Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

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Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinė Respublika
Литовская Советская Социалистическая Республика
Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Flag of the Lithuanian SSR
Coat of arms of the Lithuanian SSR
flag coat of arms
Official language officially none; de facto Lithuanian and Russian
Capital Vilnius
surface 65,301 km²
population 3,689,779 (1989)
Population density 56.6 inhabitants per km²
National anthem Anthem of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Time zone UTC + 2
Soviet Union - Lithuanian SSR.svg

The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (abbreviation LiSSR ) was a union republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from 1940 until the declaration of Lithuanian independence in 1990 .

Two attempts

Map of the Lithuanian SSR, 1940

A Lithuanian SSR was first proclaimed on December 16, 1918 after the invasion of the Red Army. As early as February 27, 1919, the union with the Belarusian SSR resulted in a joint Lithuanian-Belarusian Soviet Republic , also known under the name Litbel . This short-lived republic comprised only the area around Vilnius of Lithuania and was dissolved in July 1919 after Polish troops occupied a large part of the territory during the Polish-Soviet War .

After the conclusion of a peace treaty between the Russian Soviet Republic and Lithuania in 1920, the north-western part was returned to Lithuania, but shortly afterwards occupied by Polish troops. In Lithuania existed for a few years, a parliamentary democracy ( Constitution of 1922 ) that already in December 1926 by the coup of Antanas Smetona was eliminated.

On September 1, 1939, the Wehrmacht began the attack on Poland , and from September 17, the Red Army occupied eastern Poland . In return for the return of the area around Vilnius, Lithuania had agreed to the stationing of 20,000 Soviet soldiers in accordance with a forced agreement with the Soviet Union of October 10 (official reading: "mutual aid agreement"). When Lithuania's ally France was defeated in the German campaign in the west and failed as a protecting power, the Soviet Union occupied Lithuania on June 15, 1940, citing this agreement.

After a rigged election (officially with a voter turnout of 99 percent) a people's parliament (lit. liaudies seimas ) was elected, which approved Antanas Sniečkus's application to request admission to the USSR. The Lithuanian SSR was established on July 21, 1940.

During the German-Soviet War , Lithuania was occupied by the Wehrmacht from late June 1941 to autumn 1944 and belonged to the Reich Commissariat Ostland .

History 1945 to 1990

The Lithuanian SSR was restored and remained part of the Soviet Union until 1990. In the course of perestroika , the Supreme Soviet (later Atkuriamasis Seimas ) of the LiSSR was elected for the first time in a free election on February 24, 1990 . He passed the declaration of independence on March 11, 1990. The Soviet leadership tried to resolve the question of Lithuania's independence within the framework of a constitutional law on the withdrawal of Union republics of April 3, 1990 (also known as the 'Secession Act'). The Lithuanian side did not respond. The last Soviet Russian troops left the country on August 31, 1993.

Chairwoman of the Council of Ministers (1940 / 44–1990)

Chairwoman of the Council of People's Commissars
(June 17, 1940– June 24, 1941 and June 13, 1944– April 2, 1946)
# image Surname Life dates Taking office Resignation Political party
1 Justas Paleckis 1899-1980 June 17, 1940 June 24, 1940 LVLS
2 Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius (acting) 1882-1954 June 24, 1940 August 25, 1940 Non-party
3 Image of none.svg Mečislovas Gedvilas 1901-1981 August 25, 1940 April 2, 1946 LKP
Chair of the Council of Ministers
# image Surname Life dates Taking office Resignation Political party
4th Image of none.svg Mečislovas Gedvilas 1901-1981 April 2, 1946 January 16, 1956 LKP
5 Image of none.svg Motiejus Šumauskas 1905-1982 January 16, 1956 April 14, 1967 LKP
6th Image of none.svg Juozas Maniūšis 1910-1987 April 14, 1967 January 16, 1981 LKP
7th Image of none.svg Ringaudas Bronislovas Songaila 1929-2019 January 16, 1981 January 18, 1985 LKP
8th Image of none.svg Vytautas Sakalauskas 1933-2001 January 18, 1985 March 17, 1990 LKP

Aspects of international law

The recognition of the incorporation of the Baltic territories by the Swedish government on May 30, 1941 resulted in Sweden transferring gold reserves and other assets of the Baltic republics to the USSR. Lithuania today regards membership in the USSR as forced and thus illegal and null and void. In this perspective Lithuania did not belong to the USSR legally. Finally, the USSR recognized the independence of Lithuania on September 6, 1991, which the Russian Federation confirmed.

In 1940 the German Reich recognized the Soviet annexation of Lithuania according to the division of spheres of interest in the Hitler-Stalin Pact . The Federal Republic accepted as some Western countries in fact the Soviet annexation of the three Baltic states, but not de jure . The government of the GDR took the view of the Soviet leadership that the Baltic states had acceded to the USSR voluntarily and legally. Diplomatic relations between Germany and Lithuania were only resumed on August 28, 1991, after the de facto collapse of the Soviet Union in the Moscow August coup .

Legal system


  • Erhard Stölting : A world power is breaking up. Nationalities and Religions in the USSR . Eichborn Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1990, ISBN 3-8218-1132-3 .
  • Thomas Schmidt: The foreign policy of the Baltic states. In the field of tension between East and West . Westdeutscher Verlag, Wiesbaden 2003, ISBN 3-531-13681-X (also: Munich, Univ., Diss., 2000).
  • Andreas Zimmermann: State succession in international treaties. At the same time a contribution to the possibilities and limits of international codification templates . Springer, Berlin a. a. 2000, ISBN 3-540-66140-9 ( Contributions to foreign public law and international law , 141; also: Heidelberg, Univ., Habil.-Schr., 1998–1999).
  • Alfonsas Eidintas: Lietuvos Republikos Prezidentai. Publisher K.: Sviesa 1991, p. 140.

See also

Web links

Commons : Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. footnote 84
  2. Konferencija Lietuva kelyje į tarptautinį pripažinimą (Lietuvos ir kitų baltijos valstybių aneksijos nepripažinimas ir jo teisinės pasekmės; Dainius Žalimas )
  3. ^ Rein Müllerson: Internation Law, Rights and Politics: Developments in Eastern Europe nad the CIS. LSE / Routledge, London 1994.
  4. ^ Dainius Žalimas: International Legal Grounds and Consequences of the 11 March 1990 Restoration of the Independence of the Republic of Lithuania. Vilnius 2005.
  5. Helge Dauert: "Lawyer of the Baltic" or lawyer on his own behalf? The German Baltic Policy 1991–2004. BWV - Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin 2008, p. 85.