Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка
Белорусская Советская Социалистическая Республика
Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic
Flag of the Belarusian SSR
Coat of arms of the Belarusian SSR
flag coat of arms
Official language Belarusian , Russian , Yiddish and Polish
capital city Minsk
area 207,600 km²
population 10.151.806
Population density 48.9 inhabitants per km²
founding Jan. 1, 1919
resolution Aug 26, 1991
Time zone UTC + 2
Soviet Union - Byelorussian SSR.svg
Template: Infobox State / Maintenance / NAME-GERMAN

The white Soviet Socialist Republic , also Belaruskaja Soviet Socialist Republic (also called "Byelorussian SSR" or BSSR, belarusian Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка Belaruskaja Sawezkaja Sazyjalistytschnaja Respublika until 1936/37 Беларуская Сацыялістычная Савецкая Рэспубліка Belaruskaja Sazyjalistytschnaja Sawezkaja Respublika ; Russian Белорусская Советская Социалистическая Республика Belorusskaja Sowetskaja Sozialistitscheskaja Respublika ), was proclaimed on January 1, 1919 in Smolensk , Russia . The capital was Minsk . It was one of the four republics, from which the Soviet Union was founded in 1922 . The BSSR ended with the proclamation of the Republic of Belarus on August 26, 1991 as the successor state.


The Belarusian SSR was first proclaimed on January 1, 1919. On February 27, 1919, it merged with Lithuania for a few months to form the Lithuanian-Belarusian SSR , which was broken up by Polish troops in July 1919 during the Polish-Soviet War .

In August 1920, a Belarusian SSR was re-established in Minsk, and in 1922 the BSSR became a union republic of the newly formed Soviet Union .

In 1924 and 1926 it was enlarged by some western Russian areas ( Mogiljow , Vitebsk , Gomel ) and in 1932 an autonomous district ( Dsjarshynsk ) was established for the Polish minority, but was dissolved again in 1935. Instead came in 1939, according to the Hitler-Stalin Pact , the former Polish territories of Belarus added (including district Białystok ), of which the Byelorussian SSR again in 1940 Vilna (Vilnius) to the Lithuanian SSR ceded .

After the German attack on the Soviet Union , the Soviet Republic was under German occupation from 1941 to 1944, which brought great suffering to the Belarusian population. Up to 2.5 million inhabitants of the union republic perished. Almost all cities and many villages in the country were destroyed in the summer of 1944 when the German occupiers withdrew. In recognition of its great victims in the war, the Belarusian SSR (like the Ukrainian SSR ) was admitted to the UN in 1945, alongside the Soviet Union, as a separate founding member and had its own vote in the General Assembly , which was cast in the bloc with the Soviet Union.

Since 1950 the BSSR has had its own coat of arms , which was used beyond its existence until 1995. Over the years, the flag of the BSSR has changed four times.

Since the end of 1991, Belarus has been an independent state after the collapse of the Soviet Union .


Map of the Belarusian SSR (1938)
Map of the Belarusian SSR from 1940 (annexed Polish areas in yellow)

In the BSSR, founded in 1919, the multiethnic character of the population was taken into account through the introduction of four state languages: Belarusian, Yiddish , Russian and Polish.

According to the Soviet census of 1979, the population of the Belarusian SSR was essentially composed of the following ethnic groups:

nationality Population Nationality shares
Belarusians 7,568,000 79.4%
Russians 1,134,100 11.9%
Poland 403.200 4.2%
Ukrainians 231,000 2.4%
Jews 135,400 1.4%
Tatars 10,900 0.1%
Roma 8,400 0.1%
Lithuanians 7,000 0.1%
Moldovans 2,900 0.03%
Armenians 2,800 0.03%
Entire BSSR 9,536,100 100.0%


  • Tikhon Iakovlevich Kiselev: Byelorussia. Speeding towards abundance , Soviet Booklets, London 1960, ( The fifteen Soviet Socialist Republics today and tomorrow C), ( Soviet Booklet 60).

Web links

Commons : Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Pokshishevskiy, VV (ed.): Soviet Census: a demogr. evaluation. Wiesbaden: Akad. Verl.-Ges. 1980.