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Sebastiano Ricci : Allegory of the Arts 1690–1694

The word art (Latin ars , Greek téchne ) describes in the broadest sense any activity developed by people based on knowledge , practice , perception , imagination and intuition (healing art, art of free speech). In a narrower sense, results of targeted human activity are named that are not clearly defined by functions. According to Tasos Zembylas , the formation process of the concept of art is subject to constant change, which unfolds along with dynamic discourses, practices and institutional instances.

Art is a human product of culture , the result of a creative process. The work of art is usually at the end of this process, but it can also be the process or the procedure itself. Those who practice art in the narrower sense are called artists .

The original meaning of the term art , which, as a contrast to nature , could refer to all products of human labor , has been preserved (as in plastic, for example ). However, since the Enlightenment , art has primarily been understood to mean the forms of expression of the fine arts :

Forms of expression and techniques of art have expanded greatly since the beginning of modernity , for example with photography in the visual arts or with the establishment of comics as a connection between visual art and the narrativity of literature. In the performing arts, music and literature, forms of expression from the new media such as radio, television, advertising and the Internet can also be counted today. The classic classification has been losing importance since the last decades of the 20th century at the latest. Art genres such as installation or the area of media art no longer know the classic basic classification.

Etymology and word usage

Egyptian mummy portrait , 2nd century AD

Art is a German word. Already in Old High German it was kunst (plural kunsti ), in Middle High German kunst (plural künste ). Originally, art a Substantivabstraktum to the verb can to mean "that which you have mastered; Knowledge, knowledge, mastery ”. The phrase “ art comes from ability ” is etymologically correct (according to the word's origin). In addition, "art" was used in loan meaning for the Latin term ars , e.g. B. in the educational canon of the seven liberal arts , in the art of living , the art of love , etc. In this sense, art basically refers to everything that people can do and what is made by people. The corresponding counter-concept is nature , as in the everyday pair of opposites natural / artificial .

Since the time of the Enlightenment , art has mainly been used in a narrower sense as the umbrella term for aesthetics , which summarizes the genres of art ( visual arts , performing arts , music and literature ) and their various styles and currents. Associated terms are e.g. B. work of art , artist , artistic . This article deals with this term in more detail.

The term art was and is therefore used:

In the sense of knowledge, perception, knowledge, insight
Based on the philosophy of antiquity , exemplified by the “midwifery” of Socrates , the term art has not only been used to describe knowledge since the 16th century, the term is also used synonymously for philosophy , but also the (natural) sciences .
In terms of skill
What was meant were skills (“to be finished” in the sense of “being learned”) within a subject area as well as the totality of a skill ( fencing , riding , cooking , healing , arithmetic , writing , art of living ) or activity ( weaving , pottery ), the art of dying as a synonym for the activity of an undertaker , obtained as a "workmanship". These arts get a negative connotation when they mean clever deceptions (thieving, embellishment, black art , seduction art or magic ). The adjective “artificial” also comes from the field of meaning of the pretenses.
In terms of craft
Until the 18th century, art , based on the ancient Greek techne , was also used as a synonym for the exercise of a (technical) craft that had this special knowledge ( e.g. making fire art for fireworks , water art , mining art , garden art ) or these arts as masters Performers had the title of art master . This usage has been preserved in the saying "made according to all the rules of art " and in the term architecture . In the word crafts today is still the crafts that produced by hand trades . With Kant we can finally establish the separation of the terms: “In the narrower sense, craft and art are exactly differentiated, although there is no lack of close contact, indeed blending of the two (cf. arts and crafts ): art is distinguished from craft, the first is called free art, the other can also be called contract art ”.
In terms of machine
for products manufactured by the above arts and art crafts equipment items or machine-made, water art for fountain systems and equipment of water supply and drainage , steam Art for steam engine , especially devices for "promoting" of loads in mining are driving skill called, see especially Bergmännische Art .
In terms of science
Since ancient times, the beginnings of science have been called the Seven Liberal Arts , consisting of the trivium (with grammar , rhetoric , logic ) and the quadrivium with arithmetic , geometry , music , astronomy .
Since Leibniz one has known the designation of scientific disciplines as the art of language (Grammatica), art of speech (Rhetorica), art of fair (Geometria), art of evidence (Logica), art of morality (Ethica), art of vision (Optica), art of dissection (Anatomia), art of cutting (Chymia) and the like . a. “Soon, however, art is distinguished from science . Goethe says: “Art and science are words that are used so often and the exact difference between which is seldom understood, one often uses one for the other, and then suggests against other definitions: I think science could be the knowledge of the general call the withdrawn knowledge, art, on the other hand, would be science used for deed. Science would be reason and art its mechanism , which is why it could also be called practical science. And so finally science would be the theorem , art the problem . "
As a contrast to nature
Already with Aristotle, but above all in the wake of the Enlightenment and their new concept of nature, art (Greek τέχνη, téchnē ) is understood as the opposite of nature (Greek φύσις, physis ), as artificial instead of natural. Today the prefix artificial is used to denote “not natural”: artificial fur, plastic , artificial flower , artificial heart , artificial eye, etc.
In terms of fine arts
Art in today's most commonly used sense was conceptually shaped primarily by Winckelmann , Lessing , Herder , Goethe and Schiller . In their aesthetic writings they describe the human productions for the purpose of edification as art , be it in the theater , in literature , in music or the works of “visual artists”, to which the term finally narrows. Art has also emerged as a prefix for word formations such as art exhibition , work of art , art auction , etc.

History of the concept of art


Venus of Willendorf , approx. 25,000 BC Chr.

Art is originally a cultic phenomenon that developed at the same time or in connection with prehistoric cults or religions . Painting and sculpture, as well as music and dance, already appeared in the Paleolithic. The almost 40,000-year-old ivory figures from the Lone Valley , the flutes from the Geißenklösterle or the cave paintings from the Chauvet grotto are among the earliest evidence of art . Historically, the arts developed from their contribution to the material organization of cults and rituals . In the early days of human development, the appearance of art is one of several indicators for the formation of consciousness and human thought . In this context, art refers to activities or representations (e.g. making music , painting ) that do not show any direct use in supporting life .

In today's indigenous peoples , the early cult function of artistic forms of expression can be studied as well as an anthropological constant: the need to adorn oneself, which first developed in ornament . Social functions will be discussed in addition to the artistic and ornamental designed artifacts such as bracelets, brooches , weapons, etc. in the communities companies of Prehistory and Early History . Art has therefore also functioned as a distinguishing feature since the earliest times, as discussed by more recent art theory and sociology. Anthropologically, art production around 40,000 years ago (in Aurignacia ) marked the transition from Homo sapiens to Homo sapiens intellectus. Since the prehistory is by definition an epoch without writing, there are no traditions of any contemporary concept of art.


Egypt , approx. 1422–1411 BC Chr.

From the early to the late ancient cultures, from the Egyptian Old Kingdom to Classical Greece to late Rome , an abundance of works of art have been preserved: architecture, sculptures, frescoes and minor art. The fact that they are referred to as such is an anachronism , because at the time they were created, painting and sculpture were not considered art , but rather handcraft , their products as products of handicrafts, but not artists. The theater was already well developed and respected, but it was an essential part of cult activities.

As free arts ( artes liberales ) those knowledge and skills were called in antiquity, which should be available to a free man - but not to a slave . Martianus Capella (around 400 AD) divided a total of seven arts into two groups: the trivium comprised grammar , dialectics and rhetoric ; the quadrivium included geometry , arithmetic , astronomy, and music . Of the fine arts in the modern sense, music was the only recognized art in antiquity. Lower handicrafts, on the other hand, were the mechanical arts ("artes mechanicae"), which had to be carried out by hand, which also included painting and sculpture . Painting and sculpture as well as the art of healing (in the aphorisms of Hippocrates ) were also viewed in antiquity as art ( téchne or ars mechanica ) and not as pure technology ( epistéme ).

The contrast (antagonism) of art , which arises predominantly from the mind , and art that has to be made manually, will manifest itself differently in the visual arts over 2,000 years, from the Paragone in the Renaissance (the competition between art genres, which the noblest of all) to German idealism of the 18th century and its share in the modern concept of art (which understands technical ability only as a banal tool of the artist to express his idea) to the conceptual art of the 1960s, which the artistic idea completely decoupled from the executed object.

middle Ages

With the upheavals of the Migration Period , the ancient art life in Europe as good as dissolved. The medieval concept of art adopts the scheme of the artes mechanicae as well as the artes liberales , the liberal arts of the (philosophical) basic studies , which were required in the three major faculties of theology , law and medicine .

The visual artist is still a craftsman and is organized in guilds like all other professions. As an individual he rarely appears, the signature of a work is unusual. Client for almost all artistic production - painting, sculpture, music, theater - is the Church . To a lesser extent, the feudal nobility also has commissioned work . Profane and sacred forms of expression, image types, forms of music and other things emerge .

If in antiquity one still represented a naturalistic image of man and tried to imitate nature as well as possible, beauty in the Middle Ages was defined by the spiritual (religious) content of a representation, as it was recognized by the scholastics as the beauty of God, which is in art should reflect.

Early modern age

The importance of the fine arts and the work of the artist change in modern times with the transition to a bourgeois society: where previously works were usually created on behalf of the church and the nobility , a new type of recipient is growing up with the educated art collector .

This process first began in Italy with the early Renaissance and continued throughout Europe from the middle of the 15th century. The cities grow stronger and with them the merchants who demonstrate their new position in feudal society with art. The artist emancipated, discovered as a subject , and creates works whose main purpose is no longer the idea of a religious content or the power of a prince is but the expert debate on draft , execution and mastery, and artist is a profession. This is how highly complex iconographic image and architecture programs emerge , which the art public has to unravel. A new literary genre emerges: Ekphrasis , art literature, writing about artists and art, and contemplation ("enjoyment of art") as part of the artistic intention. The now autonomous artist thinks about his role, which is made public in the visual arts in the Paragone .

The “rebirth” referred to in the term Renaissance refers to the renewed connection to classical antiquity , on whose image of man and nature art production is based. Profane works flourish in music and literature. The Reformation accelerated the weakening of the Roman Catholic Church as the most important client of the artists, which was answered at the Council of Trento with a detailed counter-concept. The need for a Catholic Counter-Reformation laid the foundation for the explosion of artistic production in music and the visual arts during the Baroque period .

While the work of art was still used at the beginning of modern times to memorize “strange” things, it lost this function with the increasing spread of letterpress printing . In the period that followed, the problem of the constant “loss of novelty” in art arises: since then it has had to surprise again and again with innovations. This turns it into an autonomous social subsystem.


In the second half of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, in the age of the Enlightenment , the educated circles began to discuss paintings , sculptures and architecture as well as literature and music as art in the modern sense of the word. Combining thematic issues, aesthetics was established as a category for qualifying works of art, as a distinction from the ugly. Freedom became an ideal for politics, science and for the genres literature and art, which were gradually emerging as independent areas. The technical aspect of artistic creation lost its importance. With German idealism, the idea stood above the artifact. One of the most important prerequisites for this process was the secularization accelerated by the beginning of the industrial revolution .

The differentiation between literature and art was the result of the literary discussion that had started shortly before , which no longer dealt with all intellectual works, but summarized novels, dramas and poems as literature in a changed sense of the word. In an effort to appeal to a wider audience, the term art was initially narrowed to paintings and sculptures, to objects that were presented and assessed in newspapers and magazines - the journals that have existed since the early 18th century. A widespread review system arose . The terms work , original and genius as expressions of the artist's individuality were coined by Kant . A distinction was made between inner and outer images. Inner images were, for example, language , ideas and ideas , while outer images were furnishings, structures or handcrafted products.

In accordance with the idea of ​​freedom, the visual artist is no longer obliged to a client , but produces independently for a newly emerging art market . On the one hand, this changes the themes that instead of religious and mythological motifs, portraits and allegories now also include, for example, descriptions from the working world of the emerging industrial capitalism. On the other hand, individual styles develop, which not least serve as trademarks , in modern terms as a marketing instrument for the competing artists. Composers like Mozart are also saying goodbye to permanent positions with secular or ecclesiastical princes. This new freedom is associated with corresponding risks, the romantic image of the impoverished artist , combined with the concept of genius, are the consequences.


Fine arts : Paul Cézanne : self-portrait (1898–1900)

The Enlightenment prepared the concept of modern art . While at the end of the Middle Ages the artist emancipated himself into an autonomous subject, at the end of baroque feudalism the work of art emancipated itself and became autonomous. In the age of machines, division of labor and automation, the status of manual activity in art changed. Art no longer exists in functional contexts, but out of itself, becomes L'art pour l'art . The art forms that remain in functional contexts are constituted under the new umbrella term applied art for the applied arts .

While in stylistics the stylistic epochs were subsequently appended to the respective artistic creation, the artists themselves now shape their categories in interplay with the newly emerging art criticism . The numerous isms , some of which arise in parallel, are now more short-term style terms than epoch concepts.

The importance of women in art is increasing.

With the beginning of modernity, the antagonism of counter- modernism begins . Until the Enlightenment, the addressees for art were only a very small circle (the clergy, the nobility, the rich bourgeoisie), the public expanded with the emergence of the freely accessible art market, the public exhibitions ( salons ) organized to promote it and the Debates in the press about art, mass literature, etc. opened up considerably. At the same time, the artistic debate, both in the fine arts as well as in music or literature, increasingly concentrated on examining the conditions under which it was created. To the extent that art itself became the theme ( meta-art ), it lost the interest of the broad classes that it actually wanted to lead as the avant-garde .

If conflicts about art previously remained internal and were, for example, of a patriotic nature (Florentine Disegno versus Venetian Colore ) or a question of taste (Rubenists versus Poussinists, dispute between the Anciens et Modernes , etc.), whole sections of society now refuse to accept the art of their time . A counter- modernism is developing , which seeks its forms of expression in various styles that oppose modern art - e.g. B. through neoclassical , other historicist or consciously anachronistic art. This can be understood as a protest against the principles of modern or contemporary art.

About this protest far beyond the defamation of modern art went Nazism , the tagged Degenerate Art , the Modern Art was trying to make a whole and the so-called German art with brutal means prevailed: by prohibitions sneering presentations in the exhibition "Degenerate Art “ , Up to the murder of Jewish artists in the Holocaust . From November 1936, the Nazi regime gradually dissolved all departments of art from the early 20th century in German museums. In the Soviet Union , the avant-garde Constructivism and Suprematism , which were still perceived as revolutionary , emerged in the 1920s . With the onset of Stalinism , the anti-modern reflex gained the upper hand and led to socialist realism in literature, visual arts and music.

Corresponding to the political contradictions following the phase of totalitarianism since the 1930s, different currents developed within the modern age of the late 1950s as a contemporary resistance movement or post-avant-garde in the 1960s, both in circles of Western and Eastern Europe turned against and refused to standardize as a result of the Cold War and Stalinism in the Soviet Union. They followed up on the tradition of the salons of the early modern era in the metropolises, but had a further and connecting-mediating function. When the wars broke out in Europe and Asia during the 1930s and 1940s, they only gained limited momentum as a result of the state reorganization in the 1950s.

However, this forcible suppression of modern varieties of art brought about by the state cannot be equated with the dissatisfaction of some parts of the population with contemporary forms of artistic expression (especially in architecture). A juxtaposition of different styles is widely accepted today and creates a large artistic range in today's global culture , which is often understood as liberalist, and the paradigm of simultaneity caused by the technical digitization of everyday life.


Conceptual Art : Art & Language : Mirror Piece (1965)

The postmodern view of art partly questions the ideas of freedom, originality and authenticity again, deliberately uses quotes from other artists and combines historical and contemporary styles, materials and methods and different genres of art . The art business and exhibition locations are questioned from a meta level ( white cube ) . The boundaries between design , pop culture and subculture on the one hand and high culture on the other are blurring.

Contemporary art , contemporary art and similar collective terms grasp contemporary art related only very general. The term artistic avant-garde has become obsolete for art that has emerged since the beginning of postmodernism, as there can beno generally binding direction for a vanguard or for pioneersin open societies and cultures. Therefore, the term “contemporary art” is also used to describe artistic work or actions that make something so perceptible in the present that it will have a culturally significant effect in the future. In this sense, free and contemporary art seemingly ignores all conditions, academic rules and classifications, all art styles, art branches and cultural boundaries, while at the same time it takes the freedom to reflect on, process and use them according to artistic needs.

Such art represents a system of art that arises from the synergetic effect of multiple instances, discourses, institutional actors and established practices. Contemporary art as a global and intercultural functioning system combines the origins in different cultures, art history as the theoretical foundation of art, whereby ancient philosophy remains particularly important as a historical basis for the occidental art tradition . Contemporary art also allows conventional classifications such as painting, sculpture, dance, music, theater, etc. to shine through, but is characterized by its thematization, questioning, overcoming, expansion, interdisciplinary integration and ironization. Today photography and performance stand alongside painting and theater, while media arts , including light art and the like. A. position yourself anyway as it appears appropriate to the media and relevant.

As in science, a comprehensive understanding of the possible meanings of works and works can often only be gained through a thorough study of the artistic object. It is interpreted in different contexts that change and differ depending on the viewer and reader, depending on the audience and those involved in the action, as well as depending on the interests of the critics and other professional mediators. The contemporary concept of art is discussed intensively in art theory . She places artistic practices, processes, institutions and actors (artists, recipients , managers, investors / buyers, ...) as well as the works of art themselves at the center of the investigation.

Requirements and functions

With the question of the biological basis of the artistic demand of man, or what psychological, sociological, economic and political functions of art for the people and the society , has been dealing biology , the sociology of art , the psychology , the Law and the Cultural Studies in General.


An image of the Congo chimpanzee

The rapid development of the biosciences has led to the fact that higher cognitive performance of humans is also being investigated in the biological disciplines. The need for artistic design and aesthetic sensations are not excluded from this. Biological studies related to art take place in particular in the theory of evolution and neuroscience .

In evolutionary biology, behaviors are usually explained by means of a selection advantage. Specifically, this means that people who do and appreciate art would have to produce more offspring than the others. Such an explanatory pattern does not seem immediately obvious in relation to art. Nevertheless, art forms can be found in all historical epochs and cultural areas, which indicates that a need for art is biologically given and not only a result of social imprinting. Several explanations can be offered for the biological anchoring of the need for art. Most likely, art is the selection criterion for choosing a partner. The human evolution is due to an increase in the brain affected volume and cognitive skills. The ability to produce art is an externally recognizable indication of creativity , which can also lead to creative solutions in other problem areas. People who had time for art had no problems satisfying their daily needs for food and security, because whoever has reserves for primarily meaningless activities such as art in addition to everyday life shows their ability to survive. Humans as social beings have many Mechanisms developed to strengthen its social communities. As a donor of group-specific traditions and values, art can also support human communities.

Another hypothesis assumes that the need for art is a by-product ( epiphenomenon ) of the development of other survival-relevant, cognitive performances. The advantages of these cognitive abilities should therefore outweigh the disadvantages of the need for art (time, material).

A confirmation of sociobiological theories through experiments is not feasible, since cross-breeding experiments with humans are not ethically justifiable. The theories must therefore remain speculative. In particular, the demarcation from the need for art as a product of cultural evolution is difficult.

Psychology and neuroscience

In psychology, the creative aspect of art is examined through creativity research, the perception and evaluation aspect through experimental aesthetics .

The value of art is seen at least in large parts in the expression of feelings.

The evaluation of an artistic work is subject to different factors. For example, characteristics of the evaluating individual (such as personality and taste ) lead to different preferences. A study of over 90,000 people showed that personality traits , such as openness to experience , are strong correlates of preferences for particular paintings and for enjoying visits to art galleries .

The evaluation of art is neither completely consistent nor completely independent of each other across different epochs: When evaluating the life's work of Renaissance painters by art historians from over 450 years, the degree of agreement between the assessments is approximately W = 0.5 (possible values : 0 to 1).

The neurosciences are based on biological principles in researching the need for art. A project that can only be roughly implemented is the assignment of artistic creativity to neural processes. Although different neural areas are active in different cognitive processes, a fixed assignment is not possible: neural activity is basically distributed over different brain regions, and the same regions become active with very different cognitive performance. In addition, there is the enormous heterogeneity of artistic activity. It leads to the fact that at best individual artistic achievements can be correlated with neural processes .


Sigmund Freud saw in art - as in any creative activity - a possibility to sublimate the drive of libido in a non-sexual way .

The concept of art in a comprehensive sense

There is the fine arts, but also engineering, the art of speech or diplomacy, the ball artist, and in very many areas the artist in his field. What is common to all art in this comprehensive sense - and what then distinguishes the artists in the respective subjects from one another? Art in this very broad sense is a creative activity (and its result) that is carried out with the greatest efficiency; That means that, measured against the resources used, the result is as effective as possible. With a comparable effect, it is not the higher, but the comparatively more moderate effort that is valued more than art. This does not mean, however, that the tools only have to be simple and modest, or that it is always easy for the artist to arrive at the simplest solution to a problem or the most effective means of expression.

The individual forms of art differ in the type of effect, and this depends on the subject. The goal of engineering is z. B. the stable and solid bridge, the essence of the essay is the astute analysis, the focus of the fine arts is primarily on awakening and stimulating emotional experiences. Many activities can be carried out as art in the broadest sense; the criteria for this are creativity and efficiency.

Legal Status

Art is a phenomenon in every culture, the object of social conventions and - if a society develops a legal system - an object of legislation . In democratic countries, the right to artistic freedom is either enshrined in the constitution or guaranteed within the framework of freedom of expression . In countries with a different political organization, the practice of art is often regulated and / or used for propaganda purposes. Dictatorships often use art specifically to stabilize the respective regime. Free artistic expression is subjected to censorship and threatened with repression, or actually exposed to it. As a result of such repression, artists then do not produce critical works ( scissors in their heads ), do not publish them, or go into inner emigration . Some artists internalize the state, social and / or religious requirements and produce - out of conviction or economic constraints - affirmative works.

Plagiarism , imitations and works strongly influenced by other artists existed and existed in every phase of art history. If the producer hides his originals, this is just as punishable as an art forgery , as is a violation of copyright . In order to make such a violation legally comprehensible, criteria are introduced by the legislator that play no role in the art business itself. From the point of view of copyright law, for example, an artist can only designate a work as his own if it has reached a sufficient level of creativity . This presupposes a personal, individual and spiritual (human) creation, which has a form that can be perceived by the human senses ( see work term of copyright law regarding the height of creation ).

In Germany, artistic freedom is a fundamental right protected by Article 5, Paragraph 3 of the Basic Law . Works of art themselves can on the one hand enjoy legal protection as cultural goods through national and international regulations and organizations ( UNESCO , Blue Shield etc.) or on the other hand also be subject to legal restrictions (export bans etc.).

See also

Portal: Art and Culture  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the subject of art and culture
Portal: Fine Arts  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the subject of fine arts


Art and visual arts in general


Art and the world of work

  • Friedrich Schnack: The world of work in art. Schuler Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1965, DNB 454419473 . (Art from 38 museums and collections in Europe, Russia and the USA - with a focus from mercantilism to the industrial age )

Non-European art

  • Clifford Geertz : Density Description. Contributions to understanding of cultural systems. Frankfurt am Main 2002.

Art and politics

Philosophical Aesthetics and Art Practice

Web links

Commons : Art  album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikibooks: Art  - Learning and Teaching Materials
File category Files: Art  - local collection of images and media files
Wikiquote: Art  - Quotes
Wikisource: Art  - Sources and Full Texts
Wiktionary: Art  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Klaus Bergdolt : Fine arts and medicine. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 177 f.
  2. ^ Sönke Drewsen: Medicine - Science or Art? In: Würzburg medical history reports. 7, 1989, pp. 45-54.
  3. ^ Niklas Luhmann : The art of society. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1995.
  4. Tasos Zembylas: Art or non-art: On conditions and instances of aesthetic judgment. Vienna, 1997, ISBN 3-85114-315-9
  5. Stephen Farthing (Ed.): Art. The whole story . DuMont, Cologne 2011, ISBN 978-3-8321-9385-0 (English: Art. The whole story . Translated by Jens Asthoff).
  6. Brockhaus Encyclopedia . 21st edition. Volume 16, Brockhaus, Leipzig 2006, ISBN 3-7653-4116-9 , pp. 93-94.
  7. Art Lexicon Art Styles, Epochs & Events. Hatje Cantz.
  8. Art. In: Brockhaus. 21st edition. Volume 16, 2006, pp. 93-94.
  9. Johann Paul Wolf: The fire art as a portrait of the art of dying: Bey Christian and respectable funeral burial. 1693. Google Books
  10. Wolffgang Augustin Mayer: Lust- Lufft- und Feuer Kunst: from which without but costs and effort to obtain, how to get swirls, large and small ragettes, pumps and masculine sticks, large and small, also rageten throwing water balls, with differentiated Paragraphs and passages, should prepare and prepare. : Sambt to which all sorts of materials are attached, and their combined orderly doses, weights and masses. : How to see and learn everything punctualiter from the attached and preprinted 38th figures. : All lovers, and wires very useful. published by Mattheus Schultes, 1680 (Google Books)
  11. Klaus Bergdolt: Fine arts and medicine. 2005, p. 177.
  12. Character of the early modern era: Faculty of History and Art - University of Leipzig
  13. ^ Niklas Luhmann: The art of society. Frankfurt a. M. 1995.
  14. ^ Information on contemporary art, Academy X: Lessons in Art + Life in the catalog of the German National Library .
  15. It is controversial to what extent it is a "self-determined" system or whether the art business and thus the "system of art" are primarily subject to economic criteria. see. z. B. Piroschka Dossi, hype! Art and money . dtv, Munich 2007.
  16. Tasos Zembylas: Art or non-art: On conditions and instances of aesthetic judgment. Vienna, 1997, p. 15.
  17. Tasos Zembylas : “Part II: Art Concepts”, in: Kulturbetriebslehre. Basics of an interdiscipline. Wiesbaden, 2004, pp. 117-219, and Tasos Zembylas (ed.): Artistic Practices. Social Interactions and Cultural Dynamics. London, 2014.
  18. Neill, A .: Art and Emotion . In: Levinson, J. (Ed.): The Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics . Oxford University Press, Oxford 2003, pp. 421-435 .
  19. Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic, Stian Reimers, Anne Hsu, Gorkan Ahmetoglu: Who art thou? Personality predictors of artistic preferences in a large UK sample: The importance of openness . In: British Journal of Psychology . tape 100 , no. 3 , August 2009, ISSN  0007-1269 , p. 501-516 , doi : 10.1348 / 000712608x366867 ( [accessed May 3, 2018]).
  20. ^ Victor Ginsburgh, Sheila Weyers: Persistence and fashion in art Italian Renaissance from Vasari to Berenson and beyond . In: Poetics . tape 34 , no. 1 , February 2006, ISSN  0304-422X , p. 24–44 , doi : 10.1016 / j.poetic.2005.07.001 ( [accessed September 21, 2018]).
  21. The Fundamental Rights (Art. 1 - 19)
  22. Cf. Arnold Nesselrath "Without Art No Identity" in SZ from July 26, 2015.