digital art

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The Temptation of Saint Anthony by Stepan Ryabchenko, 2010

Digital art or digital art , often used synonymously with computer art , are collective terms in common parlance for art that is generated digitally with the computer . In a narrower sense, it is art that has only become possible through the specific properties of digital media , for example the ability to count all information , its separability from a specific data carrier or the use of algorithms . - It wasn't until the 1990s that the term digital art became common.

terms and definitions

Interactive robot installation profiler by the artist group “robotlab” from Karlsruhe
Mobile app for interactive installations by Marc Lee

Digital art is part of media art . In connection with digital art, sometimes overlapping terms are used:

Electronic art can be all artistic works and works that contain functioning analog or digital electronics , be it in art genres such as architecture , performance , dance , sculpture and music , or in new areas such as robotics or computer animation . Electronic art was analog in its beginnings and does not have to be digital today.

Computer art was initially a collective term for all art produced with a computer in a central function. Especially in its beginnings it was not always digital; analog computers could be used. For example, the use of computers as a live musical instrument was considered audio computer art (cf.)

Digital art is based on digitally encoded information . The information is mostly processed digitally by computer and presented in an artistically usable way. Information can be digitized using input devices such as scanners, keyboards and measuring devices. Many forms of digital art are shaped by the difference between the purely digital work, the binary files, and their audible and visible representation. If works are available in digitally coded and stored form, for example as image files , sound files, algorithms, hypertexts , executable programs or code for websites, one can speak of digital art in the narrower sense. In certain cases, the files and digital operations are actually the actual work of art. Handwritten notation of an artistically significant digital code can already be digital art.

If works of digital art are not complete without their representation in a medium, the representation can be artistically influenced by selected hardware and software . With software from movements in variables leads to not precisely predictable artistic results, even open-ended design is possible. The representation of a file does not have to be limited to playback through loudspeakers, monitors and projections: it can include three-dimensional material sculptures, light installations or multimedia events. At , the virus for the 49th Venice Biennale , the representation consisted of a collective multimedia performance in which the audience and the media, often without noticing, became indispensable actors.

Computer-generated digital art and media digital art are differentiated in the art historical perspective (see Literature, Christiane Paul , Digital Art ):

Computer-generated art is created on the basis of traditional genres and art forms with the computer as a tool. Previously analog areas of visual art such as printing, painting and photography are being continued digitally. Likewise, works of art in the field of moving images, video and film and the transmission media radio and television are increasingly being produced digitally according to conventions from the analog tradition of media art . The same applies to “electronic or digital music” (see below: computer-generated art).

"Media digital art" on the other hand, uses computers and networks or other digital devices such as mobile phones, as an independent medium, including on the basis of the Internet, so that their own art forms such as net art ( net art ) (Software Art), digital installations and Works of art in the field of virtual reality are created (see below: Media digital art).

The Ars Electronica Festival in Linz deals with decisive developments in all areas of electronic art. Computer art and digital art are constant focuses. Ars Electronica inspires artistic work and promotes artists through the Prix ​​Ars Electronica, sometimes referred to as the “ Oscar of digital art” .

Computer generated art

moholy-nagy , digital collage by István Horkay, 2006

Digital image art

Digital visual art, usually called "digital art" for short, largely falls under "computer-generated art" and is mainly output on two-dimensional media (web / print / projection). In a more general sense, visual output from a computer is referred to as computer graphics .

Differentiations of digital visual art:

  • Digital painting : Generated directly by input devices such as a graphic tablet or mouse, sometimes manipulated using algorithms in order to achieve effects that sometimes resemble traditional painting techniques.
  • Photo manipulation : Images and photomontages created by integrating or alienating digital content (photographs). See image editing
  • Scenic 3D art: Representations of virtual rooms using 3D software
  • Mathematical Art: Image output by mathematical algorithms , part of Generative Art
  • Fractals as parameterization of defined formulas, e.g. B. Amount of Mandelbrot
  • Vector Art: art with vector graphics . Often used as graphic design and illustration on the web
  • Digital art of style: Digitally generated imitation and continuation of traditional art styles, e.g. B. digital-impressionistic, digital-abstract
  • Mixed media: mixed forms of the above mentioned techniques
  • Computer art: Computer art as digital visual art that addresses the computer itself and its way of working

GFX graphic

Screenshot of Black Maiden's PC demo
Interceptor , 2004

GFX is a playful abbreviation for Graphical Effects . Similar to analogue art forms, such as comics or graffiti , which are associated with youth scenes and youth culture, GFX is associated with the GFX scene or the demo scene , a digital youth culture or network culture in which graphic effects were originally intended for game computers and game consoles such as the C64 , Atari ST , Commodore Amiga or Xbox were programmed. Even today, the programming of GFX graphics and animations is based on procedures that are particularly suitable for coordinating graphics and sound outputted directly by the computer in exceptional quality and thus demonstrating the possibilities of the computer. GFX is an independent art form which, on the one hand, is inextricably linked to computer games as an applied art, but on the other hand also produces independent works that are collected as contemporary art ( e.g. Yehoshua Lakner's AVZGs).

Artificial intelligence

The increased availability of inexpensive computing power means that the spectrum of digital technologies available to artists is expanding significantly. For example, AI ( artificial intelligence ) and artificial neural networks have been used experimentally since the 1980s . AI-based art forms belong to computer art, but work with a different creation mechanism than all other art forms. In addition to the artist's creative ability, the laws of nature and chance, non-mechanical, non-human, self-learning entities are now also used, the results of which appear creative: machine learning, artificial intelligence and artificial neural networks.

The participants in the discourse have different opinions about the classification and evaluation of this apparently creative digital technology. The artist collective Obious, which achieved a five-digit auction result for the AI-generated Portrait of Edmond de Belamy in 2018 , assumes the AI ​​has creative qualities: "Creativity is not just for people." In contrast, Joseph Ayerle, creator of the first video work of art with a AI-created protagonist quoted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology : Artificial intelligence "... can create, but it is not creative."

Digital music

Electronic music, similar to early visual computer art, was initially created with analog generators such as Oscillions, Melochord , Trautonium , ring modulators , noise generators and filters . Computer music and electronic music are now largely digitized. One of the first musical applications of a digital computer was Lejaren Hiller's digital music composition ILLIAC-Suite in 1957 (for ILLIAC see list of tube computers ). In 1961 Iannis Xenakis developed his composition theory on the basis of the new method of sound synthesis with sound quanta. With his computer-generated composition Quatro Due from 1963, the physicist Wilhelm Fucks is considered a pioneer of digital music in Germany. Due to long computing times and low storage capacity, fully digitized music output did not establish itself until the end of the 1970s with a faster generation of computers.

Media digital art

Media digital art tends towards interactivity and multimedia . It is about the interaction between the work of art and people, whereby the participants can use the work of art to form a complex network and an artificial world. Websites, program interfaces, game interfaces and software-controlled installations serve as the predominantly visual and auditory interactive user interface . Additional space-orientating devices are used for haptic interaction.

The new art forms include:

Digital net art

The collective term net art encompasses artistic work in analog or digital networks with work in artistic networks. Internet or web presences that form independent works of art either through their programmed behavior or the interaction with the visitor on the screen, can fall under both categories.

With the beginning of the global spread of the World Wide Web, starting in 1993 with the Mosaic Browser, websites became interesting as an artistic medium. A form of digital net art emerged as art with websites for which terms such as Internet Art and Web Art became common in the English-speaking world. A group of artists called had a particular influence. These included Vuk Ćosić,, Alexei Shulgin, Olia Lialina, Heath Bunting, Rachel Baker, Minerva Cuevas, Daniel García Andújar and Marcus Valentin. In terms of content, the artists' works had little in common. The group has been described by authors such as Tilman Baumgärtel, Josephine Bosma, Hans Dieter Huber and Pit Schultz as a parody of an avant-garde movement.

Net art and digital art overlap in large areas, especially where digital art incorporates telematic networks or enables joint works of art by networking participants.

Software art

One of the origins of software art is considered to be creatively coded computer operations that surpass conventional programming and sometimes even work better due to rule breaks. The term “ hack ” was first used at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology . However, software art as a deliberately separate art form only became generally known towards the end of the 1990s, for example through de-programmed computer games (compare) or other downloadable programs (examples: that encourage users to change their relationship with the Internet, Rethink the computer and your own nervous system.

Digital poetry, net poetry and code poetry

Digital poetry began on the one hand with the computer as a mere tool for poetry, but on the other hand as an investigation of the possibilities of generating signs, words and language that can only be developed in the computer medium. Raymond Queneau wrote early digital poetry in 1962. In 1980 Jean-Pierre Balpe designed the first algorithmic poem generator "Poèmes d'Amour". Today's digital poetry often goes far beyond puns, poetry, visual poetry and programmed dialogues and can appear in all suitable manifestations of media digital art.

One event at the 2001 Venice Biennale was Net Poetry online in Caterina Davinio's “Parallel Action Bunker” . Also worth mentioning for Net Poetry since the 1990s: (Joan Heemskerk and Dirk Paesmans).

Code poetry written in computer languages ​​such as Algol or Perl is not only computer-generated, it may actually be executable as code. The same applies to script languages ​​(such as JavaScript , Perl , Python and AppleScript ), which are used to operate computers, but whose scripts can also be written as poetic messages.

Blinkenlights at the teacher's house

Interactive installation

10,000 moving cities , interactive network-based installation, Marc Lee , National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Seoul
Cave Automatic Virtual Environment

The visitor becomes the user and interacts in an art installation through body movements, noises, sounds, language or other media (mobile phones and other) with programs that mostly respond visually and acoustically. Typical digital “interactive installations” of this type are some works by Michael Saup and the Blinkenlights project .

Virtual reality (VR)

The virtual reality can be an essential element of software-controlled walk-in installations and projections. Virtual spaces and other digital art worlds have sculptural and architectural aspects. They can be experienced as virtual existence with text, graphics, animation, speech, virtual audio reality, and even physical experience. By entering virtual spaces as a virtual personality or avatar , a lived dream world can develop.

Virtual reality includes:

Head Mounted Display
The avatar Klaus Schwab in Second Life
  • Virtual artificial people and spaces that arise through digital network communication in the participants' imagination, such as muds or figures like Monty Cantsin (or even more virtual: Karen Eliot ). Some of these figures and fantasy worlds originally emerged as patterns from analog telecommunications. Some of the forms communicated digitally today are in principle still possible in analog communities as imaginary worlds or role-playing games.
  • Virtual spaces that can be experienced as three-dimensional worlds of illusion, e.g. B. as Cave Automatic Virtual Environment , Head Mounted Display (HMD) or similar.
  • Virtual worlds largely on the avatar itself, can be shaped as a fully digital and virtual reality-present parties, such as Second Life .


The Futurism at the beginning of the 20th century welcomed the use of machinery . Electronic musical instruments such as the Trautonium (1924) emerged from this mood of the times. With the sound equipment , the wireless technology and later the television technology electronic art could be produced since the early 20th century, which was not digital. On the other hand, there has been art for much longer that was based on playful, numerical design tools such as the dice . It is literally digital without machines having to be used.

There were pioneers in the artistic use of electronic and digital devices at institutions such as Bell Laboratories , the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the Cologne studio for electronic music and at the Technical University of Stuttgart , where Max Bense taught.

Electronic music studios existed earlier than computer art studios. At the beginning of electronic art there were musicians. Ben F. Laposky , who created the first electronic graphics, called it visual music. The beginning of computer art is linked to electronic music in several ways :

  • The waveforms of simple tones were made visible and audible with a forerunner of the "automatic plotter", the oscillograph . With computer control it became possible to control and superimpose generated waves so that tones could be constructed.
  • Computers were used for digital sampling and for the musical arrangement and conversion of the samples, which were then output again via an analog-digital converter .
  • Graphical representations of the amplitude , frequency and duration of notes generated on the screen were manipulated by the composer with a light pen, the change in sound was almost immediately audible, calculated by a computer.
  • Computers opened up new possibilities for composition . Notation in the computer was easier to correct, sound patterns could be endlessly juxtaposed and superimposed, and complex mathematical orders and algorithms could be included in a composition for the first time.

However, analog electronics in music remained the basis of playback until computers became fast enough to reproduce sound in real time .

Oscilloscope tube

From the early 1950s to the 1960s, audio-visual artists used cathode ray tubes to create images on a screen by deflecting the cathode ray. In the beginning the pictures were strongly influenced by the fact that the devices were basically oscilloscopes . Ben F. Laposky, who started generating images on such screens from 1950, recorded these animated curve graphics with high-speed cameras and called them "Oscillons". Herbert W. Franke also used analogue controlled devices from 1953 to 1956 and called part of the resulting group of works "Oscillograms".

In the 1950s, scientists at Bell Laboratories managed to use a digital computer to generate and control all of the instructions for creating images before they were photographed from a screen. The arrangement of the devices was referred to as an "automatic plotter". The output of vector graphics with pen plotters on paper was only possible later.

Whirlwind console (SAGE air surveillance system 1951)

A step towards more complex computer graphics began with the cathode ray screen of the Whirlwind computer developed at MIT (see History of Computer Graphics ).

The pioneers of graphic computer art in German-speaking countries include people who were either influenced by information aesthetics (Max Bense) or were in contact with computer scientists (e.g. Kurd Alsleben ). They could only work in connection with data centers, such as DESY in Hamburg, since computers were still room-filling systems in the 1950s and 1960s. During this period of origin, the development of the theoretical foundations and their technological-artistic implementation is linked to the expectation of developing a new aesthetic (" Aesthetics is conceived as an objective and material aesthetic that works not with speculative but with rational means." - Bense 1969).

With the improvement of output techniques using plotters (microfilm plotters and pen plotters ), more and more artists became interested in computers. While the first programs for pen plotters were designed for use by architects and similar professions, artists such as Frieder Nake and Herbert W. Franke created their own programs for plotters. With program code and description languages ​​for graphic forms and effects, a graphic description system was available for the first time in the history of the fine arts; it was comparable to the notes of the music, but surpassed them by the fact that the program code also shows the generative principle, the order manifested in the images.

Vera Molnár

In addition to computer scientists, artists who, like Vera Molnár, came from concrete and abstract art were initially mostly interested in working with computers . Manfred Mohr , who turned from an action painter and jazz musician to a pioneer of computer art , has a different background .

In 1965, almost simultaneously in the USA and Germany, it was not artists but scientists who exhibited computer art in galleries for the first time: Bela Julesz and A. Michael Noll in New York, Georg Nees and Frieder Nake in Stuttgart.

Georg Nees, who wrote the first graphics commands in Algol 60 , produced one of the earliest completely computer-controlled sculptures in 1968 with a milling machine and Siemens 4004 computer . It was exhibited at the Venice Biennale in 1970.

In the 1970s, the mainframes were replaced by smaller and more interactive computing systems that could be controlled via keyboard and monitor and output raster graphics. Laurence Gartel introduced methods and techniques from video art from 1975: video synthesizers and the first video painting programs for manipulating graphics on the monitor. New possibilities for image manipulation were taken up by artists who had previously worked with analog media and are usually not mentioned as representatives of digital art: Peter Greenaway for film, together with István Horkay ; Jeff Wall , Thomas Ruff and Andreas Gursky for photographic art.

At the end of the 1970s, the first approaches to digital communication networks emerged, and thus media digital art that understands networks as media that can be artistically designed. The basis is initially formed by online computer conferences, then the first mailbox systems such as ARTBOX and FAX networks (see ARTEX ).

With increasing computing speed and storage capacity, the interactive processing of graphics on the monitor became standard. Graphics could be output as proof on desktop printers. Yoichiro Kawaguchi began using 3D modeling programs for digital art in the 1980s.

Existing photographic image material can be artistically manipulated with image processing programs such as Paintbox in the 1980s and Adobe Photoshop since the 1990s.

The Digital Art Museum (DAM) offers a list of essays and a well-founded list of the artists who have shaped developments in digital art (see web links).


Julian Opie, LED artwork in Dublin

The digitization of various, meanwhile “traditional” media, led to their digital reformulation. For example, video art , originally created in analog format, is now recorded digitally. From this a new culture and art of video clips presented on websites has developed.

Today two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of all kinds can be manipulated and produced with the appropriate programs. They can be supplemented by a time dimension. Digital visual art can merge into video art , as in the work of Yves Netzhammer . On the one hand computer-generated art and classical art disciplines, on the other hand media digital art in the narrower sense of the word, differentiate, but also flow into one another.

Julian Opie's digital visual art consists to a large extent of moving digital large formats in museums and in public spaces. Digitally drawn people or digitally generated landscapes are shown in constantly flowing movement on large flat screens in suitable buildings.

In addition to the past and present of digital art, largely understood as “computer-generated”, there is a past and present of “media” digital art, which is linked to media art and net art .


  • Ars Electronica , an annual festival for the presentation and promotion of art in close connection with (digital) technology and social issues, in Linz (Upper Austria).
  • Coded Cultures , festival for media art , digital art and experimental research in Vienna , Austria
  • De Balie, a center in Amsterdam [NL], which focuses on dealing with interdisciplinary artistic projects in the field of digital media.
  • Danube University Krems: Department of Image Science, “MediaArtHistories” course, teaching and research on digital art, head: Oliver Grau .
  • iMal, center for digital cultures and technology, Brussels (B).
  •, e-teaching platform and online archive for media art of the Fraunhofer Institute for Intelligent Analysis and Information Systems (IAIS), Sankt Augustin.
  • Transmediale, Berlin. The annual festival is designed to showcase artistic positions that reflect the influence of new technologies, network practices and digital innovations.
  • Center for Art and Media (ZKM) in Karlsruhe. The ZKM, headed by Peter Weibel , is committed to digital visual art, computer graphics and media digital art. There is close cooperation with the State University of Design .
  • University of Applied Arts Vienna : Department of Digital Art. Head since 2010: Ruth Schnell .
  • Research Institute for Arts and Technology , research institute in Vienna, Austria


  • Linda Candy: Co-Creativity in Interactive Digital Art, Consciousness Reframed. In: Fourth International CAiiA-STAR Research Conference, 2-4th August 2002. Perth 2002. Online (PDF; 97 kB)
  • Lev Manovich : Ten Key Texts on Digital Art: 1970-2000. In: Leonardo. Volume 35, Number 5, MIT Press 2002, pp. 567-569. ( Information )
  • Greg Turner, Ernest Edmonds: Towards a Supportive Technological Environment for Digital Art. In: Viller & Wyeth (Eds.): Proceedings of OzCHI2003: New directions in interaction, information environments, media and technology. November 26-28, 2003. Brisbane, Australia.
  • Christiane Paul: Digital Art. Thames Hudson, London 2003, ISBN 0-500-20367-9 .
  • Monika Fleischmann, Ulrike Reinhard (Ed.): Digital Transformations. Media art as an interface between art, science, business and society. whois, Heidelberg 2004, ISBN 3-934013-38-4 . ( Information )
  • Oliver Grau : Virtual Art: From Illusion to Immersion. MIT-Press, Cambridge / Mass. 2003, ISBN 0-262-57223-0 .
  • Joseph Nalven, JD Jarvis: Going Digital: The Practice and Vision of Digital Artists. Thompson Course Technology, 2005, ISBN 1-59200-918-2 .
  • Wolf Lieser: Digital Art. HF Ullmann Publishing, Germany 2009, ISBN 978-3-8331-5344-0 .
  • Ernest Edmonds, Andrew Martin, Sandra Pauletto: Audio-visual interfaces in digital art. In: The Australasian Computing Education Conference; Vol. 74. Proceedings of the 2004 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in computer entertainment technology. Singapore 2004, ISBN 1-58113-882-2 , pp. 331-336. ( Information ).
  • Ruth Schnell , Romana Schuler, Peter Weibel , Y / our / Space, New Positions on Digital Art , exhibition catalog, University of Applied Arts Vienna, 2011.
  • Russegger, Tarasiewicz & Wlodkowski (eds.): Coded Cultures - New Creative Practices out of Diversity , Springer Vienna / NY 2011, ISBN 978-3-7091-0457-6
  • Natascha Adamowsky (Ed.): Digital Modernism. Matthias Zimmermann's model worlds . Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2018, ISBN 978-3-7774-2388-3
  • Grau, O. (Ed.); Coones, W .; Rühse, V. 2017. Museum and Archive on the Move - Changing Cultural Institutions on the Digital Era. DE GRUYTER, Berlin, ISBN 978-3-11-052051-4
  • Grau, O .; Hoth, J. (2019). Digital Art through the Looking Glass: New strategies for archiving, collecting and preserving in Digital Humanities. Edition Danube University, Krems an der Donau

Web links

Portal: Fine Arts  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the subject of fine arts

Individual evidence

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  5. Software Art in the English language Wikipedia
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  9. Un'emozione per semper 2.0 , 2018
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  12. ^ Tilman Baumgärtel: On a Number of Aspects of Artistic Computer Games. In: Media Art Network. Medien Kunst Netz, accessed on November 22, 2008 (English, section: Introduction): “Among the first artists to deal with games as a medium was the artist-duo Jodi, who, however, blazed a completely different aesthetic trail. In 1999, as guests of the Budapest Media Art laboratory C3, they made a first modification of ‹first person Shooter› «Quake,» [11] which has since been followed by many more new variations under the name «Untitled Game.» [12] These depart in ever stronger, alarming and exciting ways from the appearance and rules of the original game. About the same time, Margarete Jahrmann and Max Moswitzer, with their work entitled «LinX3D» (1999), brought the game called «Unreal» into an abstract debate with the ‹materiality› of code. "
  14. Joan Heemskerk and Dirk Paesmans S. 1.0
  15. Florian Cramer p. 1,2 Program Code Poetry
  16. ^ Frank Dietrich, p. 159,5 Visual Intelligence: The First Decade of Computer Art (1965–1975) In: Leonardo, Vol. 19, No. 2
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  19. AM Noll, p. 93,4 The digital computer as a creative medium . Reprint in: IEEE Spectrum, Vol. 4, No.10, October 1967.
  20. Herbert W. Franke, p. 1.4 Paths to Computer Art - A Review In: Murnau Manila Minsk - 50 Years of the Goethe Institute. 2001, ISBN 3-406-47542-6 .
  21. Frank Dietrich, p. 159,3 Visual Intelligence: The First Decade of Computer Art (1965–1975) In: Leonardo, Vol. 19, No. 2
  22. Frank Dietrich, p. 163,1 Visual Intelligence: The First Decade of Computer Art (1965–1975) In: Leonardo, Vol. 19, No. 2
  23. ^ Wulf Herzogenrath and Barbara Nierhoff-Wielk (eds.): Ex Machina - early computer graphics until 1979: The Franke Collections and other foundations in the Kunsthalle Bremen / Herbert W. Franke on his 80th birthday; Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-422-06689-2 , p. 429.
  24. ^ Robert Adrian: Art and Telecommunication, 1979-1986: The Pioneer Years. In: telematic connections. Walker Art, accessed October 30, 2010 .
  25. De Balie ( Memento of the original from September 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  26. course "MediaArtHistories" at Danube University Krems
  27. iMal
  30. ^ University of Applied Arts Vienna: Department of Digital Art
  31. ^ (RIAT) Research Institute for Arts and Technology