Soviet Russia

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The Russian Soviet Republic before the establishment of the Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) was referred to as Soviet Russia , i.e. in the period from the October Revolution of 1917 through the Russian Civil War to the Union Constitution of 1922 (also informal name of the Russian government before the establishment of the Soviet Union).

Until then, no autonomous areas for the individual nationalities had been created from the inheritance of the Russian tsarist empire . In addition to Soviet Russia, however, z. There is also talk, for example, of Soviet Ukraine, which, in contrast to Soviet Russia, was mostly occupied by foreign or white troops until 1920 . Until the conquest by the Red Army , the Ukrainian People's Republic existed from November 1917 ( declaration of independence at the end of January 1918) before it became part of the Soviet Union as the Ukrainian SSR . The Far Eastern Republic was also independent from Soviet Russia from 1920 to 1922 .

Even after the creation of the Soviet Union replaced the term Soviet Russia , especially in the west (. Eg English: Soviet Russia ) used for a long time as a synonym for the whole Union, as the Russian , the predominant population of the USSR was and the claim of the Soviet Union, being a multi-ethnic state was not recognized. The term came up in Germany during the Weimar Republic and dominated Nazi usage . Even Konrad Adenauer used in his speeches always "Soviet Russia" when the Soviet Union meant; With the end of the Adenauer era , the term finally went out of fashion and today it has largely disappeared.

There was and still is confusion with the Russian Federal Socialist Soviet Republic (RSFSR), which comprised all of Soviet Russia in 1917/18. In 1919 the Ukraine (USSR) and Belarus (BSSR) were added, in March 1922 Transcaucasia (TSFSR), which consisted of the three republics of the former Transcaucasian Federation . At the end of December 1922, these four parts of Soviet Russia formed the Soviet Union when the representatives of the RSFSR, the USSR, the BSSR and the TSFSR, who had gathered for the First Congress of the USSR, signed the Union Treaty and adopted the Declaration on the Establishment of the USSR.

Head of government of Soviet Russia

Heads of government

Party leader

Heads of state

See also


  1. ^ Gerd Korinthenberg: "Nazi language was not imposed on Germans." Welt Online from April 26, 2009.