As a post-Soviet states in political science sense, those independent are States designated emerging from the collapse of the Soviet Union emerged. They mostly kept the old names of the Soviet republics and their political borders. Former Soviet republics or post-Soviet space are synonymous when referring to the former republics that made up the Soviet Union.
With the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the collapse of state authority in 1990/91, there were national unrest among the state peoples of the Soviet republics, which were directed against representatives of other ethnic groups or religious communities . Three states ( Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania ) declared the restoration of their national independence . Finally, twelve sovereign states were constituted.
Due to the long-standing association, the Russification and the settlement of ethnic Russians , the Russian culture and language still has a certain influence in these countries. The Russian language is sometimes used as a traffic, regional or even official language . For example, in Ukraine , where according to the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in 2011 42.8% of the Ukrainian population use Ukrainian at home, 38.7% Russian and 17.1% use both languages, in some regions Russian in addition to Ukrainian a regional or second official language. Since 1995, Russian has been given the same status as Belarusian as the official language in Belarus , the proportion of Belarusian speakers has fallen. In 2009, 23.4% said they spoke Belarusian at home and 70.2% Russian, although the difference in cities with 11.3% Belarusian to 81.9% Russian shows the tendencies even more clearly. Latvia, where 58% of the population stated Latvian as their mother tongue and 37% Russian, only gives its own residents Latvian citizenship if they pass an examination in Latvian.
The states can be classified into five geographic regions, with corresponding common geographic, cultural, or political characteristics, based in part on their historical relationship with Russia.
The Baltic states have been subject to various European powers such as the Teutonic Order , Denmark , Poland and Sweden in their history , but have been subject to their Russian neighbors for most of the time since the 18th century, after they were annexed by the Russian Empire after the Great Northern War . They became independent after the First World War until the Soviet Union extorted assistance pacts and base agreements from the Baltic States in September / October 1939. This paved the way for the three Baltic states to be finally annexed in August 1940 following the invasion of the Red Army (mid-June 1940) and sham elections (July 14th) .
Successor states of the USSR
- Russia :
Russia forms a separate category both because of its size and because of its dominant position in this region.
The states of Eastern Europe, including Russia, share a long history. Areas in Central Asia and the Caucasus were not conquered by Russia until the 18th and 19th centuries.
Ethnic and territorial conflicts
Since the early 1990s there have been unregulated secessionist conflicts in the post-Soviet states . In addition to the new states mentioned above, there are some non-independent and "non-recognized states" ( de facto regimes ), which in particular lack international recognition and official status and which are the subject of (armed) conflicts:
- Chechnya , where guerrilla groups seek independence from Russia ;
- Transnistria , de facto independent from the Republic of Moldova ;
- Abkhazia , de facto independent from Georgia ;
- South Ossetia , de facto independent from Georgia;
- Artsakh Republic ( Nagorno-Karabakh until 2017 ), de facto independent from Azerbaijan ;
- Talysh Mugan , seeks more autonomy from Azerbaijan;
- Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Russian name Republic of Crimea ) and the city of Sevastopol , aspirations for independence from Ukraine and connection to Russia.
Multilateral organizations in the post-Soviet space (selection)
A number of multilateral organizations and institutions have been established for political dialogue and cooperation between the successor states of the Soviet Union:
- Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), to which ten of the 15 countries now belong (all but the three Baltic countries, Georgia and Ukraine);
- Community of Non-Recognized States (also known as GUS-2 or CDRN), informally known as “Anti-GUAM”, an association of Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Transnistria and Arzach;
- Organization of the Collective Security Treaty (CSTO);
- Eurasian Economic Community (EAWG), further developed into the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) in 2015
The integration or reintegration of the post-Soviet space has been a dominant topic in Russian political discourse since the 1990s. GUAM is an alliance of the four countries Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Republic of Moldova, which was founded to counter Russian influence in their regions.
The Russian-Belarusian Union was a very advanced integration project within the CIS. The goal of a confederation has not yet been achieved. After integration in the military and military-industrial areas, the project stagnated.
- Stephen K. Batalden, Sandra L. Batalden: The Newly Independent States of Eurasia. Handbook of Former Soviet Republics . Oryx Press, Phoenix 1997, ISBN 978-0-89774-940-4 .
- Jörg Stadelbauer, The successor states of the Soviet Union (PDF; 3.4 MB), special edition from the University of Freiburg
- Successor states of the Soviet Union , materials for the 9th grade
- Independence Votes Popular In The Kremlin , Radio Liberty
- regard to the figure of the continuation state, Theodor Schweisfurth speaks out against a subject identity between the Russian Federation and the USSR; the continuation state is "not an aliud to the successor state, but a name for a successor state sui generis ." Schweisfurth, real estate property of the USSR in Germany. International law and land register issues of state succession , in: Zeitschrift für Vermögens- und Immobilienrecht (VIZ) 1998, p. 57 ff., Here p. 58 fn. 5.
- Georg von Rauch : History of the Soviet Union (= Kröner's pocket edition , vol. 394). 8th, improved u. extended edition, Kröner, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-520-39408-1 , p. 646 f.
- Oleksandr Kramar: Russification Via Bilingualism. Under the current circumstances in Ukraine, most bilingual people ultimately become Russian-speakers , in: The Ukrainian Week of April 18, 2012, accessed on December 10, 2019.
- Georgij Andrejevitsch Paladi, Lyudmila Petrovna Shachotko : Основные вызовы демографической безопасности: сходства и различия 39. , P.
- See Quénivet, 44 AVR (2006), pp. 481–509.