|Founded :||2nd half of the 5th century|
|Height :||380-727 m. ü. M.|
|Area :||726 km²|
|Residents :||1,082,400 (2016)|
|Population density :||1,491 inhabitants per km²|
|Time zone :||UTC + 4|
|Telephone code :||(+995) 32|
|Postal code :||0100|
|Community type:||Big city|
|Mayor :||Kacha Kaladze ( Georgian Dream )|
Tbilisi ( Georgian თბილისი Tbilisi ; until 1936: ტფილისი Tpilissi ) is the capital of Georgia . It is the most populous and largest city in the country. Tbilisi has more than one million inhabitants, the total area is 726 square kilometers, the built-up area around 70 square kilometers.
The city is located in the center of the Caucasus Landge in the eastern part of Georgia. It extends in a mountain valley 21 km along the river Kura (Georgian მტკვარი Mtkvari ). In the West, Tbilisi is from Mount Mtatsminda limited, to the east of the ridge Machata, in the south of the mountain range and Mtabori Solalaki. According to the mountainous terrain, the city districts have height differences between and . Many residential areas were built in terraces on the slopes.
The climate in Tbilisi is temperate . The average annual temperature is 13.3 ° C and the average annual rainfall is 498 millimeters.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Tbilisi
Because Georgia is located in a seismically active area, earthquakes have repeatedly occurred in Tbilisi throughout history . The last severe earthquake on April 25, 2002 had a magnitude of 4.8 on the Richter scale . It killed six people and damaged over 10,000 buildings, mainly in the old town areas of Mtatsminda, Chughureti, Issani and Krzanissi. The damage to the apartment buildings amounted to around 62 million US dollars .
The Georgian name Tbilisi means something like 'warm spring', from თბილი tbili , German 'warm' . On the northeast slopes of Mtabori, up to 46.5 ° C hot, carbonated sulfur spring water bubbles from the earth, which has been used in bathhouses for centuries.
Tradition has it that the Georgian King Vakhtang I Gorgasali killed a pheasant while hunting in a wooded valley. The animal fell into a hot spring and was immediately boiled by the bubbling water. The king had the area carefully explored. When he found out that there were many hot springs there, he founded the city of Tbilisi in this place in the 2nd half of the 5th century.
Forms of names and renaming
The name Tiflis , which is common in Germany , was used in Russia before the 13th century (Old Russian: Teflisi, Teflis or Tiflis) and adopted by German cartographers , later used by Marco Polo . Today it is only used in Turkish , Greek ( Τιφλίδα ) and Persian (تفلیس) second hand. Until 1936 it was the official Russian name of the city ( Тифлис ), then at the request of the Georgians Tbilisi, which became internationally accepted.
In 1936 the official Russian names of various cities were modified by a decision of the Soviet leadership, mostly adapted to local language forms. In this context , the Georgian form of the name Tpilissi was modernized according to the suggestion of Georgian linguists , by replacing the old Georgian component ტფილი tpili , German 'warm' , with the neo- Georgian form თბილი tbili . This form became the official Russian name ( Тбилиси ). On September 20, 2006, the Georgian Parliament held a ceremony to mark the 70th anniversary of the name change.
Most languages have adopted the Georgian name form. Tbilissi is also a frequently used form of name in German , in the GDR it was the official name.
Late antiquity and the Middle Ages
In the 2nd half of the 5th century, the Georgian King Vakhtang I Gorgassali conquered the village, made it his capital and expanded it into a city. His son and successor Datschi completed the city wall. Theophanes of Byzantium is the first Byzantine writer to name the city as Metropolis for the year 571 . In 591 - after the end of the penultimate of the Roman-Persian Wars - Eastern Current and the Sassanid Empire agreed that Mtskheta , the old capital of the kingdom, would fall to Byzantium and Tbilisi would remain under the control of the Sassanids. In the 7th century the city was conquered by the Arabs , then passed into Persian, Byzantine and in 1068 into Seljuk possession.
In 1121, after the liberation by David the builder , it became the Georgian capital again and, thanks to its fortified location at the intersection of seven European-Asian trade routes, it became one of the richest cities of the Middle Ages . Marco Polo reported that there was a "wonderful city called Tbilisi, surrounded by suburbs and many fortresses" in Georgia .
In the 17th century the city fell under Turkish rule, was retaken and fortified by the Georgian king Irakli II . In the 18th century the Turks seized the city again, but were driven out again in 1735 by Nader Shah of Persia, who installed the Georgian King Theimuras. His son Irakli brought the city to high bloom.
In 1795 the Persians invaded Georgia under Shah Aga Mohammed Khan (Georgian Aga Mohammed Chan Irakli ). After the Battle of Krtsanisi , Tbilisi was completely destroyed and 22,000 people were taken into slavery. In November 1799, the Russian major general Lasarus occupied the city.
After the annexation in 1801, Georgia became part of the Russian Empire and, after repeated changes to the administrative structure, Tbilisi became the capital of the governorate of the same name in 1850 ( Russian: Tiflisskaja Gubernija ). Russia administered the Caucasus from there . In the Georgian Orthodox Sioni Cathedral, on April 12, 1802, the Russian General Knorring forced the Georgian aristocracy and clergy to take an oath on the Russian Tsar's crown by force of arms .
On the other hand, Russia promoted the trading center, exempting a large part of the goods sold in Tbilisi, as well as goods in transit, from taxes. The city flourished and the population grew from 8,500 in 1811 to nearly 30,000 in 1825.
The current cityscape was shaped in the middle of the 19th century. On the initiative of the Russian viceroy Prince Mikhail Vorontsov , the city was modernized and expanded after 1845. He appointed the Italian Giovanni Scudieri as chief architect, founded the first theater and the first public library in Transcaucasia. The old city walls were torn down and Tbilisi expanded north and west.
In today's city center, on Rustawelis Gamsiri avenue , elegant palaces, hotels, apartment buildings and museums were built in the style of Classicism , Baroque and later Art Nouveau . The German landscape architect Heinrich Scharrer and the German architect Otto Simonson created the Alexanderpark in the city center together . In order to strengthen trade, the Tbilisi Road was built and Tbilisi was connected by railroad with Poti in 1872 and with Batumi and Baku in 1883 .
The number of industrial companies grew from 138 in 1864 to 228 in 1883. In 1886 Tbilisi had 104,024 inhabitants. It was mainly Armenians, Russians and Georgians, as well as Germans , Tatars, Persians and Poles. In the first all-Russian census of 1897 , Tbilisi had a population of 159,590. In terms of numbers, the largest group of the population with just under 30 percent were the Armenians at that time , followed by the Russians with 28 percent. The Georgians made up only a quarter of the city's residents.
First Republic and Soviet Union
On May 16, 1918, Tbilisi became the seat of government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia . On February 25, 1921, the 11th Army of the Red Army of Workers and Peasants occupied Tbilisi and annexed it to Soviet Russia . Mayor Beniamin "Benia" Tschchikwischwili fled to France . Tbilisi became the capital of the Georgian SSR and was also the capital of the Transcaucasian SFSR between 1922 and 1936 .
Under Soviet rule, the city expanded from 53 square kilometers in 1920 to 365 square kilometers in 1989. The population of Tbilisi increased enormously as a result of the industrial settlement in the 1940s. In the city there was a prisoner of war camp 236 for German prisoners of war of the Second World War . The dead were buried in two prisoner-of-war cemeteries in individual or mass graves. Seriously ill people were treated in the prisoner of war hospital in 1563 . By 1946, more than 3,400 deceased had already been buried in the hospital cemetery.
In 1956 students demonstrated against Soviet rule in Georgia. At least 80 of them were killed in the Tbilisi massacre . From 1951 onwards, large new development areas with monotonous apartment blocks were built. The first metro line was opened in 1966 and the second in 1979, and in 1972 a television tower 274.5 meters high was built on Mtatsminda.
In 1989 there were demonstrations in Tbilisi against the Communist Party and for state independence. The action of Soviet paratroopers under the leadership of Colonel Alexander Lebed against hunger strikers in the center of Tbilisi on April 9 with sharpened spades and poison gas resulted in 20 deaths.
After the country gained independence in 1991, Tbilisi became the capital of Georgia. A military coup against President Zviad Gamsakhurdia led between December 1991 and January 1992 on the Tbilisi war in which the inner city to the, Rustaveli Avenue by tanks , artillery and rockets was badly damaged. In November 2003, the Velvet Revolution (Rose Revolution) took place in front of and in the parliament building, which ushered in a change in reform in Georgia.
The city is developing rapidly in the 2000s and 2010s. Roads and local public transport have been modernized, and important public buildings are illuminated in different colors at night. Sights are being restored and are easily accessible.
Around 30 percent of the population of Georgia now live in Tbilisi and the surrounding area. The population of the city proper was 1,062,282 at the last census in 2014, and 1,108,717 for the entire area under city administration (with the rank of a region ). It has thus decreased slightly compared to the previous census in 2002, when 1,073,345 people lived in the city and 1,121,292 people in the region. The population decline compared to the maximum number of 1,259,692 in the 1989 census has slowed considerably.
- Population development
Note: from 1897 census data
According to the 2014 census, around 90 percent of the population in Tbilisi were Georgians , 4.8 percent Armenians , 1.4 percent Azerbaijanis , 1.2 percent Russians , 1.0 percent Kurds ( Yazidis ), 0.4 percent Ossetians , 0.3 Percent Ukrainians and 0.2 percent Greeks . This means that the proportion of Georgians has increased further compared to 2002 (from 84%), while the proportion of Armenians, Russians and Kurds in particular fell relatively sharply (in 2002, respectively, 7.6, 3.0 and 1.6%); only the Azerbaijani share increased slightly (from 1.1%).
The religions are diverse. Tbilisi is home to old church buildings of the Georgian Orthodox Apostles Church , the Armenian Gregorian Apostles Church and the Roman Catholic Church . There is a Georgian-Jewish and two Ashkenazi synagogues , a mosque with two prayer niches, a Shiite and a Sunni mihrāb , a Zoroastrian temple and a Lutheran church.
Under the Russian Emperor Alexander I , Pietists from Württemberg settled in the South Caucasus, who settled here for religious reasons. Two settlements inhabited by Caucasian Germans were united with Tbilisi over time, namely the settlements "New Tiflis" and Alexanderdorf , founded in 1817 , which are located in what is now the Didube-Tschugureti district. In 1941, by order of Stalin, the residents of German descent were deported to Siberia , which suddenly ended their presence in Tbilisi. In the area of the former New Tbilisi are today the Embassy of Germany and the former home of the Nobel Peace Prize winner Bertha von Suttner . Since there are numerous representations of commercial enterprises and offices of political and aid organizations from Germany, including a Goethe Institute , a German community has developed, for which a "German International School" was opened in 2010.
House Bertha von Suttner in the former New Tbilisi.
The head of the city of Tbilisi is the mayor. The mayor's deputy is the prime minister. From 1991 to 2005 the incumbents were appointed by the Georgian President. Since 2006 they have been elected by the city council.
Mayor has been Kacha Kaladze ( Georgian Dream ), a former soccer player at AC Milan, among others , since 2017 . His predecessor was Davit Narmania (Georgian Dream), who succeeded Giorgi Ugulawa ( United National Movement ). He was previously head of the presidential administration. His predecessors since Georgia's independence were: Otar Litanishvili (1992–1993), Konstantine Gabashvili (1993), Nikolos Lekishvili (1993–1995), Badri Shoshitaishvili (1995–1998), Iwane Sodelava (1998–2004) and Surab Tschiaberaschwili (2004 -2005). The incumbent Prime Minister is Temur Kurchuli. Subordinate to him is the city administration (Georgian Mtawroba ) with around 1700 employees in 40 different departments. It is his job to set the city budget.
The mayor and city administration are controlled by the city council (Georgian Sakrebulo ), which is elected every four years . It has 37 members and meets every three months. The city council elected on October 5, 2006, was in office until October 2010. The majority faction in the city council is the United National Movement with 34 seats (66.53 percent of the vote). The electoral alliance of the Republican Party and Conservatives (12.04 percent), the Georgian Labor Party (10.65 percent) and the Right Opposition (6.08 percent) each have one seat . The head of the city council is Sasa Begashvili. His predecessor from June 2002 to January 2004 was Mikheil Saakashvili .
Since the most recent restructuring in 2013, Tbilisi has ten cities rajone (Georgian რაიონი raioni ): Saburtalo and Wake in the west, Krzanissi and Mtazminda in the south, Didube and Tschughureti in the north, Gldani and Nadsaladewi in the east and Issani and Samgori in the southeast. Each Rajon has an administration headed by a governor (Georgian გამგებელი gamgebeli ).
The Rajons were created by dividing the districts Didube-Tschughureti, Gldani-Nadsaladewi, Issani-Samgori, Mtazminda-Krzanissi and Wake-Saburtalo, which had existed since the 1990s. The Rajons Dsweli Ubani (German: Old Town ) and Didgori, which had existed since 2007, were dissolved at the same time and their territories were distributed to the surrounding Rajons, which already existed before 2007: the centrally located Old Town / Dsweli Ubani on Issani, Krzanissi, Mtazminda, Tschughureti and Wake, Didgori, which was formed in 2007 from parts of Mtatsminda and Wake and a larger area in the southwest of the city , which previously belonged to the Gardabani district, is now back to the Mtatsminda and Wake districts.
In addition to the actual urban area, the area belonging to the city, which is equivalent to a region, also includes four small or minor towns (Georgian დაბა daba ), which emerged from urban-type settlements formed in the Soviet period , as well as 22 other localities in the area with a total of 46,435 inhabitants (2014 ). Until the formation of the municipalities in Georgia in 2007, these places were under the administration of the surrounding Rajons Gardabani and Mtskheta . Since then, they are administratively subordinate to the neighboring Stadtrajon of Tbilisi and are located in the thus expanded area of the capital region of Tbilisi.
In 2014, the population was distributed among the Rajons and places in the surrounding area as follows (population figures in brackets, minor cities in italics ):
raioni დიდუბის რაიონი
raioni გლდანის რაიონი
|168,345||8,869||Gldani (3,669), Sahessi (5,200) (all 1 )|
raioni ისნის რაიონი
raioni კრწანისის რაიონი
|34,834||4,452||Ponitschala 2 (4,452)|
raioni მთაწმინდის რაიონი
|40,482||8,570||Kiketi (207), Kodschori (1,232), Okroqana (2,253), Schindissi (1,722), Tabachmela (2,073), Zawkissi (1,083) (all 2 )|
raioni საბურთალოს რაიონი
|130,652||7,841||Didgori (78), Dighomi (7,497), Koschigora (23), Surgowana (131), Telowani (59), Wedsissi (53) (all 1 )|
raioni სამგორის რაიონი
|168,974||8,870||Didi Lilo (2,417), Nassaguri (1,509), Patara Lilo (666), Warketili (3,004), Zinubani (1,274) (all 2 )|
raioni ჩუღურეთის რაიონი
raioni ვაკის რაიონი
|104.070||7,833||Achaldaba 3 (128), Agaraki 1 (144), Betania 2 (30), Kwesseti 2 (8), Tchinwala 1 (357), Zqneti 4 (7.166)|
Tbilisi maintains a following cities twinning .
- Ankara (Turkey)
- Athens (Greece)
- Atlanta (United States), since 1988
- Bilbao (Spain), since 1989
- Bristol (United Kingdom), since 1987
- Eskişehir (Turkey)
- Innsbruck (Austria), since 1982
- Yerevan (Armenia)
- Kiev (Ukraine), since 1999
- Ljubljana (Slovenia), since 1979
- Nantes (France), since 1979
- Nur-Sultan (Kazakhstan), since 2005
- Palermo (Italy), since 1987
- Paris (France), since 1997
- Saarbrücken (Germany), since 1975
- Vilnius (Lithuania), since 2009
Urban public transport
Tbilisi’s road network is generally in poor condition. In the suburbs in particular, once paved roads have given way to unpaved roads due to the lack of repairs. In the city center, on the other hand, the condition of the streets, especially that of the main traffic axes, meets international standards. Because of the mountainous geography, the Tbilisi road network can handle a maximum of 4200 to 4500 vehicles per hour, according to UN calculations . Because the number of private vehicles has steadily increased since the 1990s, the road network is often overloaded and traffic jams are part of everyday life. The government partially repaired 25 main roads and intersections.
Local public transport in Tbilisi is provided by a subway, an omnibus line network - both maintained by city-owned companies - and a city-regulated but privately operated minibus line network ( Marschrutka ) as well as private taxi companies. Cable cars that are still in operation complement this public transport system. The tram network , founded in 1883 as a horse-drawn tram and electrified from 1904, was shut down on December 4, 2006. A new tram with new vehicles will soon [obsolete] be put into operation. There is no S-Bahn traffic with the exception of a train that runs sporadically from the central station to the airport.
The Tbilisi Metro has existed since 1966 . It now comprises two lines and is 26.3 kilometers long. A third line was under construction from the late 1980s, but was discontinued after 1991 due to a lack of funding. The subway runs from 6 a.m. to midnight, every three minutes at peak times, and connects the suburbs with the center. The fare is 50 Tetri and can be paid at the counters at all stations. In 2008 an RFID card was introduced which, after charging at one of the counters, grants electronically controlled access to the metro. This card has been compulsory for using the metro since 2011. It can be purchased for a Lari at any counter and refunded. There are economies of scale for the use of the price calculation within one day of traffic: the first validation costs 50 tetri, the second 30 tetri and each additional 20 tetri per day. The ticket is valid in the metro and in buses of the Tbilisi public transport company. Day, weekly, monthly, annual tickets or other subscription offers are not offered.
The traditional means of public transport has been the trolleybus since 1937 . In the 1970s and 1980s, around 300 Škoda trolleybuses ran in the capital . In 1990 there were still 137 of them, the number of which fell to 80 by 2004, of which only 40 were functional. The trolleybus service was discontinued on December 4, 2006.
In 2004 new buses were purchased for the first time for a newly established bus network. In 2005, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development granted the Tifliser Verkehrsgesellschaft a loan of 3.1 million euros , which was used to purchase buses from Ukraine and the Netherlands. These buses, painted yellow, have been serving a network of routes since then, which guarantees inexpensive public transport to more remote parts of the city.
The trains running since the 1990s, private minibuses , Marschrutki called or minibus, the penultimate element set of public transport across the bus lines. It usually is from Western Europe imported, equipped with sixteen seats, manually converted vans . They run from 72 to 223 lines set by the city administration from early in the morning to around 11 p.m. and represent an inexpensive means of public transport, which partly competes with the bus routes and partly complements the bus network to the most remote parts of the city. The officially determined fare of 80 Tetri, for certain short journeys on the outskirts of the city 40 Tetri, is paid to the driver when the destination is reached. In marshrutki of the newer type, recognizable by their yellow color and the digital line display, payment with an RFID card is also possible.
The taxi industry serves as a supplement to public transport . There is a disproportionately high number of taxis in Tbilisi, which operate around the clock around the clock. They are usually waved in from the roadside; there are hardly any taxi ranks . The fare for the taxi is significantly higher than that for the buses and minibuses and is negotiated individually with the driver, if possible before the start of the journey (within the city area, depending on the distance, between 2 and 10 Lari). Since 2008 taxi chains have appeared on the market whose vehicles want to guarantee a standard in terms of technology and equipment according to international standards and have taximeters.
A special feature of Tbilisi local transport were public cable cars that connected the city center or lower-lying parts with the districts on the plateaus above the steep mountain slopes. Due to a lack of funds for maintenance, only one of the former dozen systems was still in operation in the Wake district up to the Schildkrötensee, which also served more tourist purposes. This has been out of service since 2010. On June 18, 2012, a new cable car was opened, which connects the Rike Park with the Nariqala fortress and is also likely to appeal to a tourist audience. The modern gondola lift was built by the Italian company Leitner ropeways .
The city administration is currently trying to reduce the high number of minibuses and taxis in order to clear traffic jams and to reduce the extremely high pollution of the air, especially in the lower inner city area.
National public transport
Since 1872 Tbilisi has been connected to the railway network that is now operated by the Georgian Railway . Trains run regularly from the central station , the main building of which was completely renovated and reopened by 2010, to Batumi , Borjomi , Kutaisi , Poti and internationally to Baku and Yerevan . From Tbilisi, buses and minibuses run from various bus stations (Didube, Central Station, Isani) to numerous destinations within Georgia.
International public transport
The Tbilisi airport is 20 kilometers southeast of downtown in Lotschini and has since 2007 a meet international standards nascent terminal building. It is connected to the city center by bus. In addition, trains have been running to the airport since 2007.
Destinations in Greece (Athens), Russia (Moscow) and all neighboring countries of Georgia can be reached by bus from Tbilisi.
Tbilisi has a diverse theater scene with 33 stages. Among the most important are the Griboyedov Theater for Russian Drama , founded in 1845 , the State Academic Theater Schota Rustaveli , founded in 1921 , the State Sakari Paliashvili Theater for Opera and Ballet , founded in 1851, and the "Great Hall" of the Georgian State Symphony Orchestra , built between 1969 and 1971 . There are also theaters of the Armenian, Azerbaijani, Ossetian and Jewish ethnic groups. There are two youth, a comedy, a musical, a film actor, a pantomime and a puppet theater. The circus , built in the Stalinist style and home to the Georgian State Circus , is located on Heldenplatz .
Georgia's first cinema opened in Tbilisi on November 16, 1896. In the 1920s, the city became the location of the Kartuli Filmi studios and the production site for lavish feature films. Two larger cinemas of international standard show current international cinema in the city center. The Tbilisi International Film Festival takes place in them every year in late autumn .
In 1972 the film faculty at the Schota Rustaveli Theater Institute , which later became the Georgian State Institute for Theater and Film, was founded in Tbilisi . Tbilisi is the seat of the National Center for Cinematography .
Tbilisi has twelve major museums. The most important are the State Museum of Arts of Georgia near Freedom Square and the State Simon Janaschia Museum of Georgia on Rustaveli Boulevard. The former houses gold and silver treasures of the Georgian kings, including the pectoral cross of Queen Tamara as well as evidence of Georgian painting from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. The second shows documents from the history of Georgia and the Caucasus from the Paleolithic through antiquity to the present. An extensive collection of the Georgian painters Niko Pirosmani and Lado Gudiaschwili as well as the sculptor Iakob Nikoladze can be found in the State Gallery of Arts (Rustaveli Gamsiri 11).
The Money Museum of the Georgian National Bank presents a show on the history of regional means of payment that goes back four millennia. The Ethnographic Museum is an open-air museum that shows Georgian life in different eras. 22 private art galleries and six exhibition halls regularly present contemporary Georgian art.
The Dawit Baasow Museum of the History of the Jews in Georgia on Anton Katalikosi Street shows exhibits of Jewish life and culture in Georgia. It opened in 1933.
Tbilisi is Georgia's scientific center. The Tbilisi State University (TSU) was founded in 1918. Today around 35,000 students study there in five faculties. The university library contains over 3.7 million books and periodicals. In addition, Tbilisi is home to the Ilia State University , the Georgian Technical University (GTU), the Georgian Agricultural University (GAU), the State Medical University and the State University of Language and Culture .
There are also various private universities, including the Georgian University of Social Sciences , Grigol Robakidze University , Black Sea International University , European School of Management , Georgian Institute of Public Affairs (GIPA) and Caucasus University (CU) at 12 different faculties. More than 20,000 people are employed in research institutions in the capital.
The Georgian Academy of Sciences has ten scientific departments and 63 research institutes. She conducts basic research and coordinates research in Georgia.
The Eliava Institute for Bacteriophages, Microbiology and Virology was founded in 1936 and emerged from a bacteriological laboratory set up by the microbiologist Georgi Eliava in Tbilisi in 1923. It is considered a major center for phage research and therapy with seven scientific departments. A small museum on the history of phage research in Georgia is housed in the historic main building.
Since December 2003, the preservation of monuments in Tbilisi has been reorganized with the help of the Council of Europe in order to preserve as many monuments as possible in the old and modern city. Tbilisi offers very favorable conditions for this, as the city has hardly been damaged since the Persian invasion in 1795. On the other hand, the condition of the buildings is so dilapidated that the disintegration repeatedly leads to more irreversible destruction of the historical building fabric than the financial resources available for the restoration can prevent. An important archaeological site is in Grakliani .
The Georgian football record champions (16 titles) and two-time Soviet champions Dinamo Tbilisi , which is considered to be the most famous club in Georgia, are based in the city. WIT Georgia Tbilisi , who has won the country's championship twice so far, also played for a long time in the country's first division . However, WIT is currently playing in the second division.
On the right bank of the Kura, above the old town, lie the ruins of the Narikala fortress from the 3rd century. The monumental statue of Kartlis Deda (Eng. 'Mother Georgia') stands above the fortifications . A 128 hectare botanical garden extends below it . It was laid out in 1845 on the grounds of the fortress park.
The old town with its narrow, winding cobblestone streets is to be declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. There are the Sioni Cathedral from the 5th century, the Metekhi Church of the Georgian kings from the 13th century, the Anchishati basilica from the 6th century and the Great Synagogue . The Silk Road once ran through the old town . Their old caravanserais still stand today . The houses are mostly made of wood and have carved overhanging balconies. In the spa district of Abanotubani there are sulfur baths from the 17th century and a mosque.
The magnificent buildings of the 19th century adjoin the old town in the Garetubani district . The centerpiece is the Rustaveli Boulevard lined with plane trees between Freiheitsplatz and Platz der Republik . The Kaschweti Church , the State Picture Gallery, the Historical Museum, the State Rustaveli Theater, the Opera and the Parliament Building are located on it. The Kura is lined with wide boulevards, but where cars are dominant over pedestrians on multi-lane lanes.
The districts on Mtatsminda are accessible by a funicular that was modernized in the early 2010s. Halfway up is the Pantheon , a cemetery where important Georgians and Russians are buried, among them the writers Ilia Chavchavadze , Akaki Tsereteli and the diplomat Alexander Griboyedov . A large park was created on the flat top of the mountain, which was expanded into an amusement park in 2009. The television tower stands above the city as a landmark that is visible from all parts of the city and is lavishly illuminated at night.
The Chavchavadze Avenue in the district Wake houses the main building of the State University, banks, elegant fashion shops and exclusive bars. It is the preferred shopping street for the new wealthy class in Georgia.
On the left bank of the river are cultural and state institutions built in the 20th century. The largest church building in Transcaucasia , the Sameba Cathedral , the State Medical University , various scientific institutes, the Boris Paitschadze Stadium , home ground of Dinamo Tbilisi, and the main train station are located there.
The Ethnographic Museum is located at the gates of the city, below the Kus Tba (Eng. 'Turtle Lake ') . It is an open-air museum that presents testimonies of rural construction, living and life from all parts of Georgia in a spacious area. Here you will find original buildings worth preserving historically and culturally, such as a Svaneti defense tower, which was rebuilt because otherwise they would have fallen into disrepair.
sons and daughters of the town
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- Gerhard Rodler: Boom with delay . In: Der Standard, 7./8. July 2007. - Article about current investments in Tbilisi.
- Georgian radio broadcast of February 17, 2005 on the renaming
- For the history of Tbilisi see Vladimir Minorsky: Tiflis. In: Martinus Theodorus Houtsma , Arent Jan Wensinck , Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb , Wilhelm Heffening, Évariste Lévi-Provençal (eds.): EJ Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. Volume 7. Reprint. Brill, Leiden et al. 1993, pp. 752-763.
- Theophanes in Photios in the Patrologia Graeca 103,139.
- Ronald Grigor Suny: The Making of the Georgian Nation. 2nd Edition. Indiana University Press, Bloomington / Indianapolis 1994, p. 25; Alexander Mikaberidze: Historical Dictionary of Georgia. Scarecrow Press, Plymouth 2007, p. 13.
- demoscope.ru: demoscope.ru weekly population census results 1897 (Russian)
- Erich Maschke (ed.): On the history of the German prisoners of war of the Second World War. Verlag Ernst and Werner Gieseking, Bielefeld 1962–1977.
- National Statistics Office of Georgia: Population Census 2014: Number of population by administrative-territorial units and sex (English)
- National Statistics Office of Georgia: Population Census 2014: Total population by regions and ethnicity (English)
- Navid Kermani: Suddenly in the South, in: Der Spiegel 51/2017, p. 127.
- M. Friedrich Schrenk: History of the German colonies in Transcaucasia . Tbilisi 1869
- Civil Georgia Civil.Ge | Photos | Tbilisi ropeways. In: www.civil.ge. Retrieved August 2, 2016 .
- Republic of Georgia, Ministry of Culture and Sports: Jewish Heritage Cultural Routes in Georgia . on www.culturalroutes.gov.ge (English)