: from Berlin via Wittenberg to Köthen ) went into operation. The Berlin – Halle / Leipzig railway and the Roßlau – Falkenberg / Elster railway ( Magdeburg / Dessau –Lutherstadt Wittenberg – Falkenberg / Elster ) cross today at Lutherstadt Wittenberg station . The trains on the Hamburg - Berlin - Lutherstadt Wittenberg - Halle (Saale) / Leipzig - Munich line (ICE stop about every two hours) and individual long-distance trains in the direction of Frankfurt am Main via Erfurt stop here .
Regional traffic is operated exclusively by DB Regio . Every two hours there is a RE connection via Jüterbog to Berlin in the northeast. An hourly RB line connects the city with Coswig (Anhalt) and Dessau-Roßlau ; Individual connections to the Saxon-Anhalt state capital Magdeburg are also offered without changing trains . A regional train runs via Jessen (Elster) and Annaburg to Falkenberg / Elster in Brandenburg . Since 2017, the S2 and S8 lines of the S-Bahn Central Germany have connected Wittenberg every hour with Bitterfeld and alternately with Halle (Saale) or Leipzig , the other city can be reached with a platform-level change in Bitterfeld .
The old station building from 1877 was demolished in 2015. The newly built reception building was opened on December 9, 2016. The current main station in Lutherstadt Wittenberg is the second "climate-friendly station" in the Federal Republic of Germany.
The local public transport has been carried out by the transport company Vetter Verkehrsbetriebe GmbH since January 1st, 2007 . The central transfer point for bus and train travelers is the ZOB with direct barrier-free access to the city's main train station (Lutherstadt Wittenberg train station).
Before bus traffic, there was the horse-drawn tram in Wittenberg (1888–1921).
Due to its direct location on the Elbe , Wittenberg has a protective port in the Wittenberg-West district and an industrial port in the Piesteritz district. In addition, there are several landing stages for various shipping companies for passenger shipping in Wittenberg-West.
Not only the great men of the Reformation era Martin Luther , Philipp Melanchthon and Lucas Cranach left their mark in Wittenberg. Much more than in its role as the capital of Saxony and as the residential city of Saxony-Wittenberg , the city was shaped by what was probably the most important university for Central Europe in the late Middle Ages. It was the place of activity of many personalities who also exerted influence on the city. Today the names and dates of many personalities are recorded on plaques on the houses in the old town.
Wittenberg was the namesake for some means of transport:
- a A319-114 of Lufthansa (D-AILB or Ex-D-AVYG)
- an ICE 2 from Deutsche Bahn (402 026),
- a passenger ship that is moored in Wittenberg harbor.
- Publication series of the city history center. Issue 1–14, Wittenberg City History Center, Wittenberg, .
- The monuments of Lutherstadt Wittenberg (= The monuments in the Halle district ). Arranged by Fritz Bellmann. With contribution from Peter Findeisen. Böhlau, Weimar 1979, .
- Lorenz Friedrich Beck: Rule and territory of the dukes of Saxony-Wittenberg (1212-1422) (= Library of Brandenburg and Prussian History. Volume 6). Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg , Potsdam 2000, ISBN 3-932981-63-4 .
- Karlheinz Blaschke : Wittenberg before 1547: From a country town to world renown. In: Stefan Oehmig (Ed.): 700 years of Wittenberg: City, University, Reformation. Böhlau, Weimar 1995, ISBN 3-7400-0957-8 , pp. 29-38. - Reprint (excerpt) in: Peter Johanek (Hrsg.) With the collaboration of Uwe John: Stadtgrundriß und Stadtentwicklung. Research into the development of central European cities. Selected essays by Karlheinz Blaschke (= urban research. Series A representations. Volume 44). Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-412-06897-7 , pp. 315-318; 2., unchanged. Edition, ibid. 2001, ISBN 3-412-02601-8 .
- Helmar Junghans : Wittenberg as Lutherstadt. Berlin 1979, ; zugl. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1979, ISBN 3-525-55370-6 ; 2., verb. Edition .
- Corinna Nitz (text), Roland Krawulsky (photography): Lutherstadt Wittenberg. Hinstorff, Rostock 2011, ISBN 978-3-356-01394-8 .
- Stefan Oehmig (Ed.): 700 years of Wittenberg: City, University, Reformation. Böhlau, Weimar 1995, ISBN 3-7400-0957-8 .
- Albrecht Steinwachs (text), Jürgen M. Pietsch (photography): Welcome! Lutherstadt Wittenberg. Welcome! Wittenberg - The Town of Luther. Edition Akanthus, Spröda 2003, ISBN 3-00-012754-2 .
- Mathias Tietke : Wittenberg cemeteries. History, design, tombs . Tredition Hamburg 2017, ISBN 978-3-7439-2126-9
- Mathias Tietke: Wittenberg. The 99 special sides of the city. Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 2015, ISBN 978-3-95462-414-0 .
- Mathias Tietke: Wittenberg. Everything except Luther. Landscape, architecture, technology, art. Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 2018, ISBN 978-3-95462-895-7 .
- Ernst Zitzlaff: The burial places Wittenberg and their monuments. Wunschmann, Wittenberg 1896 ( digital.slub-dresden.de [accessed on August 2, 2016]).
- City website
- Tourist information Lutherstadt Wittenberg
- Illustration of the city 1572 in Civitates orbis terrarum by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg . In: historic-cities.huji.ac.il
- State Statistical Office Saxony-Anhalt, population of the municipalities - as of December 31, 2019 (PDF) (update) ( help ).
- Franz Kadell: Reformation places in Central Germany: Wittenberg. Starting point of the Reformation. In: mdr.de. MDR , accessed on July 17, 2018 : “Incidentally, Wittenberg is correctly called 'Lutherstadt Wittenberg'. The city was not given the name affix in the Wilhelmine era - entirely in the spirit of the Prussian Lutheran exaggeration. That happened in 1938 under the anti-church Nazis, shortly before the start of the Second World War. "
- Main statute Lutherstadt Wittenberg (HauptS WB). (PDF; 972 kB) Lutherstadt Wittenberg, August 3, 2015, p. 1 , accessed on July 17, 2018 .
- UNESCO World Heritage. Luther memorials in Wittenberg ( Memento from October 8, 2006 in the Internet Archive ). In: wittenberg.de, accessed on July 20, 2017.
- Climate: Lutherstadt Wittenberg. In: de.climate-data.org, accessed on August 2, 2016.
- The climate in Wittenberg. In: wetterkontor.de, accessed on August 2, 2016.
- Otto von Heinemann (ed.): Codex diplomaticus Anhaltinus . First part: 936-1212. Third Division: 1170. Nov. 18-1212. February Emil Barth, Dessau 1873, page 481. New publisher of the Dessau edition 1867–73. Biblio-Verlag, Osnabrück 1986, ISBN 3-7648-0206-5 , digital full-text edition at Wikisource (version of May 9, 2016).
- Helmar Junghans: Luther and Wittenberg. Akanthus, Delitzsch 2010, ISBN 978-3-00-054710-2 , p. 56.
- Elmar Lange, Peter Schöber: Social change in the new federal states. Example: Lutherstadt Wittenberg. Leske and Budrich, Opladen 1993, ISBN 3-8100-1079-0 , p. 37.
- Helmar Junghans: Luther and Wittenberg. Akanthus, Delitzsch 2010, ISBN 978-3-00-054710-2 , p. 57.
- Livia Cárdenas: Friedrich the Wise and the Wittenberger Heiltumsbuch . Media representation between the Middle Ages and modern times. Lukas Verlag for art and intellectual history, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-931836-72-X , p. 15th ff . ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Helmar Junghans: Luther and Wittenberg. Akanthus, Delitzsch 2010, ISBN 978-3-00-054710-2 , p. 57.
- Ingetraut Ludolphy: Friedrich the wise. Elector of Saxony. 1463-1525 . Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 2006, ISBN 3-86583-138-9 , p. 122 ( limited preview in the Google book search - new printer of the first edition Vandenhoeck and Rupprecht, Göttingen 1984).
- Helmar Junghans: Luther and Wittenberg. Akanthus, Delitzsch 2010, ISBN 978-3-00-054710-2 , pp. 62-63.
- Helmar Junghans: Luther and Wittenberg. Akanthus, Delitzsch 2010, ISBN 978-3-00-054710-2 , p. 66.
- Friedegund Freitag, Karin Kolb (ed.): The Ernestines - A dynasty shapes Europe. Thuringian State Exhibition Gotha, Weimar, April 24 to August 28, 2016 . Sandstein Verlag, Dresden 2016, ISBN 978-3-95498-215-8 , pp. 286 .
- Dieter Berg (Ed.): Traces of Franciscan History. Chronological outline of the history of the Saxon Franciscan provinces from their beginnings to the present. Werl 1999, p. 225.
- Melanie Lenk: How did Martin Luther affect the Wittenberg printing press? GRIN Verlag GmbH, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-638-79094-9 , p. 4 .
- Bernhard Lohse: Martin Luther: an introduction to his life and work . 1997, ISBN 978-3-406-41982-9 , pp. 42 .
- Lyndal Roper: The man Martin Luther: The biography . 4th edition. S. Fischer, 2016, ISBN 978-3-10-066088-6 .
- Stefan Laube: From the relic to the thing: Holy place - Wunderkammer - Museum. ISBN 978-3-050049281 , p. 25.
- Heinz Zahrnt : Luther . Reluctant reformer. Piper ebooks, Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3-492-97696-1 , pp. 78 , urn : nbn: de: 101: 1-201704073690 ( preview in Google book search [accessed on November 3, 2018]).
- Heinrich Kühne: Philipp Melanchthon, 1497–1560 . Akademie-Verlag, 1963, OCLC 4927366 , p. 292 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Heinz Zahrnt : Luther . Reluctant reformer. Piper ebooks, Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3-492-97696-1 , pp. 78 , urn : nbn: de: 101: 1-201704073690 ( preview in Google book search [accessed on November 3, 2018]).
- Jutta Strehle: Lucas Cranach d. Ä. in Wittenberg . Ed .: Cranach Foundation Wittenberg. 2nd Edition. Edition Akanthus, Spröda 2005, ISBN 3-00-008441-X , p. 7th ff . (Photography: Jürgen M. Pietsch).
- Stefan Rhein (Ed.): Philipp Melanchthon in Southwest Germany . Educational stations of a reformer. Badische Landesbibliothek , Karlsruhe 1997, ISBN 3-88705-044-4 , p. 231 .
- Jutta Strehle: Lucas Cranach the Elder Ä. in Wittenberg . Ed .: Cranach Foundation Wittenberg. 2nd Edition. Edition Akanthus, Spröda 2005, ISBN 3-00-008441-X , p. 70 (Photography: Jürgen M. Pietsch).
- Martin Greschat: Philipp Melanchthon . Theologian, educator and humanist. Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 2010, ISBN 978-3-579-08091-8 , p. 37 .
- Philipp Melanchthon, 1497–1560 . tape 1 , p. 293 .
- Volker Leppin : “To defend not his person, but the truth.” The legend of the posting of the theses in Lutheran historiography and memoria . In: Heinz Schilling (Ed.): The Reformer Martin Luther 2017. A scientific and commemorative inventory (= writings of the historical college / colloquia . Volume 92 ). De Gruyter Oldenburg, Berlin / Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-11-037447-6 , pp. 85-108 , here: p. 104 , urn : nbn: de: 101: 1-201607019674 .
- Annette Bruhns : Lutherische Sonne. Nuremberg was the first imperial city to become Protestant. Why? In: Dietmar Pieper, Eva-Maria Schnurr (ed.): The Reformation: uprising against the emperor and the pope (= mirror story ). 1st edition. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Munich 2016, ISBN 978-3-421-04675-8 , pp. 105–118 , here: p. 117 , urn : nbn: de: 101: 1-2016082824945 .
- Dieter Berg (Ed.): Traces of Franciscan History. Werl 1999, p. 281.
- Otto Schiffler: Heretics and Witches. Selbstverlag / BoD, 2003, ISBN 3-8311-4694-2 , p. 34.
- Dieter Breuers: In three devil names . The slightly different story of witches and theirs. 2009, ISBN 978-3-404-64240-3 .
- Bruno Preisendörfer : When our German was invented: Journey to the Luther era . 2016, ISBN 978-3-86971-126-3 .
- Erich Donnert: Europe in the early modern times: Unknown sources. Essays on the development, preliminary stages, limits and continued effects of the early modern era in and around Europe . Böhlau Verlag, 1997, p. 141 .
- On the subject of the railway, see Hilmar Spanel: On the history of the railway in and around Wittenberg 1841–1991 (= series of publications by the Wittenberg City History Center. OCLC 180614029 . , issue 14). Wittenberg City History Center, Wittenberg 1991,
- Memorial Book. Search in the name directory. Search for: Wittenberg - Residence. In: bundesarchiv.de, accessed on July 13, 2017 (including two people who suicide committed; one person was declared dead ).
- Thomas a believer: trade and change in Wittenberg. Drei Kastanien Verlag, Lutherstadt Wittenberg 2015, ISBN 978-3-942005-54-8 , p. 13.
- Economy. In: wittenberg.de, accessed on August 2, 2016.
- The Luther Garden. In: luthergarten.de, accessed on August 2, 2016.
- Irina Steinmann, Sabine Wesner: Wittenberg. “Arsenal” shopping center is open ( memento of October 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ). In: Mitteldeutsche Zeitung . October 18, 2012, accessed August 5, 2016.
- Editor Magdeburger Kurier: Lutherstadt Wittenberg: Starting shot for shopping center on Arsenalplatz ( Memento from December 15, 2011 in the Internet Archive ). In: Magdeburg Courier. May 9, 2011.
- Cradle of the Reformation. In: reformation-cities.org/cities, accessed on August 2, 2016; Irina Steinmann: “European city of the Reformation” Wittenberg can decorate itself with one more logo. In: mz-web.de. Mitteldeutsche Zeitung , July 18, 2014, accessed on July 13, 2017, quote: "Wittenberg's undisputed celebrities also had advantages in the process: When applying, according to Mayor Eckhard Naumann (SPD), you didn't have to justify anything."
- DB. Our construction projects. Lutherstadt Wittenberg train station ( Memento from December 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: bauprojekte.deutschebahn.com, accessed on August 2, 2016.
- Construction site party at the Wittenberg Castle Church. In: luther2017.de, accessed on August 2, 2016.
- New Town Hall ( memento from October 9, 2017 in the Internet Archive ). Information material from the press and public relations department of the Lutherstadt Wittenberg city administration. In: lukaskiepe.de, accessed on September 22, 2019.
- 6th Guards Tank Division
- House of History Wittenberg (accessed June 19, 2018)
- Marina Camp Wittenberg
- census database
- Lutherstadt Wittenberg - Wittenberg district. Final results of the 2019 city council elections. In: wahl.wittenberg.de, accessed on June 16, 2019.
- Former mayors. In: Wittenberg.de, accessed on August 2, 2016.
- § 57 (3) of the municipal code of Saxony-Anhalt ( memento from March 12, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 239 kB), accessed on August 2, 2016. § 60 (3) Saxony-Anhalt Municipal Constitutional Law. In: landesrecht.sachsen-anhalt.de, accessed on August 2, 2016.
- Result of the mayoral election of February 22, 2015 ( Memento of February 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: statistik.sachsen-anhalt.de, accessed on August 2, 2016.
- mz / teo: Mayor election in Wittenberg. Chain of office changes hands. In: Mitteldeutsche Zeitung. Edition Wittenberg / Graefenhainichen. June 16, 2015, accessed August 2, 2016.
- 700 years Wittenberg town charter. 700 years of Lutherstadt Wittenberg, 1293–1993. Edited by Lutherstadt Wittenberg. Drei-Kastanien-Verlag, 1993, ISBN 3-9803358-2-8 .
- Localin Wittenberg. In: wittenberg.de, accessed on August 2, 2016.
- Water (heraldry). In: heraldik-wiki.de, accessed on August 2, 2016.
- Ceremonial signing of the new town twinning agreements. In: wittenbergersonntag.de. Wittenberger Sunday, October 9, 2019, accessed on November 3, 2019 .
- StBA: Changes in the municipalities in Germany, see 2005 (XLS; 364 kB; file is not accessible), accessed on August 3, 2016.
- StBA Area: changes from 01.01. until December 31 , 2008 , accessed on August 3, 2016.
- StBA: Area changes on January 1st , 2009 , accessed on August 3rd, 2016.
- StBA: Area changes from January 1 to December 31, 2010 , accessed on August 3, 2016.
- Lutherstadt Wittenberg: Statistical Information Service. Annual report 2015/2016. P. 14 (PDF; 931 kB), accessed on October 31, 2019.
- Central visitor reception on Arsenalplatz. In: wittenberg.de, accessed on August 3, 2016.
- On the subject of Röhrwasser, see Burkhart Richter: Wittenberger Röhrwasser - a technical monument from the 16th century as well as Wittenberg's water supply from earlier to today (= series of the Wittenberg City History Center. OCLC 258696929 . , Issue 13). Wittenberg City History Center, Wittenberg 1991,
- Historic streams in the old town. In: wittenberg.de, accessed on August 3, 2016 (planning and construction history of the disclosure).
- Irina Steinmann: Museum in the K building? Just not a pure warehouse! In: mz-web.de, January 19, 2018, accessed on September 22, 2019 (beginning of the article freely available).
- Irina Steinmann: Real estate in Wittenberg. City plans further castling. In: mz-web.de, September 7, 2016, accessed on October 30, 2019 (beginning of article freely available).
- Marcel Duclaud: K-building in Wittenberg. Council gives the green light for conversion to refugee accommodation. In: mz-web.de, October 29, 2015, accessed on October 30, 2019 (beginning of the article freely accessible).
- Irina Steinmann: Local politics in Wittenberg. The winter break is over. In: mz-web.de, January 11, 2018, accessed on October 30, 2019 (beginning of article freely available).
- Urban development concept 3rd update 2008. In: wittenberg.de, accessed on August 5, 2016 (PDF; 9.8 MB).
- Wood as a renewable energy source. Wood is one of the most important renewable energy and raw material sources ( memento from June 2, 2013 in the Internet Archive ). In: Stadtwerke Leipzig, swl.de, accessed on August 3, 2016.
- Company. Wittenberg Gemüse GmbH, 2015, accessed on May 24, 2018 .
- Elementary schools in Lutherstadt Wittenberg
- Secondary schools in Lutherstadt Wittenberg
- Grammar schools in Lutherstadt Wittenberg
- Special schools in Lutherstadt Wittenberg
- Vocational schools in Lutherstadt Wittenberg
- Other schools in Lutherstadt Wittenberg
- Academies in Lutherstadt Wittenberg
- Institute in Lutherstadt Wittenberg
- Institutions in Lutherstadt Wittenberg
- Foundations in Lutherstadt Wittenberg
- foundation stone. Large station at Wittenberg station. In: Mitteldeutsche Zeitung , July 2, 2015
- Wittenberg main station. The new green building is open. In: Mitteldeutsche Zeitung, December 9, 2016
- Website of Vetter GmbH. In: mein-bus.de, accessed on August 3, 2016