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The topic of robotics (also robot technology ) deals with the attempt to reduce the concept of interaction with the physical world to principles of information technology and to a technically feasible kinetics . The term “ robot ” describes an entity that combines these two concepts by implementing the interaction with the physical world on the basis of sensors , actuators and information processing. The core area of ​​robotics is the development and control of such robots. It includes sub-areas of computer science (in particular artificial intelligence ), electrical engineering and mechanical engineering . The aim of robotics is to create a controlled cooperation between robot electronics and robot mechanics through programming .

Invented the term and has shaped the science fiction -author Isaac Asimov , first mentioned he was in the short story Runaround (dt. Prowler ) in March 1942 in Astounding magazine. According to Asimov's definition, robotics is the study of robots.


Heron of Alexandria
water organ
Al-Jazari's elephant watch from an Automata
Robot model based on drawings by Leonardo da Vinci
Automatic duck by Jacques de Vaucanson

The first tests with automatons were carried out in ancient times . Known are, for example, automatic theaters and music machines, devised by Heron of Alexandria . With the decline of ancient cultures, the scientific knowledge of this time also temporarily disappeared (cf. Loss of books in late antiquity ). Around 1205, Al-Jazarī , Muslim-Arab engineer and author of the 12th century, wrote his work on mechanical devices, the Kitāb fī maʿrifat al-Hiyal al-handasīya "Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices", also known as "Automata" became known in western culture. In this work he declares that he wrote it for the realm of the Ortoqids . He created early humanoid automatons, and a tape about programmable (interpretable as robot, hand washing automat, automated displacement of peacocks). Leonardo da Vinci is said to have been influenced by the classic automata of Al-Jazari. He is known to have records and sketches from the 15th century that can be interpreted as plans for androids . However, the level of technical knowledge was insufficient to implement such plans. Around 1740 Jacques de Vaucanson designed and built a flute-playing automaton, an automatic duck and the first programmable fully automatic loom. In literature, the latter merit is often attributed to Joseph-Marie Jacquard 1805.

At the end of the 19th century, efforts attributable to robotics were made in the military (remote-controlled boats, torpedo controls). The writer Jules Verne wrote a story about a human machine . In 1920 the writer Karel Čapek introduced the term robot for an android. After the end of the Second World War, the field of robotics made rapid progress. Crucial for this were the invention of the transistor in 1947 at Bell Laboratories , integrated circuits and, subsequently, the development of powerful and space-saving computers.

From around 1955 the first NC machines came onto the market (devices for controlling machines) and in 1954 George Devol registered a patent for a programmable manipulator in the USA. This date is considered to be the hour of birth for the development of industrial robots . Devol was also a co-founder of the Unimation company, which introduced the first hydraulically operated industrial robot in 1960. In 1968, MIT developed the first mobile robot.

In Germany, robot technology was only used productively from the early 1970s.

Around 1970, the first autonomous mobile robot Shakey (the shaky one) was also developed at the Stanford Research Institute .

In 1973, Waseda University Tokyo started developing the humanoid robot Wabot 1 . In the same year, the German robotics pioneer KUKA built the world's first industrial robot with six electromechanically driven axes, known as FAMULUS . A year later (1974) the Swedish ASEA presented their fully electrically powered robot (IRb6).

In 1986, Honda started the Humanoid Robot Research and Development Program . The result was the humanoid robot versions P1 to P3. Honda presented a further development in 2004 in the form of the humanoid robot ASIMO .

In 1997 the first mobile robot landed on Mars ( Sojourner ).

The toy industry has not closed itself off to robotics either. Examples of such products are Lego Mindstorms , iPitara , Robonova or the robot dog Aibo from Sony .

Robotics and ethics

According to futurologists and philosophers, the ever increasing automation and digitization, combined with the growing collection and increasing exchange of data (" Big Data "), requires fundamental questions about the role of people in this process and in these contexts. As early as 1942, z. B. Asimov has a corresponding code , the " Robot Laws ".

Robotics today

Robotics is a scientific discipline that deals with the development of robots. The mechanical design, the regulation and the electronic control play an essential role. The mechanical modeling of a robot is mostly based on methods of multi-body systems or multi-body dynamics , while the design of the control system for robots comes from the field of automation technology .

Alternative techniques to cycling as a means of locomotion in the human environment are now being researched, such as walking on six, four, two or even one leg. While industrial robots usually perform manual or handling tasks in an environment adapted to them, service robots of this type are intended to provide services for and on people. To do this, they must be able to move around in the human environment and find their way around what is the subject of scientific research.

Seeming like a game, but with serious scientific research behind it, robotic soccer games are between teams of like robots. The aim of the researchers is to develop a soccer team made up of autonomous two-legged robots by 2050 that can compete against the soccer world champions.

Industrial robots are mostly used in environments that are too dangerous or unacceptable for humans. Today, modern robots do stupid assembly line work faster and much more accurately than humans and can replace them in more and more areas ( automation ). Nowadays, automobiles are built with a strong involvement of robots, and even a modern microprocessor would no longer be manufacturable without a robot. Service robots have been used for some time to make everyday life easier for people or to entertain them, such as the Robosapien . There are household robots that are able to vacuum , mop the floor, or mow the lawn . Although you only specialize in one single task, you can carry it out relatively autonomously. Research robots explore, among other things, distant planets or disaster areas and penetrate volcanoes or sewer pipes. AUVs are used for a wide variety of detection missions in the marine sector. There are concepts and first prototypes for cryobots and hydrobots that will be used in space travel in the future. There are also plans to use robots for sample retrieval missions and asteroid mining .

In medicine, robots are used for examinations, operations and rehabilitation and perform simple tasks in everyday hospital life. A prototype for tiny nanorobots that can move in the bloodstream was tested on one eye at ETH Zurich in 2004 . They are controlled by external magnetic fields. The assistance robot FRIEND , which was developed at the Institute for Automation Technology at the University of Bremen, is intended to support disabled and elderly people in their daily activities (e.g. preparing a meal) and enable them to reintegrate into professional life.

Modular robot kit systems are used as physical rapid prototyping for mobile service robots , especially in research and development. The approach of component-based, open interfaces to reusable hardware and software modules enables fast and cost-efficient implementation of robot prototypes. Especially in the field of service robotics, the complexity of the required tasks requires new, dynamic, flexible and cost-effective approaches to the development of corresponding robot systems.

First entertainment robot such as the robot dog Aibo from Sony are a step to the electronic pet. In addition to Aibo, there are other robot products from the toy and entertainment industry that can be programmed with a computer in a mostly simple language, for example to follow a light source or a line on the floor or to sort colored building blocks.

Another hobby is building robots yourself. This can be done with the help of prepared robot kits or according to your imagination. In this case, for example, you have to design a car-like vehicle yourself, use suitable sensors to determine the distance to the target or the color of the surface, and use these measurement results to determine a course that the vehicle should drive. The actual task is to link the sensor data with the speed and direction of the vehicle. This takes place in a microcontroller that has to be programmed by yourself. The required electronics are offered in different designs as C-Control or Arduino . Well-known, but also very elaborate models are the rovers .

For example, many are fascinated by the construction of "combat robots" that try to destroy each other remotely with martial weapons. Since these machines are remotely controlled and have no intelligence of their own to speak of, they are so far not robots in the actual sense of the word.

Robots are also a popular subject in science fiction . There are human-like robots there that often have artificial intelligence . If they are also pure fiction, Isaac Asimov's robot laws already shape thinking about robots.

An additional variation of the robot, already implemented in a very simple form, is the cyborg as a fusion of robot technology with the human anatomy . Androids - artificial human-like beings - can be robots, but robots don't necessarily have to be androids. A first well-developed approach is the ASIMO robot from Honda.

Robots for education

Robots are also increasingly an issue in education. There are robots for elementary school , robots for secondary school or high school (secondary schools), robots for college and robots for vocational training . A special form of robots for education are rovers, which are developed and tested, for example, as part of space education at institutions in Germany . Usually these specialized robots are intended as a rover for a specific goal or a competition. At the Maker Faire 2016 in Berlin , a rover named "EntdeckerRover" ER2 was presented, which is suitable for education and leisure and can also be adapted for the various educational areas. Other systems are mostly in plastic from other manufacturers and projects.

In Germany and Austria, robots and the special form of rover mostly support education in the field of MINT subjects , which are in many English. speaking countries the STEM subjects or STEM training (Education) are also called. So it is also about the promotion of natural science and technology education or technology knowledge as well as the topics of computer science and mathematics . Mathematics is particularly important for sophisticated robotics robots and rovers, such as in the space and aviation sectors.

Robotics and military

Autonomous Robot (Grand Challenge 2005)

Finally, unmanned drones or robots for warfare are no longer science fiction, but reality in military technology . The DARPA , military research institute of the Ministry of Defense of the United States has, for the first time in June 2004 in the Grand Challenge offered a prize money of one million US dollars. The unmanned vehicles of the participants should independently reach a destination around 280 kilometers away across the Mojave Desert in 10 hours. Although the most successful vehicle only traveled about 18 kilometers and then tipped over and went up in flames, the prize money was increased to two million US dollars for the next competition. When the competition was repeated in 2005, four vehicles had already crossed the finish line. The winning vehicle reached an average speed of almost 30 km / h.

Robotics and security

Risk and danger

Safety guidelines for robots result from the respective area of ​​application and the robot type. Industrial robots are protected by legally prescribed safety precautions such as cages, grids, light barriers or other barriers. With increasing autonomy, however, current or future, more complex robot systems require safety precautions adapted to the circumstances. Due to the wide range of uses of robots, however, it is difficult to establish universal safety rules for all robots. The “three (or four) rules of robotics” ( robot laws ) set up by science fiction author Isaac Asimov in his novels can only be understood as ethical guidelines for possible programming, since unpredictable situations cannot be calculated by the robot. The more autonomously a robot acts in the human environment, the greater the probability that living beings or objects will be harmed. The idea that robots can offer people protection is also controversial - not least because of the vagueness of the term protection . The fact that no absolute values ​​can be programmed here is evident in the discussion about the tension between protection and paternalism. This problem is discussed in the film I, Robot , for example , where a man is rescued by a robot from a car that has fallen into water on the basis of a calculated “survival probability”, while a child drowns in a car that is also sinking. Instead of an abstract probability of survival, a person would probably have acted according to ethical and moral principles and saved the child first.

The group of robots also includes autonomous weapons or reconnaissance systems such as smart bombs , unmanned drones , guard robots or autonomous combat robots that are conceivable in the future . If such dangerous machines are used for warfare, the question of ethical values ​​in programming may become superfluous and it turns out that the demand for universal safety maxims for all areas of application and robot types is apparently a difficult task to solve. The consideration of ethical values ​​in the use of robots is also not an issue that humanity will only face in the future. As early as the Second World War, ships were sunk by torpedoes with a navigation system , or buildings were destroyed by V1 cruise missiles, whose input, processing and output function corresponds to the definition of a robot. Even today, people are being injured or killed directly or indirectly by complex, autonomously operating machines.

In April 2008, a series of autonomously acting armed robots called SWORDS was withdrawn from service by the US Department of Defense for use in the Iraq war, as the robot arm had rotated in several incidents, although this was not intended in the respective situation. Although no one was injured in the incidents, the robots were classified as unsafe and the field operation was canceled.

Legal issues of robotics

A robot is a technical system with an embedded computer system ; the systems interact with one another. The task of the computer system is to control, regulate or monitor the technical system in which it is embedded (ECJ, July 3, 2012 - C-128/11 = NJW 2012, 2565).

An embedded system always consists of so-called embedded software. Without this embedded software, a robot would certainly not be usable, which of course also applies to most (intelligent) machines from washing machines to complex production lines or large aircraft. Even before the ECJ decision (ECJ, July 3, 2012 - C-128/11 = NJW 2012, 2565) on the resale of used software, the TRIPS Agreement and WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) stipulated that hardware with embedded software could be freely traded may (Vander, CR 2011, 77 (78-79)). There is also agreement that embedded software should not be counted as essential elements of a rental and that rental of hardware (e.g. robots) controlled by embedded software does not have a rental right within the meaning of Section 69 c Para 3 UrhG must be explicitly transferred, even if some authors refer to an individual consideration (Grützmacher in Wandtke / Bullinger, UrhR, 3rd edition 2009, § 69 c marginal number 48). As a result, it remains to be stated that robots can be sold and rented without the need for additional rights.

In Germany, patents can be protected by the Patent Act (PatG); in the EU, the European Patent Convention (EPC) protects patents. The PatG defines a patent in the first section (§§ 1 - 25 PatG). According to Section 1 (1) of the Patent Act, patents are granted for inventions in all areas of technology, provided they are new, involve an inventive step and are commercially applicable. According to Section 3 (1) PatG and Art. 54 EPC, an invention is considered new if it does not belong to the state of the art. The state of the art includes all knowledge that was made available to the public by written or oral description, by use or in any other way prior to the day relevant for the priority of the registration; see. Section 3 (1) sentence 2 PatG. In the case of robots, the patent applicant must therefore demonstrate that his robot has new functions that are not state-of-the-art (e.g. the ability of robots to run).

It must also be an invention. Patentable inventions are technical doctrines for systematic action, which bring about a causally foreseeable success using controllable natural forces without the interposition of intellectual activities (BGH, March 27, 1969 - X ZB 15/67 = BGHZ 52, 74; NJW 1969, 1713; GRUR 1969 , 672). A further technical development of a robot is only a patentable invention if it does not result in an obvious way from the state of the art for "the average specialist who knows the entire state of the art" (a legal fiction, not a real person), cf. . Section 4 sentence 1 PatG, Art. 56 sentence 1 EPC. In other words, there is a lack of inventive step if one can expect from this person skilled in the art that, based on the state of the art, he would have come up with this solution as soon as possible and with a reasonable amount of effort, without becoming inventive. In the field of robotics, therefore, only inventions that represent a significant advance in the development of robotics can be patented. However, this does not have to refer to the robot as a whole, but can also refer to individual components, such as a robot arm or a mode of operation for locomotion.

In addition, the invention must according to Section 5 (1) PatG, Art. 57 EPC may be applicable in any commercial area. The concept of industrial applicability is interpreted broadly by the European Patent Office and is of secondary importance in practice. It is sufficient that the invention can be manufactured or otherwise used in a technical commercial enterprise. It is also irrelevant whether one can “make money” with the device or the method, the only decisive factor is that the claimed subject matter can be used outside of privacy. Most of the inventions in robotics are geared towards commercial success, be it for example: B. in the creation of domestic helpers or robots for operations. This is in the nature of things, since the invention of robot technologies requires enormous investments and these are reclaimed by the investors at a profit.

The maximum term of a patent is according to Section 16 PatG and Art. 63 (1) EPC 20 years from the day after the application. According to § 16a PatG, Art. 63 para. 2 b) EPC i. V. m. Reg. (EEC) No. 1768/92, however, a supplementary protection certificate can be issued for inventions that can only be used economically after a complex approval process, which then extends the patent term by a maximum of five years. Due to the long development cycles in robotics, this should be used regularly.

According to Section 1 (2) and (3) of the Patent Act and Art. 52 (2) and (3) EPC, scientific theories and mathematical methods such as construction plans for a robot cannot be protected as a patent. The same applies to the design and appearance of a robot, since aesthetic creations cannot be protected by patent.

Misconduct by a robot, whether it comes from the drive for autonomy or any other reason, always gives rise to a number of questions of liability. On the one hand, this can result from a breach of contractual duty in accordance with § 280 Abs. 1 BGB, to, among other things, the tort law according to § 823 BGB against third parties or from the Product Liability Act. If a robot works for another contracting party as part of a contractual relationship (e.g. rental) and the robot causes damage to this party, this certainly constitutes a breach of duty i. S. v. 280 BGB. A case that became known by the media is the use of the ROBODOC from Integrated Surgical System, which has led to numerous claims for damages (BGH, June 13, 2006 - VI ZR 323/04 = BGHZ 168, 103; NJW 2006, 2477).

According to § 249 sentence 1 BGB, the debtor who is obliged to pay damages has to restore the condition that would exist if the circumstance that was obligatory to compensate had not occurred. In doing so, the damaging party shall compensate for all damage that has occurred as a result of the result that is mandatory for replacement (so-called total repair). In addition to the rule of total repair, a further principle of damage law is expressed in Section 249 sentence 1 BGB, namely the principle of production or replacement in kind (so-called restitution in kind). In this case, the injuring party is supposed to create the situation in cash that would exist without the damaging event.

A question that will certainly become more and more important in the future will be who is liable for the decision made by a robot based on artificial intelligence (AI). So it is certainly justifiable that whoever uses the robots must be liable, as he is liable for the traffic safety of the robot used and must take appropriate safety measures. In a contractual relationship, these certainly result from the general duty of care of the contractual relationship, cf. § 280 Abs. 1 BGB, towards third parties certainly from the tort law, §§ 823 ff BGB. In principle, the manufacturer could be liable under the Product Liability Act (ProdHaftG). The prerequisite for product liability is in accordance with Section 1, Paragraph 1, Clause 1. ProdHaftG is u. a. that there was an error in the cause of the damage (i.e. in the robot). Such an error could possibly exist if the manufacturer did not incorporate suitable safety measures in the programming of the robot's control software. In any case, the manufacturer is not liable if the robot did not show the defect that caused the damage at the time it was placed on the market (Palandt Sprau commentary on the BGB 69th edition 2009 § 1 ProdHaftG Rn. 17). and if the error could not be detected according to the state of the art in science and technology at the time the manufacturer put the product on the market, cf. Section 1 (2) No. 5 ProdHaftG. Nevertheless, the manufacturer of robots must incorporate safety measures in a robot (and especially in the software) so that no damage can occur even after an AI learning process. In the science fiction literature z. E.g. Isaac Asimov developed the three laws of robotics (Asimov All Robotic Stories 3rd Edition 2011, short story Drumtreiber (English Runaround) pp. 276–295). It is not yet possible to judge whether such rather philosophical laws are sufficient, but what is certain is that the manufacturer and developer of robots has a corresponding duty to ensure road safety. The maintenance of these traffic safety obligations then no longer affects the manufacturer, but the operator or owner of the robot. The principles for handling dangerous things apply here. As a dangerous thing z. B. seen a motor vehicle that poses a certain operational risk. The manufacturer produces a car that meets the relevant requirements for vehicle registration, while the owner must ensure that the vehicle is always in a roadworthy condition (BGH, October 14, 1997 - VI ZR 404/96 = NJW 1998, 311 ). This applies in particular to a guarantee to third parties (BGH, April 24, 1979 - VI ZR 73/78 = NJW 1979, 2309). The same should also apply to the manufacture and use of robots.

The manufacturer is not liable for development errors (Section 1, Paragraph 2, No. 5 of the Product Liability Act). However, a development error is only present if it could not be detected at the time when the manufacturer put the robot on the market according to the state of the art in science and technology (Palandt Sprau commentary on the BGB 69th edition 2009 § 1 ProdHaftG Rn. 21). The exclusion of liability only applies to design defects but not to manufacturing defects (BGH, May 9, 1995 - VI ZR 158/94 = BGHZ 129, 353; NJW 1995, 2162). The error is not recognizable if the potential danger of the robot according to the sum of knowledge and technology that is generally recognized and available, not only in the relevant industry and nationally, and could not be recognized by anyone because these possibilities for knowledge have not yet been recognized was available (Palandt Sprau commentary on the BGB 69th edition 2009 § 1 ProdHaftG Rn. 21.).

Liability for damage to items is limited in the Product Liability Act to items other than the defective product, which were intended for private use or consumption and were mainly used by the injured party for this purpose (Palandt / Sprau commentary on the BGB 69th edition 2009 § 1 ProdHaftG Rn 7.). This formulation includes i.a. a. Damage to products in the course of a business activity (Eisenberg / Gildeggen / Reuter / Willburger: product liability. 1st edition. Munich 2008, § 1 marginal number 5.).

An important liability requirement is regulated in Section 1 (2) No. 1 ProdHaftG. According to this, the liability of the producer is excluded in the event that he has not brought the product into circulation. The manufacturer and also the quasi-manufacturer bring a product into circulation as soon as he deliberately gives himself up to the actual power of control over the product, e.g. B. by delivering it, in the distribution, in the distribution chain or in the economic cycle (ECJ, February 9, 2006 - C-127/04 = Coll. 2006, I-1313; NJW 2006, 825; EuZW 2006, 184; NZV 2006, 243). The question of the delimitation of liability between the manufacturer of a robot and the user of a robot will certainly be difficult, especially if the robot and its embedded software have developed autonomously through AI processes. In order to protect the injured party, one could then get the idea that the manufacturer and user of the robot are jointly and severally liable.


Most accidents with robots occur during maintenance or programming of the robot, not during regular operation. On July 21, 1984 , the first human was killed by an industrial robot in Michigan , USA. The robot moved workpieces on a die casting machine. The 34-year-old factory worker already had 15 years of work experience in die casting and only completed a one-week robot training course three weeks before the accident. He was pressed to death between the supposedly safe rear of the robot and a steel post as he climbed into the robot's danger zone against all warnings to remove scattered production residues. The American National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) offers guidelines for robot construction, training and guidance for employees.

Robotics in Culture

Robot competitions

Programs for children, teenagers and students

In many countries, children, young people and students have the opportunity to take part in robotics programs. They form teams, each of which is faced with the task of programming a robot equipped with motors and sensors in such a way that it can autonomously or remotely solve given tasks on a playing field within a certain time frame, for example sorting objects and moving them to certain locations bring to. In part of the programs, the task also includes designing and building the robot (freestyle); in others, prefabricated robots are used. The teamwork leads to competitions, many of which are held at an international level.

competition Robot type control Control system Programming languages Field size Number of teams in the field Age group Number of teams Country of origin
FIRST First Lego League Freestyle ( Lego only ); Standard kit exists, but use is optional 150 seconds autonomous Control with Lego Mindstorms Controller Lego Mindstorms RCX, NXT, EV3 or RoboLab 2.36 x 1.14 m 2 teams at the same time 9-16 years 21,200+ worldwide (2018/2019) United StatesUnited States United States
First Tech Challenge Freestyle; Standard kit exists, but use is optional 30 seconds autonomous, 120 seconds remote controlled Remote control with Android phones Blocks, Java 3.66 x 3.66 m 2: 2 12-18 years 7,010 worldwide (2018/2019)
VEX Robotics Competion Freestyle (only VEX kit) 15 seconds autonomous, 105 seconds remote controlled Remote control with VEX's own system Blocks, C ++ , Modkit (VEX's own programming language) 3.66 x 3.66 m 2: 2 5–22 years approx.20,000 worldwide (2018) United StatesUnited States United States
World Robot Olympiad Regular Category Freestyle ( Lego only ) 120 seconds autonomous Control with Lego Mindstorms NXT or Lego Mindstorms EV3 no specifications 2.36 x 1.14 m 1 6-12 years
8-12 years
13-15 years
16-19 years
approx. 26,000 worldwide (2018) United StatesUnited States United States
Open Category Freestyle autonomous no specifications no specifications - - 8-12 years
13-15 years
16-19 years
Football Category Freestyle ( Lego only ) 2 × 4 min autonomous (starter)
2 × 5 min autonomous
Control with Lego Mindstorms NXT or Lego Mindstorms EV3 no specifications 2.36 × 1.14 m (starter)
2.43 × 1.82 m
1: 1 8-15 years (starter)
8-19 years
VEX Robotics Competition
More competitions

Programs for industry and research

Science awards in robotics

Research institutions

Research institutions in German-speaking countries include (in alphabetical order):


See also


  • Bruno Siciliano, Oussama Khatib: Springer Handbook of Robotics . Springer-Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-23957-4 .
  • George Bekey, Robert Ambrose, Vijay Kumar: Robotics: State of the Art and Future Challenges . World Scientific Pub, London 2008, ISBN 978-1-84816-006-4 .
  • John J. Craig: Introduction to Robotics - Mechanics and Control . Prentice Hall International, Upper Saddle River 2005, ISBN 0-201-54361-3 .
  • Alois Knoll, Thomas Christaller: Robotics: Autonomous Agents. Artificial intelligence. Sensors. Embodiment. Machine learning. Service robot. Robots in medicine. Navigation systems. Neural Networks. RoboCup. Architectures . Fischer (Tb.), Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 978-3-596-15552-1 .
  • Heinz W. Katzenmeier: Basics of robot technology: Tips and tricks for DIY . Elektor-Verlag, Aachen 2004, ISBN 978-3-89576-147-8 .
  • Thomas Söbbing: Legal issues in robotics - "From a legal point of view: The robot as a software-controlled machine". In: Innovation and Technology Law. (InTeR) 2013, ISSN  2195-5743 , pp. 43-51.
  • Alex Ellery: An introduction to space robotics . Jumper; Praxis Pub, London / New York / Chichester 2000, ISBN 1-85233-164-X .
  • Roland Schulé: experiments on robotics. Build and program models. Franzis-Verlag, 1988. ISBN 3-7723-9461-2

Web links

Commons : Robotics  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Robots  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. The KUKA story. KUKA AG, accessed on November 21, 2018 (section KUKA makes history as a robotics pioneer ).
  2. Eva Wolfangel: How far do people deliver themselves to computers? In: , Computer & Medien , February 18, 2017.
  3. ^ Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue
  4. Publications about the VolksBot and its sensors physical rapid prototyping system Volksbot
  5. eR2.IoT (@ eR2_IoT) | Twitter. In: Retrieved October 10, 2016 .
  6. Killer Ground 'Bots Out of Iraq: How Come? English, Retrieved April 21, 2008
  8. Research Department Cognitive Mobile Systems at the Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics (FKIE)
  11. Autonomous Intelligent Systems
  12. Intelligent Autonomous Systems
  13. Robotics and Embedded Systems
  14. ^ Robotics and Embedded Systems
  15. ^ Autonomous Rotorcraft Testbed for Intelligent Systems - ARTIS
  17. ^ Institute for Mechatronic Systems
  18. ^ Institute for Robotics, Johannes Kepler University Linz
  19. RRLAB
  20. Michael Baas: Vitra Design Museum illuminates the relationship between man and machine. In: , art , February 16, 2017.