Union republic

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The 15 Soviet Union Republics until 1990/91

A union republic is a republic that belongs to a union ( confederation or federal state ). The word was mostly used for the last fifteen republics of the Soviet Union .

The Union Republics of the Soviet Union

Lenin Museum Bishkek with the flags of the Union Republics

The originally four, now sixteen and finally fifteen Soviet republics (from Russian совет "council") had - unlike the US states , which the communist rulers liked to emphasize - de jure the right to leave the union. In chap. 8 / Art. 72 of the Soviet constitution of 1977 said:

"Every Union republic retains the right to withdraw freely from the USSR ."

However, the constitutional context made it clear that a unilateral “free” declaration of intent to leave was not possible. This was only possible in agreement with the Union or the Union Republics, but ultimately dependent on the policy of the leadership in Moscow . In the course of Gorbachev's reforms of “ perestroika ” and “ glasnost ”, the procedure envisaged for an exit was finally defined by a Union law in 1990, which none of the Union republics that declared themselves independent in 1991 adhered to. The Soviet Union collapsed .

Each Union republic had its own constitution and its own capital. Moscow had a special supraregional capital status within the entire Soviet Union and only in second place as the capital of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR). The central government institutions of the Soviet Union, with their headquarters in Moscow, had actually ( de facto ) taken over all important powers; their political decisions had to be accepted and carried out by the Soviet republics.

Union republics since 1956

map flag Name of the Union Republic today's flag today's state Official language founding
Soviet Union - Armenian SSR.svg Flag of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (1952–1990) .svg Armenian SSR
Հայկական ՍՍՀ
Flag of Armenia.svg Republic of Armenia
Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն
officially none;
de facto Armenian
and Russian
Soviet Union - Azerbaijan SSR.svg Flag of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (1956–1991) .svg Azerbaijani SSR
Азәрбајҹан ССР
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Republic of Azerbaijan
Azərbaycan Respublikası 2
officially none;
de facto Azeri
and Russian
Soviet Union - Estonian SSR.svg Flag of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (1953–1990) .svg Estonian SSR
Eesti NSV
Flag of Estonia.svg Republic of Estonia
Eesti Vabariik
officially none;
de facto Estonian
and Russian
Soviet Union - Georgian SSR.svg Flag of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (1951–1990) .svg Georgian SSR
საქართველოს სსრ
Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia
and Russian
Soviet Union - Kazakh SSR.svg Flag of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic.svg Kazakh SSR
Қазақ КСР
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Republic of Kazakhstan
Қазақстан Республикасы
officially none;
de facto Kazakh
and Russian
Soviet Union - Kirghiz SSR.svg Flag of the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic.svg Kyrgyz SSR
Кыргыз ССР
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg Kyrgyz Republic
Кыргыз Республикасы
officially none;
de facto Kyrgyz
and Russian
Soviet Union - Latvian SSR.svg Flag of the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (1953–1990) .svg Latvian SSR
Latvijas PSR
Flag of Latvia.svg Republic of Latvia
Latvijas Republika
officially none;
de facto Latvian
and Russian
Soviet Union - Lithuanian SSR.svg Flag of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (1953–1988) .svg Lithuanian SSR
Lietuvos TSR
Flag of Lithuania.svg Republic of Lithuania
Lietuvos Respublika
officially none;
de facto Lithuanian
and Russian
Soviet Union - Moldavian SSR.svg Flag of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (1952–1990) .svg Moldovan SSR
РСС Молдовеняскэ
RSS Moldovenească 2
Flag of Moldova.svg Republic of Moldova
Republica Moldova
officially none;
de facto Romanian
and Russian
Soviet Union - Russian SFSR.svg Flag of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (1954–1991) .svg Russian SFSR
Российская СФСР
Flag of Russia.svg Russian Federation *
Российская Федерация
Russian 1922
Soviet Union - Tajik SSR.svg Flag of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic.svg Tajik SSR
РСС Тоҷикистон
Flag of Tajikistan.svg Republic of Tajikistan
Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон
officially none;
de facto Tajik
and Russian
Soviet Union - Turkmen SSR.svg Flag of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (1973–1991) .svg Turkmen SSR
Түркменистан ССР
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg Republic of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan Jumhuriyäti 2
officially none;
de facto Turkmen
and Russian
Soviet Union - Ukrainian SSR.svg Flag of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.svg Ukrainian SSR
Українська РСР
Flag of Ukraine.svg Republic of Ukraine
Україна Республіка
officially none;
de facto
preferring Russian to Ukrainian 1
Soviet Union - Uzbek SSR.svg Flag of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (1952–1991) .svg Uzbek SSR
Ўзбекистон ССР
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Republic of Uzbekistan
Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi 2
officially none;
de facto Uzbek
and Russian
Soviet Union - Byelorussian SSR.svg Flag of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (1951–1991) .svg Belarusian SSR
Беларуская ССР
Flag of Belarus.svg Republic of Belarus
Рэспубліка Беларусь
and Russian

*) The Russian Federation has been the bearer of the rights and obligations of the former RSFSR and successor to the Soviet Union since 1991 .
1) With the constitution of the Ukrainian SSR of April 20, 1978, the Ukrainian language (de jure) became the official language of the USSR. Russian was given the status of a lingua franca .
2) The current state name is not always identical to that of the Union republic. After state independence , the Cyrillic alphabet was abolished and replaced by the Latin one in some of the former Union republics . In Moldovan , this change in the written language was implemented as early as 1989.

Other Union Republics until 1956

In the history of the Soviet Union there were at times other Union republics:

map flag Name of the Union Republic Capital Duration Official language
Soviet Union - Karelo-Finnish SSR (1940) .svg Flag of the Karelo-Finnish SSR.svg Karelo-Finnish SSR
Карело-Финская ССР incorporated into the RSFSR
as the Karelian ASSR
Petrozavodsk 1940-1956 Finnish, Russian
Soviet Union - Transcaucasia.svg Flag of the Transcaucasian SFSR.svg Transcaucasian SFSR
Закавказская СФСР
in the Armenian SSR , Azerbaijan SSR and Georgian SSR split
Tbilisi 1922-1936 Armenian , Azerbaijani, Georgian, Russian
Ccpa-flag.svg SSR Abkhazia
ССР Абхазия in
1922 into the Transcaucasian SFSR, integrated into the Georgian SSR as ASSR in 1931/36
Sukhumi 1921–1922 / 31 Abkhazian, Russian
Soviet Union - Khorezm PSR (1922) .svg Flag of Khiva 1920-1923.svg The
Khorezmian SSR Хорезмская ССР is divided
into the newly emerging Uzbek and Turkmen SSR and the Karakalpak AO
Khiva 1923-1925 Chagatai , Dari
Soviet Union - Bukharan PSR (1922) .svg Flag of the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic.svg SSR Bukhara
Бухарская ССР divided
into the newly emerging entities of the Uzbek and Turkmen SSR
Bukhara 1924 Chagatai, Tajik

Other Soviet republics

The republics founded by the Soviets were not union republics in the strict sense of the word:

map flag Name of the republic Capital Duration Official language
Flag Far Eastern Republic.svg Far Eastern Republic
Дальневосточная Республика
Chita 1922 Russian
Tuva in Russia.svg Flag of the Tuvan People's Republic (1926-1930) .svg Tuvan People's Republic
in 1944 was Tuva an autonomous region or an autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic downgraded
Kyzyl 1926-1944 Tuvinian

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Constitution (Basic Law) of the USSR, October 7, 1977 (PDF; 112 kB)
  2. Art. 73 paras. 2 and 3 Constitution of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of April 20, 1978
  3. Munzinger Archive, Internationales Handbuch-Zeitarchiv 15/94, Georgia, p. 3.