Performance (art)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Performance is a situation-related, action-oriented and ephemeral ( ephemeral ) artistic presentation by a performer or a performance group. The art form questions the separability of artist and work as well as the commodity form of traditional works of art.


Every person an artist - on the way to the freedom form of the social organism.
Joseph Beuys, lecture 1978 in Achberg

In the 1960s, initially in the USA, the term “performance art” became a collective term for artistic events that went beyond the usual context of “performing arts” and “visual arts”: happenings , “Live events”, Fluxus concerts , street actions and demonstrations as a public artistic event.

Influenced by Antonin Artaud , Dada , the Situationist International and conceptual art , “Performance Art” was increasingly formulated in the USA around 1970 by artists like Allan Kaprow as an antithesis to theater and increasingly understood as a conceptually independent art form. In “performance art” of this type, an artistic event should never be repeated in the same way and never have the structure of a piece of performing arts. For the art form defined in this way, the short form “performance”, meaning “art performance”, was adopted into German.

Theorists and artists distinguish performance that has developed from concepts in (visual) art from forms that come from the performing arts , such as theater performance, music performance, literary performance. A performance in the sense of the visual arts is not a drama and is not pre-structured like a theater performance . The artistic process becomes the work itself in the form of an immediate action and presence. The body of the artist or (less often) the body of the performing performers commissioned by the artist becomes the artistic medium . No theatrical role is played, but what is presented is truly lived through at the moment of the event. In the performing arts, however (which, however, since the last decades increasingly concepts performance are of influence, vice versa ) kicking Mime behind the roll back, which he plays in one piece, as in classical ballet withdraws the dancer behind the figure, which he dances in a choreography .

“Performance” is an interpretive term such as “democracy”. Contradiction and disagreement are already included, a generally binding definition is impossible in this sense. The contradiction of rival interpretations and meanings is an integral part of it.

The art direction is inherent in overcoming any rule aesthetics. It overcomes the notion that only permanent, valuable, freely movable and salable objects such as paintings and sculptures are relevant art.

Performances can be assigned to other currents, art directions, movements and art theories, such as body art , happening and fluxus performance. There is an overlap with action art . The Viennese Actionists and the Neo-Dadaists, however, preferred terms such as Live Art, Action Art, Intervention or Maneuvering to describe their activities , even if some of these performances would meet a narrow definition of “performance”.


Marina Abramović: The Artist is Present , Museum of Modern Art 2010

Performance is often tied to a specific location, but it can take place anywhere, at any time and without any time limit. Four basic elements come into play: time, space, the body of the artist and a relationship between the artist and the viewer. Although there are performances whose sequence or concept follows a precise dramaturgy , the sociological and philosophical contingency of the development in the course of a performance is an essential element. It is not uncommon for performances to be open artistic experimental arrangements without a process concept.

Some viewers believe they recognize elements of performing arts , circus , entertainment or experimental music in a performance, although the inspiration comes from the audiovisual context of the visual arts, from a relationship to propaganda and agitation ( Dada and Neoism ) or from performance- specific ones Concepts came. Other performances are actually performing arts or music, for example the music performances in the tradition of John Cage . The art-historically accurate interpretation of a significant performance can therefore be just as complex as the interpretation of great works in other art fields.

Since a performance, if it was a unique expression of an artistic life situation, repeated as a played role, could become a kind of forgery, many well-known performers and performance groups attach importance to the media documentation and reception of their performances in the art world. Documentation in video technology or performances directly as video art or film , as well as performance photography , are shown in exhibitions and traded on the art market, sometimes ironically or provocatively as a relic or souvenir . Likewise, performance is usually embedded in the art world through announced events, descriptions and reviews .

In the digitalized media society, performers like Marina Abramović ask whether performance, as ephemeral art , should be geared more towards repeatability so that cultural knowledge encoded in performances since the beginning of the art form is not lost and cannot be falsified and misused.


Performance in the visual arts and performance in the performing arts are different concepts that are in a productive tension. The concepts of performance as visual art and of performance in the performing arts each have their own development and history in these art genres.

In the European art context, movements of the artistic avant-garde of the 20th century such as futurism and dadaism anticipate elements of performance. Precursors of performance in the 1950s can be found under artistic works in Neo-Dada or Gutai , a Japanese art movement.

As Elisabeth Jappe writes in “Performance, Ritual, Process”, performance is on the one hand process art that developed from action painting and happening. On the other hand, the art form is related to ritual as a fundamental element of human culture. The artistic engagement with rituals of a shamanistic nature, but also with rituals of European or different societies, is inextricably linked with the emergence of the art form. However, while rituals are characterized by repetition that is as unchanged as possible, one of the process-oriented elements of performance was that it should never be performed again as before.


In the 1960s, a critical attitude towards the exploitation of art in the art world and in society increasingly resulted in performance-like works, mostly as part of happenings, music theater and river pieces. Under the influence of the 1968 movement , some happenings and performance-like actions were designed in a politically demonstrative way. Before the 1970s, however, the term performance artistically only had a meaning in English in the performing arts.

As a forerunner and pioneer of performance as its own direction visual arts (or "Visual Art") may be mentioned: Simone Forti , Yves Klein , Yoko Ono , Allan Kaprow , Lil Picard , Carolee Schneemann , Joseph Beuys , Bazon Brock , Wolf Vostell , Nam June Paik , Piero Manzoni , Valie Export , Yayoi Kusama and Al Hansen .

Simone Forti's play Huddle (1961) was later seen as the groundbreaking piece for the development of performance. In April 1961 she presented Huddle as part of her program An Evening of Dance Constructions in Yoko Ono's loft in Manhattan. Huddle still defies hasty interpretation. They appeared in a metaphor-free zone because Forti did not provide any pictures. In 2014, Steve Paxton recalls that she brought a completely new attitude to the world of dance: "It was a shock for the viewer to be denied a meaning with which they could have classified the experience of such an artistic project." Beginning with Dance Constructions in 1960 , she has not yet called these pieces that, writes Forti in 2011. They arose from the need to use one's own physical discomfort to “something as simple and fundamental as the attraction between the mass of my body and the earth to feel it, or because I wanted to push, pull and climb. "

Yoko Ono's concept art piece Wall piece for orchestra from 1962, in which she continuously hit her head on the stage floor accompanied by a conventional orchestra, would be considered a performance today.

With the happening, Allan Kaprow had developed an art form that turned the audience into participants and actors in an event. Process-oriented happening had a great influence on the later, sometimes more conventional appearing art form, performance, which took place in front of the audience, essentially without their participation.

Lil Picard began her series of Bed performances from 1964 at the age of 65. Her performance Construction-Destruction-Construction in the Factory was filmed by Warhol and published in 1968 in his underground experimental film "****" (Four Stars). These were performances in the sense of the presentation of an artistic piece that was customary in New York at the time, which had strong features of happening, but anticipated stylistic elements of the later performances of the 1970s. Picard held her last performance in the Bed series in 1981 at the age of 82.

Events and happenings by Yayoi Kusama from the mid-1960s onwards can be interpreted in retrospect as “photo performances” or “street performances”.

Performance-like works by Josef Beuys show his shamanistic approach, which continues to be important for later performers .

The jump into the void
Yves Klein , October 1960
Photo montage by Harry Shunk

Link to the picture
(please note copyrights )

The leap into the void (Le Saut Dans le Vide) by Yves Klein in Rue Gentil-Bernard, Fontenay-aux-Roses, in October 1960 was a forerunner of the later photo and media performances (Photo Harry Shunk). The photographic documentation plays with the idea that the jump actually took place that way. However, the photo hides the extensive precautions that Yves Klein and the photographer needed to make this impression. The jump could be seen as a performance whose stage is a photo.

An open cardboard box with a curtain strapped to her bare chest, Valie Export took to the streets in Munich in 1968. A video camera records how men in particular used the opportunity to reach into it. The street action was followed in 1969 by a performance in the Stadtkino München, which anticipated the forms of performances of the 1970s: action trousers genital panic .

In the 1960s and 1970s, happening and performance artists like Robert Whitman were more interested in overcoming the boundaries between the arts and between art and science than in establishing them. Whitman combines elements from happening, performance and theater.

Viennese actionists

In the 1960s, actionist forms of work emerged in which parts of happenings, theater, body art and later performance were recognizable. The Viennese actionists partly anticipate elements of performance, but their works are not viewed as typical performances in the narrower sense of the art.

He himself distinguishes Otto Muehl's material campaigns from happenings and from art in general. Although Muehl is often referred to as a performance artist, there is no evidence that his actions and his own actions during the time of his therapeutic action theater in the 1970s are to be regarded as performance art in the narrower sense.

The six aesthetically radical and influential works by the Viennese actionist Rudolf Schwarzkogler between February 1965 and autumn 1966 can only be described as a performance almost exclusively for the medium of photography . Similar to Yves Klein jumping into the void , Rudolf Schwarzkogler plays with the impression of the direct presence of the actor: Alleged self-harm and self-mutilation are staged for the medium of photography. Usually he is not the central figure himself, but uses someone as a figure or allegedly suffering person whose identity is not revealed in the photo.

Rudolf Schwarzkogler died in 1969 after falling out of a window. Numerous myths and misinterpretations arose around him and his work, mostly in connection with topics such as castration , self-mutilation and suicide. A fictional character in whom such myths lead an independent existence that is disconnected from Schwarzkogler is the fictional Canadian performer John Fare.

Actions by Günter Brus , from the Viennese walk on July 5, 1965 to the ordeal in 1970, show characteristics that later gain importance as characteristics of performance art. His body-related, aesthetic transgressions are, similar to those of Schwarzkogler, prototypical for body art.

Actions and performances by Wolfgang Flatz , first in 1974, then up into the 1990s, are not a direct continuation of Viennese actionism, but continue in some cases on a related basis auto-aggressive stagings, whereby conceptual relationships to body art and pop art can be established. Flatz often includes the voyeurism and physical aggressiveness of the audience, to which he extremely surrenders his body. He also risked permanent injuries in auto-aggressive performances in which there was no audience intervention.

Auto-aggressive actions by performers and actionists raise the question to what extent it can be an artistic means to apparently or actually give up physical integrity.


If performance is narrowly defined as visual art, the visual innovations of painting and sculpture are expanded to include dimensions such as action and time , then happenings and fluxus actions that contain performance-like elements should only be seen as precursors. According to this view (see Jappe), performance as a separate art form did not emerge until the early 1970s. While there should only be participants in the happening, performers present their work directly or via the media to viewers who are generally excluded from other participation.

Some artists whose work was already tending towards action art in the late 1950s, or who organized happenings in the 1960s, switched to presenting their art in the form of performance in the early 1970s. Thus began Carolee Schneemann , who had developed in the 1960s with a group of artists with a unique form of happenings, the "Kinetic Theater", with solo performances that showed the female body radical and innovative as an artistic medium, giving viewers the opportunity to own gender Joyfully reflecting on behavior.

Gilbert & George became known as "The Singing Sculpture" (1970): They were painted with gold paint on a table or pedestal, let the song "Underneath the Arches" run and often posed mimed for hours. Many other jobs were done by Gilbert & George with expressionless faces in matching business suits. They refuse to separate their action art from their everyday life and define their entire activity and themselves as living sculpture ("living sculpture").

Between 1972 and 1976 Joan Jonas brought the medium of video into dialogue with performance and expanded the formal aesthetic foundations of feminist video and performance art.

For Bruce Nauman , "acting" and "representing" are a unit, as in the English "to act". He dealt with routines and habits, such as walking up and down or a hand movement, which through repetition become a performance with a theatrical character. Directly staged for video, his performances move closer to media-mediated theater.

New media and public space determine the performance concept at Jochen Gerz . In “Calls to Exhaustion” (1972) he gets involved in a battle with the medium of video, in which the artist (the “original”) ultimately succumbs to the alienation in the reproduction by the machine.

Marina Abramovic, Vito Acconci and Timm Ulrichs made other additions to the art direction . Marina Abramovic conceptually includes the injury to her body in the performance “Rhythm 10” from 1973.

From 1970 onwards, Stelarc dealt with the relationship between man and machine in performances. Mark Pauline's Survival Research Lab began making machines performers in 1978.

Laurie Anderson developed a connection between performance art and music performance : "Laurie Anderson began her career as a performance artist somewhere between body art and autobiographical art (...)." "As a classically trained violinist, she began to use her skills in 1974 in 'Dusts on Ice' Open-air piece, (...) in which her playing was accompanied by tape music while she was in ice skates on a melting block of ice. "


Performer Natias Neutert as modern Diogenes, Künstlerhaus Bethanien Berlin, 1986

For the underlying outsider position, even models from the early days of European cultural history were used in a playful and ironic way. So Natias Neutert presented a Diogenes figure who was wandering through the postmodern turmoil. Increasingly well into the 1990s, performers influenced by the performing arts are no longer carriers of existential experimental arrangements, but rather treat their artistic subjects in this way or similar from a playful distance. Examples of this: Paul McCarthy (see “Painter”), Pat Oleszko and Forced Entertainment .

From the impulses of punk, forms of performance emerge in Europe at the same time, which become visible in the mask of a “music band” like Die Tödliche Doris , Etant Donnés or Minus Delta t .

In 1984 in Chicago, the American performance poet Marc Kelly Smith started a poetry slam . Everything that is possible for the voice and body is allowed to convey one's own literary texts to the audience. In addition, the participants are free to use those items on the stage that are also available to all other participants. The appearances often contain elements of performance, performing or visual arts.

Except for Poland and Yugoslavia, performance was not condoned by most communist governments until the fall of the Eastern bloc in the late 1980s. Where independent public events were considered a danger, as in the GDR, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and the Baltic countries, there were performances only in apartments or at seemingly spontaneous gatherings in artist studios, or as an event protected by the church, or disguised, for example as a photo shoot . Isolated from the Western conceptual framework, performance could be understood under various conditions as a playful protest or as a bitter comment. Performances often contained subversive messages to the audience, but they were in any case an expression of dissent with the political situation.


While the Eastern Bloc was breaking up, the suppressed work of performance artists such as György Galántai in Hungary and the Collective Action Group in Russia became better known. Young artists in the former Eastern Bloc, including Russia, were now producing a deluge of performances. Performance emerged as a new art form in Cuba, the Caribbean and China around the same time. Chinese artists like Zhang Huan were still performers in the underground of communist China in the late 1980s. In the early 1990s, her performances became events on the international art scene.

“In these environments, performance became a critical new voice with a social force similar to what it had in Western Europe, the United States, and South America in the 1960s and early 1970s. It should be emphasized that the outbreak of performance art in the 1990s in Eastern Europe, China, South Africa, Cuba and elsewhere should never be viewed as a secondary event or an imitation of Western art. "

In the western world, in the 1990s, performance as a complete art form became a theme for museums. In retrospect, even demanding performances became part of the cultural mainstream.


The Artist is Present
Marina Abramović , 2010

Since the photo performances by Yves Klein and Rudolf Schwarzkogler, and the video performances by Joan Jonas, performance has been a vital area of ​​media art. In 2003, the curator and art critic Christiane Paul showed in Digital Art that a distinction can be made between how an artistic work appears medially: on the one hand, there is independent artistic work that is additionally documented in this or that medium, or that uses a medium without To examine the media's own potential, on the other hand, the artistic work in the sense of media art, which understands the medium as a stage, or, going further, exhausts the medium itself and thus allows it to become an artistically reflected object.

Performance that understands the medium of video or other media as a stage is still a vital art form, for example in the video performances of Alex Bag and Alex McQuilkin . In the sense of media art, performance and action art in the field of new media and digital art develops new forms, such as complex cross-media actions, actions on the Internet and performances in and with virtual worlds .

In 2005 Marina Abramovic showed a performance series “Seven Easy Pieces” at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Of the seven performances, five were repetitions of groundbreaking performances by artist colleagues from the 1960s and 1970s: Joseph Beuys 1965, How to explain pictures to the dead rabbit ; Valie Export 1969, action pants genital panic ; Gina Pane 1973, The Conditioning ; Vito Acconci 1973, Seedbed ; Bruce Nauman 1974, Body Pressure . The question of the repeatability of ephemeral art was thus reformulated and the value of historical performances and their documentations became more conscious.

During the retrospective of her work in 2010 at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMa), Marina Abramovic sat at a table in the atrium of the museum for a total of 721 hours during the opening hours for her silent performance “The Artist is Present”. Spectators could take a seat across from her at the table. Part of the retrospective were repetitions of their own performances by so-called reformer.

In German-speaking countries

Art scenes

Performer Adam Read 2005 in Berlin

There are art scenes that are important for performance in Berlin, Vienna, Hamburg, Basel and Cologne. In Cologne there were already performance-like actions by internationally known artists in the 1960s, for example by Nam June Paik in 1961. Since 1981 the Moltkerei workshop has provided a permanent location for performances. Al Hansen, known for the performance Yoko One Piano Drop , founded the Ultimate Academy in Cologne in 1987, whose teaching program included performance as standard. In 1990 the " Art Service Association ASA European" began to implement the idea of ​​performance conferences introduced by Boris Nieslony . 15 conferences took place until 2007 in the following locations (as of 2007): Cologne, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Berlin, Mannheim, Essen, Glarus (Switzerland), Bangkok (Thailand), Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam) and Bedulu (Bali). Based on the documented conferences, the development and networking of a branch of the European performance scene with the international, predominantly in Asian countries can be followed.

Performance groups

Black Market International is one of the performance groups with a relationship to German-speaking countries, an international group of performance artists who worked together from 1985 and performed with alternating casts until at least 2005. The Anarchist GummiZelle (AGZ), a performance group that was mainly active in the 1980s, has been performing again since 2002. In 1998 the performance artist Wolfgang Müller had the text and music of LP No.1 (1981) of his group “Die Tödliche Doris” (see above) transformed into signs, gestures and body interactions by two sign language interpreters (in the Prater of the Volksbühne Berlin ). The result, deaf music , was presented in 2007 in a Berlin deaf center and a British gallery.

From the mid-1990s onwards, several groups were founded that, similar to the British Forced Entertainment group, artistically integrate and research the elements of visual and performing arts, or artistic performance and theater. Known in German-speaking countries are Showcase Beat Le Mot , Gob Squad , She She Pop , SIGNA , Monster Truck and Rimini Protokoll , among others . The two groups Caracho and HGich.T work with an emphasis on the medium of music .

The art and theory group monochrom is known for its work in the field of performance, such as Eignblunzn , Buried Alive , but projects such as Georg Paul Thomann and Soviet Unterzögersdorf also have strong performative traits, which the group calls context hacks .

The contemporary dance theater also adopted suggestions from the performances of visual artists.

Performance artist

Al Hansen, Nan Hoover and Nam June Paik are among the internationally known performers with ties to German-speaking countries .

Nam June Paik worked from 1958 to 1961 in the Cologne studio for electronic music of West German Broadcasting Corporation (WDR) with the composer Karlheinz Stockhausen . Paik is one of the first artists who had performance-like appearances in Germany and was professor at the Düsseldorf Art Academy from 1979 to the mid-1990s , but lived mainly in the USA.

Arch-state of Atlantisis
Jonathan Meese, Arp Museum Bahnhof Rolandseck, Remagen 2009

Like Nam June Paik, Nan Hoover is a video pioneer. She showed her first light performance in 1976 in Berlin and then lived and worked increasingly in Germany. In her work, video and performance are sometimes inextricably linked. Characteristic for the strict and contemplative performances are lines as the outline of a body and the concentrated and slow movement of the performer in front of a video or in a minimalist light / shadow projection.

German-speaking artists who shaped performance as an art movement can be named: Josef Beuys, Valie Export, Jürgen Klauke , Ulrike Rosenbach , Christoph Schlingensief , Helmut Schober .

In Christoph Schlingensief's actions and appearances in his own theater productions, at public events and in television programs since 1998, approaches and methods of the medium performance have possibly had the widest impact in Germany since Joseph Beuys. In Schlingensief's actions, exaggerated self-portrayal should be the epicenter of a social process breaking out of the theater (compare: Foreigners out! Schlingensief's Container , Church of Fear ). Conversely, visual artists such as Jonathan Meese and John Bock developed their image and text-related performances as theater-like appearances. B. Bock's “Medusa” (2006 in the magazine of the Staatsoper Unter den Linden , Berlin) or Meese's involvement as a performer and stage designer for Frank Castorf's production of Richard Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (2006).


Internationally significant locations for experimental art where performances of Live Art or Performance Art are part of the program:

  • ICA - Institute of Contemporary Arts , London, founded in 1949
  • Western Front, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, founded in 1973
  • De Appel , art center in Amsterdam, Netherlands, since 1975
  • Franklin Furnace Archive (now Franklin Furnace Foundation) in New York, NY, since 1975
  • Moltkerei workshop in Cologne, Germany, since 1981.
  • FADO Performance Art Center in Toronto, Canada since 1993


  • Manfred Blohm, Elke Mark (ed.): Forms of knowledge generation. Pracites in Performance Art. Athena, Oberhausen 2015, ISBN 978-3-89896-611-5 .
  • Marvin Carlson: Performance: A Critical Introduction . Routledge, London / New York 1996, ISBN 0-415-13703-9 .
  • Thomas Dreher: Performance Art after 1945. Action theater and intermedia. Wilhelm Fink, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-7705-3452-2 .
  • Erika Fischer-Lichte : Aesthetics of the Performative . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2004, ISBN 3-518-12373-4 .
  • RoseLee Goldberg: Performance: Live Art to the Present. London 1979.
    • Extended new edition: Performance Art from Futurism to the Present. Penguin, London 1988, ISBN 0-500-20214-1 .
  • Hanna Heinrich: Aesthetics of Autonomy. Philosophy of Performance Art . Transcript, Bielefeld, 2020, ISBN 978-3-8376-5214-7 .
  • Christian Janecke (ed.): Performance and image. Performance as an image . PHILO & PhiloFineArts, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-86572-621-6 .
  • Elisabeth Jappe: Performance. Ritual. Process. Handbook of Action Art in Europe . Prestel, Munich / New York 1993.
  • Amelia Jones, Adrian Heathfield (Eds.): Perform, Repeat, Record. Live Art in History . Intellect, Bristol 2012, ISBN 978-1-84150-489-6 .
  • Gabriele Klein , Wolfgang Sting (Ed.): Performance: Positions on contemporary scenic art. transkript, Bielefeld 2005, ISBN 3-89942-379-8 .
  • Kunstforum International : Performance and Performance Art. Volume 96/1988
  • Denis Leifeld: Bringing up performances. For performance analysis of performers in theater and art. transcript, Bielefeld 2015, ISBN 978-3-8376-2805-0 .
  • Wolf-Andreas Liebert, Kristin Westphal (eds.): Performances of self-empowerment. Athena, Oberhausen 2015, ISBN 978-3-89896-541-5 .
  • Gertrud Meyer-Denkmann : Performance Art by Women - a Feminist Art? In: Freia Hoffmann , Eva Rieger (eds.): From the minstrel to the performance artist. In search of a women's musical history . Woman and Music, IAK , series of publications, Vol. 2, pp. 159–173. Furore Edition 859, Kassel 1992, ISBN 3-927327-11-5 .
  • Paul Schimmel: Out of actions. Actionism, Body Art & Performance 1949–1979. German edition of the catalog for the exhibition of the same name in Los Angeles and in the Museum of Applied Arts, Vienna. Cantz Verlag, Ostfildern 1998, ISBN 3-89322-956-6 .
  • Kristin Westphal (ed.): Rooms of interruption. Theater | Performance | Pedagogy. Athena, Oberhausen 2012, ISBN 978-3-89896-495-1 .
  • Beuys Brock Vostell. Action demonstration participation 1949–1983 . ZKM - Center for Art and Media Technology, Hatje Cantz, Karlsruhe, 2014, ISBN 978-3-7757-3864-4 .

Current projects internationally

Web links

Commons : Performance  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Adrian Parr: Becoming + Performance Art . In: Adrian Parr (Ed.): The Deleuze Dictionary . Edinburgh University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-7486-1898-8 , pp. 25.2 (English, limited preview in Google Book Search).
  2. ^ Marvin Carlson: Performance. Pp. 103.2-105.1.
  3. ^ Marvin Carlson: Performance. P. 1.2.
  4. ^ John Cage performing Water Walk on game show in 1960. In: Artforum. Artforum, accessed on December 14, 2008 (English).
  5. Seven Easy Pieces. Kunsthalle Fridericianum, accessed on April 1, 2012 : “Where did the desire to re-perform historical performances come from? How are meaning and experience re-conveyed by repeating a performance? Can one then still speak of an 'original' performance? "
  6. ^ Marvin Carlson: Performance. Pp. 105,2ff.
  7. Tate | Glossary | Gutai. In: Tate Collection. Tate Britain, accessed October 13, 2008 .
  8. ^ Andreas Beitin , Eckhart Gillen (Ed.): Flashes of the Future. The art of the 68s or the power of the powerless. Federal Agency for Civic Education, Bonn 2018, ISBN 978-3-8389-7172-8 .
  9. Lisa Anderson Mann: "Simone Forti", in: International Dictionary of Modern Dance . Edited by Taryn Benbow-Count Palatine. St. James, Detroit 1998, pp. 285-289.
  10. ^ Yvonne Rainer: "About Simone Forti", in: Simone Forti. Thinking with the Body , edited by Sabine Breitwieser for the Museum der Moderne. Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2014, pp. 70–72.
  11. Steve Paxton: "Simone Forti enters the world of dance", in: Simone Forti. Think with your body. edited by Sabine Breitwieser for the Museum der Moderne. Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2014, pp. 59–61.
  12. Simone Forti: "Die Dance Constructions " (2011), in: Simone Forti. Think with your body. edited by Sabine Breitwieser for the Museum der Moderne Salzburg . Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2014, p. 80.
  13. ^ Robert Whitman: Media Art Net. In: Media Art Network. Retrieved October 12, 2008 .
  14. Philip Wincolmlee Barnes: The Mind Museum: Rudolf Schwarzkogler and the Vienna Actionists ( Memento of January 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (
  15. Daniel Krčál: The constructed car deconstructor. In: E. VOLVER, accessed on November 8, 2008 (Rokko's Adventures in Evolver # 7): "The story of John Fare which has managed to persist for almost twenty years now, has no factual basis."
  16. E. Znaymer: Thinking is an accident. (No longer available online.) In: Date 05/05 Pages of Time. Date archived from the original on January 7, 2014 ; Retrieved November 6, 2008 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  17. virtual museum modern nrw. In: museums platform nrw. NRW KULTURsekretariat, p. 1,3 , accessed on October 17, 2008 : "He doesn't want spectators, but participants."
  18. ^ Edith Almhofer: Performance Art: The Art of Living . Verlag Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Graz / Böhlau 1986, ISBN 3-205-07290-1 , p. 9.2 .
  19. Joan Jonas. (No longer available online.) In: Video Data Bank. The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, archived from the original on September 27, 2008 ; accessed on October 22, 2008 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  20. Bruce Nauman: Theaters of Experience. In: Guggenheim Foundation. Deutsche Guggenheim, p. Cf. 1.1-1.3 , accessed December 14, 2008 .
  21. Jochen Gerz: Calling until exhaustion. Retrieved August 24, 2019 .
  22. Marina Abramovic: Media Art Network. In: Rhythm 10. Goethe-Institut and ZKM Karlsruhe, accessed on October 15, 2008 .
  23. Peter Frank: Post-war performance: The mixing of art forms and. In: Ars Electronica Archive. Ars Electronica Archive, p. 17.2 , accessed February 20, 2009 .
  24. See program sheet Literaturhaus Hamburg , March 2001.
  25. ^ Paul McCarthy: Painter (preview). In: YouTube. March 31, 2007, accessed February 4, 2009 (video).
  26. Forced Entertainment  : “In contrast to classic long-term performances like I like America and America likes me (Joseph Beuys, 1974) or Relation in Time (Marina Abramovic and Ulay, 1977), these as well as those are limited in time to a manageable framework Performances make the performers less of a bearer of existential experimental arrangements, but rather always maintain a playful distance from the experimental arrangements of the respective performance, characterized by humor and superiority. "
  27. These bands appear in the “Performance Block” by curator Elisabeth Jappe at documenta 8 (1987) and are like counterparts to the Protestant cheerfulness of the performance art that otherwise dominates art institutions, with its seemingly sacred emphasis on the body.
  28. Zana Zajanckauska: Reclaiming the Invisible Past of Eastern Europe. map - media archive performance, accessed on March 23, 2011 (English, interview with Ieva Astahovska).
  29. Linda Montano: Performance artists talking in the eighties . University of California Press Berkeley, Los Angeles, London 2000, ISBN 0-520-21022-0 , pp. 479.1 (English, limited preview in Google Book search).
  30. Linda Montano: Performance artists talking in the eighties . University of California Press Berkeley, Los Angeles, London 2000, ISBN 0-520-21022-0 , pp. 479.2 (English, limited preview in the Google book search): “In these contexts performance art became a critical new voice with a social force similar to that found in Western Europe, the United States and South America in the 1960s and early 1970s . It should be emphasized that the eruption of performance art in the 1990s in Eastern Europe, China, South Africa, Cuba, and elsewhere should never be considered either secondary to or imitative of the West. ”
  31. ^ Marlene Targ Brill: America in the 1990s . Lerner Publishing Group, Minneapolis 2009, ISBN 978-0-8225-7603-7 , pp. 93.1 (English, limited preview in Google Book search).
  32. Cornelia Sollfrank: - The return of media hype. (No longer available online.) In: Telepolis . July 7, 2001, archived from the original on March 5, 2006 ; accessed on July 1, 2009 (interview with 0100101110101101.ORG).
  33. ^ Rachel Wolff: All the Web's a Stage. (No longer available online.) In: ARTnews. ARTnews, February 2008, archived from the original on October 25, 2010 ; accessed on July 22, 2010 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  34. Marina Abramovic Seven Easy Pieces. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on January 19, 2009 ; accessed on November 22, 2008 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  35. Seven Easy Pieces. In: archiv.fridericianum-kassel. Retrieved May 30, 2012 .
  36. Philipp Oehmke : The 721-hour woman . In: Der Spiegel . No. 23 , 2010 ( online - June 7, 2010 ).
  37. Nam June Paik: Performance in the Ramsbott house. Medien Kunst Netz, accessed on October 10, 2008 .
  38. ^ Moltkerei workshop, projects 1981–1994 . Verlag & Buchhandlung Constantin Post of Cologne, Cologne 1995, ISBN 3-923167-14-8 .
  39. a b The Moltkerei. Retrieved on October 10, 2008 (English): "The Moltkerei is the only exhibition / performance space of its kind in Germany."
  40. Chronicle of the Ultimate Academy 1987–1997. Retrieved October 10, 2008 (online version of the 1997 print catalog).
  41. ^ Boris Nieslony: Performance Conferences. ASA-European e. V., accessed on July 22, 2010 .
  42. Peter van der Meijden: lørdag November 21, 2015 BLACK MARKET INTERNATIONAL: PURE PERFORMANCE .
  43. Die Tödliche Doris has ignored conventional copyright law where possible. According to GEMA, there is no registration requirement for the conversion of copyrighted music and texts into signs and gestures of a performance.
  44. DVD and book
  45. The Deadly Doris: Soundless Music. Art aspects, accessed on March 16, 2009 (English,, Newcastle Upon Tyne, November 28, 2007 to February 9, 2008).
  46. Petra Bosetti / dpa: Light becomes dark, dark becomes light. (No longer available online.) In: June 16, 2008, archived from the original on June 18, 2008 ; Retrieved December 9, 2008 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  47. hoover: 10 works / 2 biographies / 2 source texts. In: Media Art Network. Goethe-Institut and ZKM Karlsruhe, accessed on December 10, 2008 .
  48. ^ The Western Front Performance Art programs. ( Memento of January 2, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) on:
  49. ^ Franklin Furnace Foundation
  50. FADO Performance Art Center
  51. Beuys Brock Vostell