Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

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Қазақ Кеңестік Социалистік Республикасы
Казахская Советская Социалистическая Республика

Qazaq Kengestik Sozialistik Respublikassy
Kazachskaja Sowjetskaja Sozialistitscheskaja Respublika
Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
Flag (1954–1991)
Coat of arms of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
flag coat of arms
Official language de jure none; de facto Kazakh and Russian
capital city Alma-ata
area 2,717,300 km²
population 16,711,900
Population density 6.1 inhabitants per km²
Time zone UTC + 4 to +6
Soviet Union - Kazakh SSR.svg
Template: Infobox State / Maintenance / TRANSLATION
Template: Infobox State / Maintenance / NAME-GERMAN

The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (Kazakh SSR) was after the Russian SFSR the second largest union republic in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in terms of area .


Kyrgyz ASSR

From 1920, in accordance with the policy of the People's Commissar for Nationality Issues, Josef Stalin, autonomous regions were created within Soviet Russia . Thus, on August 26, 1920, within the RSFSR, the entire northern half of Turkestan inhabited by Kazakhs was separated from the Turkestan ASSR and next to it to the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic ( ASSR ). The naming was due to the fact that traditionally in Russian Kazakhs than Kyrgyz were called, although they themselves Qasaq call, which in turn in the Russian Cossack was confused too similar sound and in other languages. The actual Kyrgyz were called in Russian Kara-Kyrgyz ("black Kyrgyz"), in contrast to the actual Kazakhs ("Kyrgyz"), who were considered to be descendants of the White Horde .

Kazak ASSR

Nevertheless, in 1925, based on the ethnic group's own name, it was renamed the Kazak ASSR ( Казакская АССР ) in Russian . The name Kyrgyz ASSR, however, was transferred in 1926 to the Karakirgian Autonomous Oblast formed in 1924 (part of the Turkestan ASSR), which later became the Kyrgyz SSR (today the Republic of Kyrgyzstan ).

Territory development

Orenburg was Kazakstan's first capital until 1925 , then the city and the surrounding area were ceded to the RSFSR (today about the Orenburg Oblast of Russia ).

Instead, Ksyl-Orda was the capital from 1925 to 1929 . In 1929 the Kazak ASSR received the Alma-Ata area from the dissolved Turkestan ASSR , which became the new capital. In 1932 the Kazak ASSR again lost Karakalpakistan and the Kyzylkum area (around Navoiy ), which was initially spun off as its own ASSR and handed over by the RSFSR to the Uzbek SSR in 1936 .

Existence period

Just like Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, Kazakstan (in the new spelling Kazakhstan ) was also spun off from the RSFSR in 1936 and became an independent Union republic . The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic came into being with the Constitution of 1936 on December 6, 1936. The dominant political party was the Communist Party of Kazakhstan .

In 1990 Kazakhstan declared its sovereignty within the USSR . As part of a new union treaty, Kazakhstan's head of the republic, Nazarbayev, had been lured into the post of Soviet vice-president by Gorbachev , but after the August putsch in 1991, Kazakhstan finally declared its independence and left the USSR.

Administrative structure 1991

At the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Kazakh SSR was divided into 19 oblasts :

General Secretaries of the Communist Party of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

  1. Levon Mirsojan (December 5, 1936– May 3, 1938)
  2. Nikolai Skworzow (May 3, 1938– September 14, 1945)
  3. Shumabai Shayakhmetov (September 14, 1945– March 6, 1954)
  4. Panteleimon Ponomarenko (March 6, 1954– May 8, 1955)
  5. Leonid Brezhnev (May 8, 1955– March 6, 1956)
  6. Ivan Jakowlew (March 6, 1956– December 26, 1957)
  7. Nikolai Belyayev (December 26, 1957– January 19, 1960)
  8. Dinmuchamed Kunajew (January 19, 1960– December 26, 1962)
  9. Ismail Yusupov (December 26, 1962– December 7, 1964)
  10. Dinmuchamed Kunajew (December 7, 1964– December 16, 1986)
  11. Gennadi Kolbin (December 16, 1986– June 22, 1989)
  12. Nursultan Nazarbayev (June 22, 1989– August 28, 1991)


  • Dinmohammed Kunayev : Kazakhstan: Seven Year Plan for Prosperity . Soviet Booklets, London 1959 ( PDF , 30 MB; English)

Web links

Commons : Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files