|Height :||338 m|
|Area :||797.3 km²|
|Residents :||1,136,156 (Jan 1, 2020)|
|Population density :||1,425 inhabitants per km²|
|Time zone :||EKST ( UTC + 6 )|
|Telephone code :||(+7) 7172|
|Postal code :||010000-010015|
|License plate :||01 (old: Z)|
|Community type:||City with special status|
|Structure :||4 boroughs|
|Äkim ( Mayor ) :||Altai Kölginow|
|Location in Kazakhstan|
Nur-Sultan , also Nursultan ( Kazakh Нұр-Сұлтан , pronunciation: [nʊɾsʊlˈtɑn] , Russian Нур-Султан ), is the capital of Kazakhstan . It is located in the northern part of the country in the middle of the Kazakh steppe on the banks of the Ishim River . With 1,136,156 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2020) it is the second largest city in the country after Almaty . The city has changed its name several times in the recent past. It was called Astana from 1998 to 2019 , previously Aqmola from 1992 to 1998 , Zelinograd from 1961 to 1991 , and before that Akmolinsk .
The city was founded in 1830 as a Russian fortress. In the 1950s, the place became the center of the Soviet new land campaign to gain arable land. This resulted in the cityscape changing and driving the city's development forward. After Kazakhstan's independence from the Soviet Union , a decision was made to relocate the capital, making the city the planned capital on December 10, 1997 . In the south of the city, a modern government district with striking buildings such as the Bajterek Tower , the Khan Shatyr or the Pyramid of Peace and Unity was built .
The place is located in a spacious steppe landscape in the transition area between the Russian-influenced north of Kazakhstan and the extremely sparsely populated center on the Ishim River . The older districts lie north of the river, while the new districts were mainly laid out south of the Ishim.
The city can be geographically divided into different areas. To the north of the railway, which crosses the north of the city in an east-west direction, there are industrial and poorer residential areas. The city center is located between the railway line and the Ishim River, and there is currently brisk construction activity. To the west and east of it are upscale residential areas. South of the Ishim are the parks and the new government district. There are also many major construction projects in progress here, such as the construction of a diplomatic quarter, various government buildings and a prestigious waterfront. These districts should be completed by 2030. Nur-Sultan's chief planner, Vladimir Laptew, wants to build a Berlin in a Eurasian version . Occasionally, a parallel is drawn to Ankara , which became the capital of Turkey after the founding of modern Turkey. A purely administrative capital like Brasília or Canberra is not the goal of urban planners.
|Administrative district||Kazakh name||Russian name||Residents||Area [km²]|
|Almaty||Алматы ауданы||Алматинский район||296.945||154.71|
|Baikonur||Байқоңыр ауданы||Байконурский район||237,433||181.29|
|Jessil||Есіл ауданы||Есильский район||263,817||393.58|
|Saryarqa||Сарыарқа ауданы||Сарыаркинский район||337.961||67.75|
|As of January 1, 2020|
Nur-Sultan is considered to be the second coldest capital in the world after Ulaanbaatar ; it is shaped by the continental climate . The winds from northern Siberia reach northern and central Kazakhstan almost unchecked in the winter months due to the lack of geographical barriers. The average winter temperature is around −15 degrees Celsius with occasional night frosts down to −40 degrees Celsius. The absolute temperature minimum is −51.6 degrees Celsius. In contrast, peak temperatures of over 35 degrees Celsius are recorded in summer.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Nur-Sultan
¹ census result
Founded until World War II
The city was founded in 1830 as the Russian fortress Akmolinsk (from Kazakh Aqmola (Ақмола) , 'white sanctuary', but also 'white grave' for a nearby place where light limestone emerges). For a long time it only functioned as a fort in the Kazakh steppe. The city grew in importance in the late 19th and early 20th centuries when Akmolinsk became a railway junction on the Turksib . This led to the city's first economic boom, which lasted until the Russian Civil War . This also affected the area of what is now northern Kazakhstan and thus Akmolinsk.
City expansion in the 20th century
When Nikita Khrushchev started a mammoth project in the 1950s to transform the northern Kazakh steppe into a second granary of the Soviet Union , the city was renamed the capital of this so-called new territory (Zelinnyj Krai) and in 1961 it was renamed Zelinograd . The high proportion of the Russian population in this area, which led to ethnic tensions, can be traced back to the influx of farm workers during this period. Many Russian Germans who had previously been deported under the rule of Josef Stalin were also settled in the vicinity of the city .
After Kazakhstan gained independence with the collapse of the Soviet Union , the city and its region were renamed Aqmola after the original name in 1992 and nominated as the future capital in 1994. After the relocation of the capital from Almaty to Aqmola on December 10, 1997, the city was renamed again on May 6, 1998 and was given the name Astana. In addition to the high risk of earthquakes in Almaty, the main reason for relocating the capital was that the Kazakh government under Nursultan Nazarbayev hoped to better counter any separatist tendencies in the predominantly Russian-inhabited areas in the north-east of the country. In addition, the best development opportunities were forecast for Astana, resulting from possible development areas and transport infrastructure. After all, the move - which is mentioned behind closed doors in Kazakhstan - was achieved through a balance of interests and power between the three traditional Kazakh tribal federations of the Great Horde in the urbanized south - which includes President Nazarbayev - the Middle Horde in central and eastern Kazakhstan, in whose area Nur-Sultan lies, and the Small Horde , which is based in the oil and gas-rich Caspian Depression in western Kazakhstan . Since Nur-Sultan became the capital, the city has experienced strong economic growth. This is accompanied by strong population growth and high construction activity.
Development of the place name
|Development of the place name|
The city was officially given its current name on March 23, 2019 in honor of Kazakhstan's long-time President Nursultan Nazarbayev . The name was changed at the suggestion of his successor, Qassym-Shomart Toqayev .
The city had changed its name several times before. Earlier names were Akmolinsk (1830–1961), Zelinograd (1961–1992), Aqmola (1992–1998), and Astana ([ astaˈna ], German also [ asˈtaːna ]) (1998–2019). The Kazakh term Astana means capital ; it was thus historically and politically unencumbered.
Mayor (Äkim) of Nur-Sultan has been Altai Kölginow since June 2019 . During the Soviet period, the city administration was headed by the chairman of the executive committee. Below are the mayors of the city since 1992:
- Amanschol Bölekpajew (1992–1997)
- Ädilbek Schaqsybekow (1997-2003)
- Temirchan Dosmuchambetow (2003-2004)
- Ömirsaq Schökejew (2004-2006)
- Asqar Mamin (2006-2008)
- Imanghali Tasmaghambetow (2008-2014)
- Ädilbek Schaqsybekow (2014-2016)
- Ässet Issekeschew (2016-2018)
- Baqyt Sultanow (2018-2019)
- Altai Kölginow (since 2019)
badges and flags
The current coat of arms of Nur-Sultan was designed as the coat of arms of Astana by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev and introduced on June 5, 2008. The two central motifs of the coat of arms are Bäiterek ( Kazakh Бәйтерек ) and Schangyraq ( Kazakh шаңырақ ). Bajterek, the name for the tree of life among the Turkic peoples , is the personification of the universe and Shanghai, the crown of a Kazakh yurt , represents the transition point from the infinite expanse of the universe to one's own house. At the lower end of Baiterek there is a stylized one Depiction of the mythical Simorgh bird with outspread wings, for which the name Samruk is used in Kazakhstan. The city's coat of arms is divided into two rings: The outer ring represents the history of the Great Steppe . The red color goes back to the purifying power of fire, which the Turks saw as an indispensable element and was associated with birth, growth and development. The red border also symbolizes the fiery gates that one crosses to purify the spirit and to be filled with power. The inner ring in the color azure blue , which is also used for the flag of Kazakhstan , represents the independence of modern Kazakhstan. On both sides of the inscription of the city name there are three symmetrical lines in the red ring, which represent the roof poles ( Kazakh Уық / uyq ) of Shanghai . The inscription Астана (Kazakh and Russian for Astana) has been replaced by Nur-Sultan (in Latin script).
Culture and sights
Among the city's museums is the Museum of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, with a collection of arms, medals and awards from President Nursultan Nazarbayev . In various exhibitions, exhibits are shown that give insights into Kazakh culture.
The Atameken Open Air Museum is located near the Ishim River . A miniature model of Kazakhstan and the Caspian Sea was created here on a good two hectares. Models of Kazakh sights and some European buildings are presented.
The President's Cultural Center consists of a museum, library and concert hall. In addition to the archeology , art and history of Kazakhstan, some other scientific and cultural topics are dealt with.
You won't find any old buildings in Nur-Sultan. The city is characterized on the one hand by buildings from the Soviet era - here the architectural style of the 1960s and 1970s predominates - and on the other hand by neighborhoods that have either been built in recent years or have been rebuilt. This affects the quarters south of the Ishim, which were created as part of the government move. Almost all of the city's significant buildings were built after the city was declared the capital of Kazakhstan.
Most of the city's well-known buildings are located in the city's new government district, which was laid out in the south of Nur-Sultan. In the center of the government district is Nurschol Boulevard, where numerous authorities, the Kazakh Parliament and some state-owned companies have their headquarters. There is also the Bayterek Tower , a 100-meter-high observation tower in the shape of a mythological tree of life and a symbol of the city. At its western end is the Khan Shatyr , a construction in the form of a tent. This includes a shopping center, an entertainment center and an aqua park. At the eastern end of this boulevard is the Ak-Orda Palace , the official residence of the Kazakh President , on the banks of the river . The striking building, which is clad in Italian marble and has a dome with a golden antenna, is surrounded by a large park. Directly opposite, on the other side of the Ishim, is the Pyramid of Peace and Unity . This pyramid-shaped structure, designed by the British architects Foster + Partners , is the permanent venue for the Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions. It is designed as a place that stands for religious understanding, the renunciation of violence and the promotion of faith and the equality of people.
Since the turn of the millennium , an increasing number of skyscrapers have been built in Nur-Sultan . The oldest skyscraper in the city is the Astana Tower, completed in 2001 . Most of the skyscrapers were built on Nurschol Boulevard. This is where the 175 meter high Railways Building , headquarters of the Qasaqstan Temir Scholy railway company , and the Transport Tower are located . Right next to the Railways Building is the Emerald Towers complex, which consists of two skyscrapers. With a height of 210 meters, Emerald Towers 1 is currently the tallest building in Kazakhstan. The Northern Lights complex consists of three high-rise buildings, the tallest of which is 180 meters high. The Abu Dhabi Plaza , which is being financed by the United Arab Emirates , has been under construction south of the Bajterek Tower since 2010 . With a planned height of 382 meters, the structure will be the tallest building in Central Asia . Completion has been postponed several times and was scheduled for 2019. [outdated]
The new Russian Orthodox Cathedral of the Assumption was inaugurated in early 2010 by the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church Kyrill I. The Nur Astana Mosque was the largest mosque in Kazakhstan until it was replaced by the Hazrat Sultan Mosque in 2012 . In addition, the Beit Rachel Synagogue, the largest synagogue in Central Asia, is located in Nur-Sultan .
Nur-Sultan (then called Astana) hosted the World Expo 2017 in 2017 .
Two major football clubs are or were based in Nur-Sultan. The football club FK Astana-1964 played in the country's second-highest division and was dissolved in 2014. He played his home games in the Kaschymukan Munaitpassow Stadium . FK Astana was only founded in 2009 through the merger of two teams and is represented in the Kazakh premier league . The home football games are played in the Astana Arena, which opened in 2009 and has a capacity of 30,000 .
The ice hockey team Barys Nur-Sultan is one of the most successful teams in Central Asia. Since the 2008/2009 season she has been participating in the continental hockey league . The team's venue is the 12,000-seat Barys Arena .
A Rally Team Astana has also existed since 2011, which took third place in the truck class at the 2012 Dakar Rally.
Economy and Infrastructure
Nur-Sultan lives mainly from its function as a capital city and the related industries. Due to the brisk construction activity, the construction sector has an important role in the city. Another important branch of industry is leather processing . The urban area represents a special economic zone . The area is used extensively for agriculture .
Nur-Sultan is located in the middle of Kazakhstan and therefore has a special position as a traffic junction .
The train station only Sultan is by the state Kazakh railway company Kazakhstan Temir Zholy operated and is one of the largest stations in Kazakhstan. There are daily connections to major Kazakh cities. There are train connections abroad mainly to Russia , but also to Central Asian countries and China.
Main roads run parallel to the railway lines. Due to the enormous extent of the country, the road network is only important for regional traffic. Additional expressways and motorways are planned for the next few years . The only winter and weatherproof motorway in Kazakhstan so far connects Nur-Sultan with Kökschetau .
From Germany, Air Astana and Lufthansa fly non-stop from Frankfurt am Main to Nur-Sultan. Turkish Airlines flies from Istanbul to Nur-Sultan. From the Ukraine from flying Ukraine International Airlines non-stop to only Sultan and Almaty.
A new international airport is to be built about 15 km west of Nur-Sultan in the next few years.
The public transport are bus lines and a large number Marschrutki . Trolleybus traffic had to be abandoned in 2008 after the electricity bills could no longer be paid. When the Astana light rail system goes into operation , a new transport system is to be introduced. After completing all four construction phases, the network of lines will consist of four lines that run through the entire city area.
The headquarters of Kazakh state companies are primarily located in Nur-Sultan. Most of Kazakhstan's non-state owned companies are based in the former capital, Almaty .
Kazakhstan's state oil company KazMunayGas is headquartered in an 18-story building in the city's new government district. The two subsidiaries KazTransOil and KazTransGas are also located in Nur-Sultan. In addition to Kazakhstan's largest transport company, Kazakhstan Temir Scholy , its subsidiaries Kaztemirtrans and Kaztransservice, KazakhTelecom also has its corporate headquarters here. The state media company Nur Media is also located in Nur-Sultan.
Kazakhstan's largest automobile dealer, Astana Motors, is located in Nur-Sultan. The mining company Eurasian Natural Resources has set up its new Kazakh headquarters in Nur-Sultan. Tsesnabank is the only Kazakh credit institution to have its headquarters in the capital.
The city is the seat of several colleges and universities. The oldest university is the Kazakh Agricultural Technical University . The agricultural college is one of the best universities in Kazakhstan and has nine faculties with more than 10,000 students. Another important university is the Eurasian National University . It was founded in 1996 by merging two universities. The Medical University of Astana was founded 1964th The KAZGUU Närikbajew University is a private university that was founded in the 1994th The Nazarbayev University was established of 2010. It is a research university with mainly international staff. Around 5000 students are enrolled at the university.
sons and daughters of the town
- Alexander Kazantsev (1906–2002), science fiction writer and chess composer
- Michail Guzerijew (* 1958), Russian entrepreneur and politician
- Kettle Sakariyanov (* 1961), politician
- Anatoli Chrapaty (1962–2008), weightlifter and Olympic champion
- Asqar Mamin (* 1965), politician
- Kärim Mässimow (* 1965), Head of Government of Kazakhstan
- Sergej Tcherepanov (* 1967), Russian organ and harpsichord instructor and church musician
- Jermek Marschyqpajew (* 1969), politician
- Eleonora Hummel (* 1970), German writer
- Dmitri Posdnyakov (* 1972), biathlete
- Pawel Kozur (* 1974), chess player and trainer
- Christian Remchen (* 1976) painter, sculptor, architect
- Nurlan Ybyrajew (* 1977), chess player and referee
- Konstantin Airich (* 1978), heavyweight boxer
- Jana Haas (* 1979), German-Russian author
- Guts Säduaqassow (* 1979), chess player
- Maxim Iglinski (* 1981), racing cyclist
- Dawid Lorija (* 1981), football player
- Nikita Chochlow (born 1983), football player
- Maxim Schalmaghambetow (* 1983), football player
- Anton Tschitschulin (* 1984), football player
- Maxim Asowski (* 1986), football player
- Änuar Ismagambetov (* 1986), chess player
- Alex Mizurov (* 1988), German skateboarder
- Sultanmurat Miraliiev (* 1990), cyclist
- Mark Starostin (* 1990), cross-country skier
- Kirill Gerassimenko (* 1996), table tennis player
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