|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Stuttgart|
|Height :||247 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||207.35 km 2|
|Residents:||634,830 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||3062 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area code :||0711|
|License plate :||S.|
|Community key :||08 1 11 000|
|LOCODE :||DE STR|
|City structure:||23 districts
with 152 districts
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Fritz Kuhn ( Alliance 90 / The Greens )|
|Location of the city of Stuttgart in Baden-Württemberg|
Stuttgart ( [ 'ʃtʊtɡart ] ) is the capital of the German state of Baden-Württemberg and with 634,830 inhabitants (December 31, 2018) its largest city . The sixth largest city in Germany forms the center of the Stuttgart region , which has around 2.8 million inhabitants and is one of the largest metropolitan areas in Germany. It is also the core city of the European metropolitan region of Stuttgart (around 5.3 million inhabitants), the fifth largest in Germany. Stuttgart has the status of an urban district and is divided into 23 districts . As the seat of the Baden-Württemberg state government and the state parliament as well as numerous state and some federal authorities , Stuttgart is the political center of the state . It is the seat of the regional council of Stuttgart, which administers the administrative district of the same name . The regional parliament of the Stuttgart region, one of the three regions in the Stuttgart administrative region, meets in Stuttgart. In addition, Stuttgart is the seat of the Protestant regional bishop of Württemberg and part of the Catholic diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart . The city is an important business location and financial center . It is known as the home of the German automobile companies Daimler and Porsche , on the other hand for the most frequent exceedance of the fine dust limit in Germany and the most congested German metropolitan area.
The Stuttgart cityscape is characterized by many hills, partly vineyards , valleys such as the Stuttgart basin and the Neckar valley , green spaces such as Rosensteinpark , Schlossgarten , Höhenpark , as well as a dense urban development with a high proportion of post-war buildings , various monuments , church buildings and some high-rise buildings.
Stuttgart (in the local Swabian dialect Schduagerd ) is located in the center of the state of Baden-Württemberg. The core city is located "between forest and vines" in the " Stuttgarter Kessel ", a valley basin through which the Nesenbach and its tributaries, above all the Vogelsangbach , flow from the northeast towards the Neckar . The districts reach in the north to the Neckar basin , in the west to the Glemswald and the Gäu , in the east to the foothills of the Schurwald and in the south to the Filder plain and the foothills of the Schönbuch . In the southeast, the Neckar flows into the urban area in the districts of Hedelfingen / Obertürkheim coming from Esslingen am Neckar and leaves it again in the district of Mühlhausen in the northeast.
The urban area stretches - unusually for large cities - over an altitude difference of almost 350 m. The height ranges from Hofen up to on the Bernhartshöhe near the Stuttgart motorway junction. The most striking elevations include the Birkenkopf ( ) on the edge of the valley basin, the Württemberg ( ) above the Neckar Valley and the Green Heiner ( ) on the northwestern city limits.at the Neckarschleuse
View of Stuttgart from the 511 m high Birkenkopf
The city of Stuttgart is one of 14 regional centers in Baden-Württemberg. It is the main center of the Stuttgart region , which in turn, with the city of Stuttgart and its five districts, has a total of 2.67 million inhabitants.
Backnang , Bietigheim-Bissingen / Besigheim , Böblingen / Sindelfingen , Esslingen am Neckar , Geislingen an der Steige , Göppingen , Herrenberg , Kirchheim unter Teck , Leonberg , Ludwigsburg / Kornwestheim , Nürtingen , Schorndorf , Vaihingen an der Enz and Waiblingen / Fellbach .
The city of Stuttgart acts as a central center for the cities of Leinfelden-Echterdingen and Filderstadt - both in the Esslingen district - and for the cities of Ditzingen , Gerlingen and Korntal-Münchingen - all three in the Ludwigsburg district.
The city of Stuttgart is the center of the Stuttgart metropolitan region and one of the three main centers within it. The Stuttgart metropolitan region is home to a total of 5.3 million inhabitants.
Fellbach , Kernen im Remstal (all Rems-Murr-Kreis ), Esslingen am Neckar , Ostfildern , Neuhausen auf den Fildern , Filderstadt and Leinfelden-Echterdingen (all district Esslingen ), Sindelfingen and Leonberg ( district Böblingen ) as well as Gerlingen , Ditzingen , Korntal- Münchingen , Möglingen , Kornwestheim and Remseck am Neckar (all districts of Ludwigsburg ). Thus four of the five districts of the Stuttgart region border on the Stuttgart city district .
The urban area of the state capital Stuttgart is administratively divided into five "inner" and 18 "outer" city districts. The city districts have a district advisory board and a district chairman who only works on a voluntary basis in the inner city districts.
The city districts are further divided into districts . The number of districts was increased by the amendment of the main statutes of July 1, 2007 and January 1, 2009. Since then, the urban area of Stuttgart has consisted of 23 districts and 152 districts (districts on the city map can be clicked on).
The area distribution of the 20,735 ha shows the following scheme:
According to data from the State Statistical Office , as of 2015.
Due to the location in the broad Stuttgart basin and the dense development, there is a comparatively warm and sometimes humid climate . The Black Forest , Swabian Alb , Schurwald and Swabian-Franconian Forest mountain ranges also shade the entire region from winds. Because of this, viticulture is even possible on the slopes of Stuttgart . The viticulture in Stuttgart with 423 hectares of vineyards includes more than two percent of the city.
The annual mean temperature in Stuttgart is 9.3 ° C (Schnarrenberg weather station), in the city center and in the Neckar Valley 10.6 ° C and on the Fildern at the airport 8.5 ° C. In winter, the city center in the valley basin is mostly free of snow and ice. Strong “felt” winds are also rather rare in the city center because of the dense development. In order to have enough fresh air in the boiler despite the recurring inversion weather , many places on the slopes - especially in Stuttgart-West - are undeveloped and serve as fresh air corridors. The red and wild boar park in the west also serves as a fresh air supplier for the lower inner city. In order to improve air pollution control and reduce particulate matter levels, a passage ban for trucks was issued in 2005 , but this had to be lifted on March 1, 2008 in connection with the introduction of the particulate matter ordinance . A new truck traffic ban has been in force since March 2010.
The lee location of the Stuttgart region is the reason why it is one of the regions in Germany with little rainfall. The clouds rain down on the Swabian Alb and the Black Forest, so that only relatively dry air reaches Stuttgart. At the beginning of the 20th century, increasing population numbers led to a shortage of drinking water, whereupon the first pipeline from the Donauried over the Alb went into operation in 1917 ( state water supply ). In 1959, the Lake Constance water supply followed .
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Stuttgart
The following nature reserves are located on the marking of the state capital Stuttgart : According to the protected area statistics of the State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation Baden-Württemberg (LUBW), 1,353.19 hectares of the city area are under nature protection, that is 6.53 percent.
- Büsnauer Wiesental : 27.8 ha; Vaihingen district
- Oak grove : 34.2 ha; Markings Riedenberg and Sillenbuch
- Greutterwald : 151.3 ha (of which 149.4 ha in Stuttgart); Districts Weilimdorf , Zuffenhausen , Feuerbach and Korntal (Ludwigsburg district)
- Häslachwald : 53.6 ha (including 45 ha in Stuttgart); Landmarks Plieningen and Kemnat (Esslingen district)
- Red deer park near Stuttgart (red deer and wild boar park): 830.5 ha; Districts Stuttgart and Vaihingen
- Lower Feuerbachtal with hillside forests and surroundings : 47.5 ha; Districts Mühlhausen and Zuffenhausen
- Weidach and Zettach forest: 226.0 ha; Landmarks Möhringen and Plieningen
- see also demography of Germany
Stuttgart had more than 100,000 inhabitants for the first time in 1875, making it the first large city in what is now the state of Baden-Württemberg. In 1905 the city had 250,000 inhabitants, by 1950 this number had doubled to 500,000. In 1962 the population reached its historic high of 640,560. Measured by the number of inhabitants, the city is the sixth largest city in Germany and (after Munich and before Nuremberg ) the second largest city in southern Germany . In its own federal state, Stuttgart is some distance ahead of Karlsruhe and Mannheim .
The average age at the end of 2016 was 41.8 years.
According to the 2011 census , the proportion of the population with a migration background was 38.6%. Stuttgart had the second highest proportion of all major German cities - after Frankfurt am Main with 44.2% and before Nuremberg with 36.4%. In Stuttgart in 2007, this proportion was 64% among those under five. The proportion of foreigners in 2016 was 25.2%. 44% of the residents of Stuttgart had a migration background.
As of December 31, 2018, the population register of the city of Stuttgart recorded 614,365 residents with main residence and 6,926 residents with secondary residence.
A total of 6534 children were born in 2018 (2017: 6725); this means that the high level of 2016 has been fallen by 239 births. The number of births rose significantly between 2012 and 2016 and has been falling since then.
The number of annual deaths in Stuttgart has fluctuated between 5,000 and 5,700 for two decades. In 2017, 5507 people died and in 2018, 5471 people. The number of births exceeded that of deaths by 1,063 in 2018.
The average existing rent in Stuttgart is 9.92 euros per square meter and thus above Frankfurt am Main (8.87 euros) and below Munich (10.22 euros) (as of the end of 2017).
The rent level of the current rent index rose by 7.2 percent between 2016 and 2018 to 9.60 euros per square meter. The average asking rent for the apartments on the market climbed to EUR 14.15 per square meter in the first half of 2018. In the case of first-time leases in the new building, an average of 17 euros per square meter was called, for re-leases an average of 13.90 euros per square meter.
Stuttgart belongs to the Lower Swabian language area, a dialect group that is spoken in the central and southeastern area of Baden-Württemberg. Linguistically, Swabian belongs to the Alemannic dialects and thus to Upper German . It has separated itself from the other Alemannic dialects through the complete implementation of the New High German diphthongization .
Religions and worldviews
Of the 634,830 inhabitants (as of Dec. 31, 2018), 145,230 (22.9%) were Protestant, 139,842 (22.0%) were Catholic. The proportion of other religious communities increased from 13.2 percent (1970) 53.7 percent (2018). Since the end of 2015, the members of the two large Christian churches no longer make up the majority of the population with 48.9 percent. In 2014, 26.2% were Protestant and 24.0% were Catholic, the remaining 49.8% belonged to other religions or were non-denominational.
Pay other religious communities were collected during Census 2011: At that time, 30,680 inhabitants (5.3%) Christian Orthodox , 5,100 (0.9%) were members of a Protestant Free Church , 1330 (0.2%) professed the Jewish faith and 30,340 (5.2%) belonged to other religious communities recognized under public law in Baden-Württemberg (including the Old Catholic Church and various Christian special communities such as Jehovah's Witnesses ).
According to the Stuttgart Statistical Office, the proportion of the Muslim population in Stuttgart was around 10% in 2017.
In 1534 the Reformation was introduced in the Duchy of Württemberg . This created the Evangelical Church in Württemberg , which still exists today and has its seat in Stuttgart. Today all Protestant parishioners in the city belong to this regional church , provided they are not members of an Evangelical Free Church or the Evangelical Reformed Parish of Stuttgart. The latter belongs to the Evangelical Reformed Church , which has its seat in Leer (East Friesland) . The (Lutheran) parishes of the city are now part of the Stuttgart church district , which was created on January 1, 2008 through the unification of the church districts of Stuttgart , Bad Cannstatt , Degerloch and Zuffenhausen . The church district of Stuttgart is part of the prelature ("Sprengel") Stuttgart , which also has its seat in Stuttgart. Many free churches are also represented in Stuttgart, of which the Gospel Forum (formerly Biblical Faith Congregation) is the largest.
Roman Catholic Church
Catholics began to populate the city again in the 18th century . At the turn of the 18th to the 19th century, these were given back their own church: today's Stuttgart Cathedral , the 1808 to 1811 by Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret was built and today in the 1955 rebuilt postwar form of Co-Cathedral of the Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart is . In the decades after the beginning of the 19th century, more Catholics moved to the capital, mainly from the rural Catholic areas of Neuwuerttemberg, and grew from a very small minority to a steadily growing minority. The builder Joseph von Egle also built a new Catholic church in the south of Stuttgart, the Church of St. Maria, which was built from 1871 to 1879. It was built in the neo-Gothic style. From 1901 to 1902 the St. Elisabeth Church was built under the direction of Joseph Cades in the west of Stuttgart. In the 20th century, numerous other churches of the Catholic Church in the Stuttgart districts were added, for example the Church of Our Lady in Cannstatt, which was also built by Cades from 1907 to 1909. In 2006 the four Stuttgart deaneries that had existed until then were merged into one Stuttgart city deanery . The 2011 census counted 150,050 Catholics in the city.
There are several Orthodox churches in Stuttgart. The Serbian Orthodox Church Synaxe of the Serbian Saints (Hram Srba Svetitelja, Храм Срба Светитеља) has been located on Marienplatz since 1971. The Russian Orthodox Church of St. Nikolai (Церковь св. Николая) was consecrated as early as 1895. After the church was badly damaged in a bombing raid in 1944, it was rebuilt. In 1972 an iconostasis designed by the famous iconographer Nikolai Schelechow was brought into the church. The Greek Orthodox Church has two churches in Stuttgart. In the west of Stuttgart is the Church of the Ascension of Christ and in Feuerbach the Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul . The Romanian Orthodox parish in Stuttgart was founded in 1964 and uses the Leonhard Church for its services . The Bulgarian Orthodox parish of Stuttgart holds its services in the Serbian and Russian churches. The Macedonian Orthodox parish of St. Kiril and Metodij, which has existed in Stuttgart since March 1983, holds its services in the Johanneskirche in Zuffenhausen. There are other Orthodox parishes that usually use other people's places of worship. A parish conference has existed since September 30, 2012 for the currently 50,000 Orthodox.
Other Christian Faiths
The neo-Gothic Katharinenkirche of the Old Catholics is located on Katharinenplatz . The Anglican congregation also celebrates its services here. There has been full church fellowship between the two since 1931 .
The New Apostolic Church has been represented in Stuttgart since the 19th century . In October 1897, the New Apostolic Church held the first divine services in the city area, and today's Stuttgart-West congregation was founded. In the following years, other parishes were founded in the city and corresponding church buildings were built for them. The largest church buildings of the New Apostolic Church in Stuttgart are located in Einkornstrasse (Stuttgart-Ost congregation) and Immenhofer Strasse (Stuttgart-Süd congregation). Due to the concentration process of the parishes, the number of parishes in the city area is shrinking despite a slight increase in the number of members, especially due to influx. In 2008 there were 27 municipalities in the urban area, currently there are 19 municipalities. Together with the municipalities in the region, they are divided into five legally dependent districts. In addition, the administration for the District Church of Southern Germany is located in Stuttgart's Heinestrasse , which consists of the two federal states of Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria, as well as around 20 other mission states.
In addition to the denominations already mentioned, there are also congregations of almost all known Free Churches in Stuttgart, such as the Seventh-day Adventists , the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , the Apostolic Community , the Baptists , the Salvation Army and the Methodists .
The beginnings of the medieval Jewish community in Stuttgart are in the dark. In nearby towns such as Esslingen and Heilbronn as well as in neighboring Leonberg, Jewish communities are documented in the 13th century, in Stuttgart, however, a Jew named Loew is not mentioned until 1343, who was named under Count Ulrich III. held an important position. At that time there was already a Jewish community, most of which lived in what is now Dorotheenstrasse. There stood the first Stuttgart synagogue ("Judenschule"; presumably on the site of Dorotheenstrasse 6) as well as a Judengasse first mentioned in 1350. This community was destroyed in November 1348 because the Jews were blamed for the plague epidemic, which at that time had not yet reached the Stuttgart area. A few decades later, mentioned from 1393, Jews were living in Stuttgart again, now in the St. Leonhards suburb (Esslinger Vorstadt). There was also a Judengasse there again and the second Stuttgart synagogue and a mikveh were located on Judengasse 12 .
After about a hundred years, the Stuttgart Jews were expelled in 1488/98, but Judengasse retained its name until 1894 when it was renamed Brennerstrasse. In Stuttgart, as in all of Württemberg, Jews were not allowed to live or work permanently from 1498 to 1805 after Eberhard I. had ordered their expulsion or imprisonment in his will. However, the ban has been broken repeatedly. To finance its state budget, the Württemberg court maintained so-called court factors , including Joseph Suss Oppenheimer , who was the victim of an anti-Semitic judicial murder in 1738 , Mardochai Schloß and Karoline Kaulla .
In 1828 the living conditions of the Jews were considerably improved by the Equal Opportunities Act . In 1832 the Jewish community was officially (re) established. The third synagogue, inaugurated in 1837, was replaced in 1861 by a new building in the oriental (Moorish) style on Hospitalstrasse. During the Nazi era , the synagogue was destroyed during the November pogroms in 1938 . Many Jews were able to flee abroad from persecution; however, at least 1,200 members of the original 4,500 congregation (1933) were murdered in the Holocaust .
The new synagogue at the same location was built in 1952 as one of the first new synagogues in the Federal Republic after the war. The synagogue at Hospitalstrasse 36 is the center of the Israelite religious community of Württemberg , which covers the entire territory of the former states of Württemberg and Hohenzollern . The community has grown rapidly since 1990, primarily due to the immigration of Jews from Eastern Europe . Today the Jewish community has around 4,000 members again, but only a small number of them practice their faith.
Mainly due to the immigration from Turkey , Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Arab countries since the guest worker days , Stuttgart today has a Muslim population of around 65,000 people. In the 1987 census, 22,599 residents declared themselves Muslim. The statistical office of the state capital assumed around 50,000 Muslims in Stuttgart in 2006 and around 60,000 in 2009. A calculation for May 9, 2011 based on the census figures on migrants resulted in a number of around 55,000 Muslims (9.4% of the population) in the city. 21 mosques of various religious currents are available to them. Furthermore, there is in Bad Cannstatt a CEMEVI the Alevis .
Other religious and world views
The Stuttgart Buddhist Center was founded under this name in 1986. Buddhism is practiced in Stuttgart's Bohnenviertel according to the tradition of the Diamond Way of the Karma Kagyu lineage. The center is one of over 600 centers worldwide and is under the spiritual direction of the 17th Karmapa Trinley Thaye Dorje and Lama Ole Nydahl .
The Association Die Humanisten Baden-Württemberg is a member of the Humanist Association of Germany . The Humanist Center Stuttgart forms the seat of the regional association and has, among other things, a day-care center, which is sponsored by the regional association. In addition, the humanists organize a youth group, carry out youth trips as well as cultural and educational events and offer name and youth celebrations as well as secular weddings and funerals.
The Society for Christian-Jewish Cooperation Stuttgart is dedicated to Judeo-Christian dialogue . Until 2007, Stuttgart was the seat of the umbrella organization for Christian-Islamic dialogue organizations, the Coordination Council for Christian-Islamic Dialogue (KCID). Two of its member organizations operate at the local level.
Stuttgart in Roman times
Due to its location originally the most important place in what is now Stuttgart's urban area, the Altenburg was above the Neckarfurt in what is now Cannstatt . This hill to the left of the Neckar was already settled in prehistoric times, and around 90 AD the oldest settlement in historical times in what is now Stuttgart's urban area was built here: a Roman cavalry fort built to secure the converging traffic routes ( Cannstatt Fort ) , in which a cavalry unit of around 500 men was stationed. An unfortified civilian settlement ( vicus ) was built around the fort and east of the Neckar in the area of today's old town of Bad Cannstatt . It persisted and continued to grow after the fort was relocated with the Limes eastwards to Welzheim ( Valentia [?]) In 159/160 AD . Litter finds show a size of this settlement of at least 19 hectares (research status from 1986). This made the Roman Cannstatt far larger than the medieval Cannstatt (approx. 10 hectares of walled area) and at the same time one of the largest Roman cities in today's Baden-Württemberg after Ladenburg ( Lopodunum ) and Rottenburg ( Sumelocenna ), roughly on a par with Wimpfen, Rottweil ( Arae Flaviae ) and Heidenheim an der Brenz ( Aquileia ). In Roman times, almost all long-distance traffic from Mainz and the Rhineland to Augsburg and Raetia passed through today's Bad Cannstatt. The rich mineral springs of Bad Cannstatt were apparently already used in Roman times.
However, large Roman buildings ( water pipes , thermal baths , theaters , city walls, forum buildings, etc.) have not been proven. Apparently the population of the city declined significantly in the early 3rd century, as the occupancy of the Roman burial grounds has decreased significantly since that time. To this small town belonged a so-called beneficiary station and a larger civil brick factory, which not only produced pottery but also sophisticated building ceramics. It has been established by excavations that the Romans at the latest in the 1st century AD introduced wine-growing on the Rhine and Moselle and that wine-growing there survived the migration period. It has not yet been proven with certainty whether this also applies to the Stuttgart area. There is evidence of wine growing on the Neckar (in Ladenburg) in 628 and in Bavaria in the 7th century as well.
The end of the Roman Cannstatt came with the great Alemannic invasion of 259/260 AD at the latest. The Latin name of the city is unknown.
In the original urban area of Stuttgart (before the union with Bad Cannstatt in 1905) two Roman manors ( villae rusticae ) are occupied, one in the Heusteigviertel and one at today's main station, as well as another brick factory near the main station, the remains of which were in the course of the work for the new train station have been discovered. In today's urban area of Stuttgart there were several other Roman manors, one of which was discovered in 1843 and was located in the center of Stuttgart-Münster, a good kilometer north of Bad Cannstatt.
Stuttgart during the Migration Period and in the early Middle Ages
Until the late 20th century there was no direct evidence of human presence in the area of today's Stuttgart from the migration period , except for a few Alemannic finds - especially in the cemetery of Stuttgart-Feuerbach discovered in 1904 with burials from the 6th century . However, it was considered certain that the conveniently located area was continuously inhabited. Indirect evidence of settlement continuity were some place names with Celtic etymology in and near Stuttgart (including the names Württemberg [< Wirtenberg <Celtic * Virodunum ], Brag- [in Pragsattel , Pragfriedhof ], Bopser , Brie (older Brige <Celtic briga ), Neckar , probably also Cannstatt [<Condistat] and others) and conclusions by analogy with other regions in southwest Germany. Today's Stuttgart districts Möhringen, Vaihingen, Plieningen and Hedelfingen go back to at least the 6th century AD , as the name form on -ingen shows.
Cannstatt, which was important in Roman times, was mentioned in documents as early as 700 AD (before / to 709) as the first place in the area on the occasion of a donation to the St. Gallen monastery founded in 612 . The place, in which, as evidenced by grave finds, Christians also lived around the year 500, acquired special significance for the area through the Martinskirche , which was built between 650 and 700 on the site of today's climbing cemetery . It belonged to the diocese of Constance and was the mother church for a large part of today's Stuttgart city area. Another such early church was in Kornwestheim , built around 635 AD and just north of today's urban area, a third in Plieningen (around 600 AD) in the south of the city area. These three churches were all consecrated to the Frankish imperial saint Martin von Tours and they were the starting points for the Christianization of the Stuttgart area in the 7th century.
It has recently been proven that the area of downtown Stuttgart was also populated during the migration period. During the construction of the main train station in 2014, the remains of an early male settlement from the 3rd and 4th centuries were found in construction site 16 and in the construction area of the culvert to the north on Cannstatter Strasse, about four meters below today's ground level. This discovery from the decades immediately after the Limes fall of 259/260 is extraordinary because the few Alemannic finds of this time were almost all made in hilltop castles . The find includes building structures of wooden houses, some with preserved post positions made of split oak trunks. They are so well preserved that the buildings can be dendrochronologically dated to the exact year, although this did not happen until 2019.
From excavations between 1998 and 2005 it is also known that the area under the Old Castle had been inhabited since the 8th century. Burials were found under the collegiate church as far back as the 7th century, the first secured church building at this point dates from the 10th or 11th century. It was a stone-built, single-nave early Romanesque church 9.10 meters wide and (including the semicircular apse ) about 25.10 meters long (external dimensions; internal dimensions 6.30 × 15.75 m without apse). Since the state of preservation of the finds was poor and only a small part of the area under the collegiate church has been examined, an even older church may have been located here. For the assumption of such an early, then probably wooden church building, on the one hand the location of the church above a Merovingian cemetery and on the other hand the orientation of the collegiate church: From the 9th century at the latest, new churches north of the Alps were always more or less precisely West direction, unless there were compelling reasons against it or other orientated previous buildings. The collegiate church and all of its predecessor buildings are oriented almost exactly in a south-west-north-east direction.
The hamlets of Immenhofen (in today's Heusteigviertel southwest of the old town), Tunzhofen (near the main train station, east of the old town) and the unsecured Frankenbach also go back to the 7th century . Perhaps Frankenbach was nothing more than the name of the future Stuttgart before the founding of the stud farm ( stuotgarten ) in 950 or shortly before.
Foundation of the stud in the 10th century
Stuttgart itself was probably founded as a stud farm ( Stuotgarten ) between 926 and 948 in the Nesenbach valley, five kilometers southwest of the Altenburg, during the Hungarian invasions , the end of which was the battle on the Lechfeld near Augsburg in 955 . Archaeological finds show that a rural settlement had existed here since the late Merovingian period . The founding is commonly attributed to Duke Liudolf von Schwaben , which speaks for a period after 945. Due to the natural conditions of the valley basin, which is closed on three sides, the chosen location was ideal for horse breeding, but rather unfavorable for the development of a larger settlement in contrast to the Neckarfurt. Stuttgart owes its importance later achieved to its choice as a residential location.
Elevation to the city around 1220
The name Stuttgart was first mentioned in the form of postage cards in the Hirsau Codex around 1160 , when Hugo de postage cards bequeathed Stuttgart goods in Stammheim and Sasbach to the Hirsau monastery . This name was only discovered in the mid-1950s by the archivist Karl Otto Müller and led to a discussion as to whether the 800th anniversary of the city of Stuttgart should be celebrated in 1960. They refrained from doing so because the supposed 700th anniversary of the city was not celebrated until 1929.
The settlement near the stud came into the possession of the Margraves of Baden around 1200 . The town elevation brought into play by Hansmartin Decker-Hauff for the year 1219 by Hermann V of Baden did not find general acceptance. The first documented date for this is March 8, 1229, on which Stuttgart in a document of Pope Gregory IX. for the Bebenhausen monastery was named. In 1251, Stuttgart came to the Counts of Württemberg as a dowry for Mechthild von Baden . By this time at the latest there was a castle on the site of today's Old Castle, construction of which began between the 2nd half of the 12th and the 1st half of the 13th century.
In 1286 the Habsburg King Rudolf besieged the city of Stuttgart and razed its walls, in 1287 he took over or destroyed all permanent places in the Stuttgart area. From around 1302 onwards, Count Eberhard I built a moated castle on the site of today's old castle . In the conflict with Emperor Heinrich VII. , Which led to the Imperial War with significant participation of the Imperial City of Esslingen, Stuttgart was lost to the Empire, which is why it was administered by Esslingen from 1312-1315. Eberhard was able to take advantage of the political situation that arose after Heinrich's death and get the lost territories back. Since the Württemberg castle had also been destroyed by Esslingen in 1311, from 1317 he expanded Stuttgart, which was more favorably located in relation to the ongoing threat from Esslingen, by strengthening the fortifications into the count's residence in the emerging Württemberg territorial state . Around 1320, the canons and burial places of the Württembergers were also moved to Stuttgart from Beutelsbach with papal approval, the former being incorporated into the Altenburg Martinskirche, i.e. H. dependent, city church was expanded considerably as a collegiate church. Finally, in 1323, the Bishop of Constance also subordinated the St. Martin's Church to the monastery, which assumed its deanery function . With this at the latest, Stuttgart had surpassed Cannstatt and Altenburg in importance. As early as the end of the 14th century, a first suburb was built to the south-east of the Stuttgart city fortifications: Esslinger or Leonhardsvorstadt, named after the Leonhard Chapel around which it was formed. At the end of the 15th century, Ulrich V created the planned Upper Suburb in the northwest, in the center of which a Dominican monastery with today's Hospital Church was built. As a result of the temporary division of Württemberg , Stuttgart was only the capital of one part of the country from 1442 to 1482. In 1457, the first verifiable state parliament of the Württemberg estates for the Stuttgart region took place in Stuttgart , and in the same year a state parliament for the Urach region was held in Leonberg .
Residence of the Duchy of Württemberg
With the elevation of Eberhard im Bart to Duke, Stuttgart became the ducal residence in 1495 . As a result of of Ulrich guided clashes with Reutlingen and the Swabian League 1520-1534 the city as all of Württemberg was Habsburg, the Peasants' War it was occupied in the spring of 1525 a few days of farmers. In 1534 Ulrich had Erhard Schnepf introduce the Reformation on his return . Under Duke Christoph , a new city fortification was built around 1565 , which included the suburbs, the castle was converted and expanded by Aberlin Tretsch from 1553–1570 / 78 into a representative Renaissance castle, essentially creating the state of the present-day Old Castle. The increased demand for drinking water in Stuttgart made considerable hydraulic engineering measures necessary with the establishment of the Pfaffensee in Glemstal above Stuttgart and the construction of the Christoph tunnel to transfer the water into the Nesenbach valley in 1566–1575 . The New Lusthaus was built between 1584 and 1593 . Heinrich Schickhardt laid out the forerunner of today's Schillerplatz around 1595 . The Thirty Years War left devastating marks. After the battle of Nördlingen , the young Duke Eberhard , his councilors and four members of the landscape committee fled into exile in Strasbourg . The four-year direct rule of the Habsburgs over Württemberg from 1634 to 1638 also resulted in constant burdens for Stuttgart due to the billeting of enemy troops. King Ferdinand III. came to Stuttgart several times in 1634 and 1636 and planned the re-Catholicization of Württemberg. In 1637 the plague raged in Stuttgart. The population halved from a pre-war level of about 10,000 people to less than 5,000 people in 1648. Only 600 men were among them. The first bookshop opened in 1650. The first grammar school was built in 1686. In 1688, as part of the War of the Palatinate Succession, French troops under General Mélac appeared at the gates of the city. Thanks to the diplomacy of the reigning Dowager Duchess Magdalena Sibylla , Stuttgart was spared the fate of Heidelberg, which was destroyed in this war. Duke Eberhard Ludwig moved his residence to Ludwigsburg in 1718 , where the baroque palace , built between 1704 and 1733, was built. It was not until Duke Karl Alexander that Stuttgart regained its old position as the main residence. After the death of Duke Karl Alexander, the anti-Semitic judicial murder of his financial advisor Joseph Suss Oppenheimer took place . In 1744, Duke Carl Eugen was declared of age. In 1746 he laid the foundation stone for the construction of the New Palace . Other construction projects included the Solitude and Hohenheim palaces . In addition, with the establishment of the Hohen Karlsschule Stuttgart at the end of the 18th century, it briefly became a university location. A famous pupil of this institution was Friedrich Schiller , who studied medicine there. Nevertheless, at the end of the 18th century, Stuttgart was still a very provincial city with narrow streets, cattle ranching, an arable population and around 20,000 inhabitants, not including court officials and the military personnel of the Württemberg army . For reasons of economy and fear of the emergence of revolutionary ideas, the High Charles School was dissolved again in 1794 under Duke Ludwig Eugen .
Capital of the Kingdom of Württemberg
In 1806, in the course of the Napoleonic Wars and the founding of the Rhine Confederation , Stuttgart was raised in rank. The previous residence city of the old Wuerttemberg duchy now rose to become the capital of the Kingdom of Wuerttemberg, expanded to include the areas of New Wuerttemberg . After the existence of the new Württemberg state was finally confirmed with the conclusion of the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Stuttgart experienced its gradual rise in the 19th century from the previous narrowness of a small town characterized by Protestant pietism to a mixed denominational metropolis of Württemberg.
The first Cannstatter Volksfest took place in 1818, and in 1820 the burial chapel on the Württemberg was built on the site of the old Württemberg ancestral castle. At the beginning of the 19th century, structures such as Rosenstein Castle , the Wilhelmspalais , the State Gallery and the Königsbau were built . Educational institutions such as the Agriculture School founded in 1818 , the United Real and Trade School founded in 1829 and the Stuttgart Music School founded in 1857 date back to the early and mid-19th centuries. The tradition of Stuttgart as a city of literature was represented in the 19th century by the countless writers who lived there. Names such as Wilhelm Hauff , Ludwig Uhland , Gustav Schwab and Eduard Mörike are of national importance.
At the state festival for the 25th anniversary of King Wilhelm I's reign on September 28, 1841, the Württemberg pageant was held in Stuttgart with 10,390 participants and 200,000 spectators. The anniversary column by Johann Michael Knapp , which was only completed in 1863, is still a reminder of this event today.
On October 22, 1845, the first Württemberg railway ran from the upper administrative city of Cannstatt to Untertürkheim , and from October 15, 1846 also through the Rosenstein tunnel to Stuttgart ( old central station at Schloßplatz ).
At the end of May 1849, following the rejection of the Reich deputation by the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV., The Frankfurt National Assembly moved to Stuttgart at the invitation of the Württemberg Justice Minister Friedrich Römer . The so-called rump parliament only met until June 18, when it was forcibly dissolved.
The meeting of two emperors held in 1857 attracted international attention .
In the course of the beginning of industrialization, the population of today's Stuttgart grew steadily. In 1834 Stuttgart had 35,200 inhabitants, in 1852 the 50,000 mark was exceeded, in 1864 69,084 inhabitants lived in Stuttgart, and in the year the empire was founded , 1871, the city had 91,000 inhabitants. In 1874, Stuttgart became a major city when it exceeded the 100,000-inhabitant mark . This number doubled, also through incorporation, until shortly after the turn of the century (1901: around 185,000, 1904: around 200,000).
The extent and pace of population growth in the second half of the 19th century varied widely within today's urban area. Enormous growth was recorded from 1851 to 1900 in the royal seat (+248%) together with Gaisburg (+428%) and in (Bad) Cannstatt (+298%). The emerging industrial locations along the new railway lines Cannstatt – Untertürkheim – Obertürkheim – Esslingen and Cannstatt – Stuttgart – Feuerbach – Zuffenhausen – Ludwigsburg also developed into growth magnets. The Gäubahn Stuttgart – Freudenstadt was added from 1879, and population growth in Vaihingen and Rohr began to take off. Finally, with the Untertürkheim – Kornwestheim bypass (Schusterbahn), Münster also experienced strong growth in population at the end of the 19th century.
In the 1880s and 1890s, Gottlieb Daimler (1834–1900) laid the foundations for the first automobiles in Cannstatt near Stuttgart . In 1887 he founded the Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft there . After a fire in the plant, the new engine plant was built in 1903 on the Untertürkheim district, where the headquarters of today's Daimler AG is now again .
In 1907 an international socialist congress took place in Stuttgart . 60,000 people attended the opening.
During the First World War , there were air raids on the city: on September 22, 1915, most of the bombs, namely 29, fell in the area of the train station and the nearby Rotebühl barracks , killing three soldiers and injuring 43. Four civilians also died. In the second major attack on September 15, 1918 , eleven people died when a house collapsed on Heusteigstrasse, which was partly caused by previous botched construction .
Capital of the People's State of Württemberg
On November 30, 1918, the Kingdom of Württemberg became a free people's state of Württemberg within the Weimar Republic after King Wilhelm II renounced the crown (revolutionaries stormed his residence, the Wilhelmspalais ) in the course of the events of the November Revolution in the German states . On April 26, 1919, the country adopted a new constitution, which was finally approved in a revised form on September 25, 1919 by the state constituent assembly . In 1920 the city was the seat of the imperial government for a few days (see Kapp Putsch ).
During the Weimar Republic, Stuttgart developed into an economic and cultural center in the south-west of Germany and was one of the urban pioneers in modern architecture (including Tagblatt Tower , Stadtbad Heslach, Kaufhaus Schocken , Weißenhofsiedlung ).
Center in the NS Gau Württemberg-Hohenzollern
The co-ordination of the Württemberg administration and the centralization of Germany at the beginning of the National Socialist era in 1933 made Stuttgart politically insignificant in its position as the state capital, but it remained the cultural and economic center in the central Neckar region. Württemberg was combined with the Hohenzollern Lands to form the NSDAP Württemberg-Hohenzollern district.
The Gestapo took over the Hotel Silber on Dorotheenstrasse , where political opponents of the regime were imprisoned and tortured. “The silver” also became transit camps in concentration camps or for murder for numerous celebrities, for example for Eugen Bolz , Kurt Schumacher or Lilo Herrmann . In 1988 a group of students and citizens erected a memorial stone between the college buildings in Keplerstrasse . The Nazi regime of violence continued to use the regional court at Archivstrasse 12A as the central execution site in southwest Germany, where at least 419 people were killed. A memorial in the atrium reminds of this.
During the November pogrom in 1938 , the old synagogue was burned down and the cemetery chapel of the Jewish community destroyed. The majority of the male Jewish citizens of Stuttgart were arrested by the Gestapo immediately afterwards and taken to the Welzheim police prison or the Dachau concentration camp. Since 1947 a memorial by the sculptor K. Löffler has been commemorating the 2,498 Jews of Württemberg who perished in the Shoah on the Israelite part of the Prague cemetery at Friedhofstrasse 44 .
The memorial at the Nordbahnhof commemorates the deportation of the Stuttgart Jews after 1939 . Until the ban on emigration on October 1, 1941, only around 60 percent of German Jews were able to flee. The Jews still living in Württemberg and Hohenzollern were forced during the war to move into so-called Jewish apartments or Jewish retirement homes, then they were "concentrated" on the Killesberg exhibition grounds by the Stuttgart Stapo control center. On December 1, 1941, the first transport train with around 1,000 people drove to Riga , where they were murdered. Further trains with around 2500 Jews from the region followed until the last weeks of the war. Only 180 of these concentration camp inmates in Württemberg survived.
Towards the end of the Second World War, large parts of the city were destroyed in the Anglo-American air raids on Stuttgart . The heaviest attack took place on September 12, 1944 by the British Royal Air Force on Stuttgart's old town. 75 heavy air mines, 4,300 explosive bombs and 180,000 incendiary bombs were dropped. The subsequent firestorm killed more than 1,000 people. Stuttgart was attacked 53 times in total. 68% of all residential buildings and 75% of industrial facilities were destroyed. A total of 4477 people were killed and 8908 people injured in Stuttgart. On April 21, 1945, French troops occupied Stuttgart.
Following the occupation of Stuttgart by French occupation troops, at least 1,389 rapes occurred in Stuttgart. On July 8, 1945, the French occupation forces surrendered Stuttgart to US soldiers after repeated requests; from then on the city belonged to the American zone of occupation . Stuttgart was the capital of the state of Württemberg-Baden , which existed from 1945 to 1952 .
The military administration set up DP camps in Stuttgart to accommodate so-called Displaced Persons (DP). Most of the DPs were former forced laborers from Central and Eastern Europe in the region's industrial plants. The Stuttgart-West DP camp only housed more than 1,400 Jewish survivors of the Holocaust . The camp was closed in 1949 and the remaining DPs were moved to a DP camp in Heidenheim an der Brenz .
The city's application in 1948 as the new capital of the still-to-be-founded Federal Republic failed primarily due to the high financial burden (one million DM annually for rent). In addition to Stuttgart, the cities of Frankfurt am Main , Kassel and Bonn also applied; a commission of the parliamentary council had previously checked all cities for their suitability.
In the post-war years , the new Lord Mayor Arnulf Klett largely avoided the ideological instigation of historical reconstructions , especially on the Stuttgart market square , which is important in terms of building culture . Large parts of the ruins of the city therefore came to the rubble mountain Birkenkopf . The reconstruction was mainly carried out according to modernist ideals and the Athens Charter with functional separation into residential, business and industrial areas. The idea was to create a car-friendly city . Entire streets and squares that had not been damaged or were hardly damaged were also torn down. In 1955, in the 150th year of Friedrich Schiller's death , the last remains of his alma mater , the Hohen Karlsschule near the New Palace , were demolished to make room for the widening of Bundesstraße 14 (Konrad-Adenauer-Straße). This rigorous building policy was already sharply criticized by contemporaries.
Capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg
The population, which in the last years of the war had declined by almost half (April 1942: around 498,000, April 1945: around 266,000) mainly due to evacuation, flight and air raids, grew as a result of the influx of expellees from the formerly German eastern regions in the late 1940s and the 1950s again massively. In 1962 the city reached its highest population ever with around 640,000. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the first guest workers came to the Stuttgart region as a result of the labor shortage and the economic miracle in post-war West Germany . At first these came mainly from Italy , later also from Greece and a large part from what was then Yugoslavia , from the 1970s also from Turkey .
The 1959 to 1963 in Stammheim built prison Stuttgart in 1975 as part of the Stuttgart Court held Stammheim process against leading members of the extreme left-wing terrorist group RAF extended by a maximum-security prison. Andreas Baader , Ulrike Meinhof , Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe were imprisoned in this part of the Stuttgart-Stammheim prison from 1975 until their suicides on May 9, 1976 (Meinhof) and October 18, 1977 (the night of the death in Stammheim ). (see also German autumn ).
From June 17 to 19, 1983, the heads of state and government of the EC met in Stuttgart for a summit.
Another major media event was Michael Gorbachev's visit on June 14, 1989, when the highlight was a large reception in the New Palace.
In 2006, as in 1974, Stuttgart was one of the venues for the soccer world championship , among other things the game for third place took place here.
In the summer of 2010, the city came to the attention of a broad public because of the protests against the Stuttgart 21 rail project .
Stuttgart's current territorial status is the result of several waves of incorporation. The area of the inner city area was essentially completed with the incorporation of Gaisburg (1901) at the beginning of the 20th century; the later incorporation of Kaltental (1922) and the assignment of the Frauenkopf (von Rohracker 1948) finally rounded off the area of the inner city area.
All incorporations from 1905 onwards gradually formed the areas of the outer urban area. On April 1, 1942, the incorporations with the compulsory assignment of Stammheim and the southern Filder suburbs were completed. In the post-war period, even during the major regional reform in Baden-Württemberg in the mid-1970s, no further incorporations were added.
|Date or year||places||Increase in ha|
|1860||Heslach , Ostheim , Gablenberg|
|Apr 1, 1901||Gaisburg||253.8|
|Apr 1, 1905||Cannstatt (union with Stuttgart, no incorporation; from July 24, 1933: Bad Cannstatt), Untertürkheim , Wangen||2568.1|
|Aug 1, 1908||Degerloch||718.4|
|Apr 1, 1922||Botnang , Hedelfingen , Kaltental, Obertürkheim||2016.2|
|Apr 1, 1923||Brühl (outsourced to Esslingen )||−28.2|
|Jul 1, 1929||Hofen||280.1|
|Apr 1, 1931||Zuffenhausen||921.3|
|May 1, 1931||Rotenberg||163.3|
|Jul 1, 1931||Muenster||360.5|
|May 1, 1933||Feuerbach , Weil im Dorf (from April 19, 1955: Weilimdorf) , Mühlhausen (including Mönchfeld) , Zazenhausen||3283.1|
|Apr 1, 1937||Heumaden (including Lederberg) , Rohracker (including Frauenkopf), Sillenbuch , Uhlbach||1312.0|
|Apr 1, 1942||Birkach (including Riedenberg and Schönberg with Kleinhohenheim ), Fasanenhof, Hohenheim , Möhringen (including Sonnenberg ), Plieningen , Solitude , Stammheim , Vaihingen (including Büsnau, Dürrlewang) , Rohr||5818.7|
In the times of the county or the Duchy of Württemberg , the administration of the city of Stuttgart was headed by a Vogt . This was installed in his office by the count or duke and could be dismissed by him at will. After the administration was split up into a city chief office and an administrative chief office (for the surrounding area), both authorities were each headed by a city chief or chief magistrate. From 1811, the city's chief administrative officer was given the title of city director .
After the introduction of the right of self-administration of the municipalities in Württemberg, which had become a kingdom, in 1819, the cities and municipalities were given a certain say in the appointment of the mayor, who in future was called the mayor , in cities the township of the town . At that time, the Lord Mayor of Württemberg was merely a special designation that the King could bestow. It was not awarded to all city schools in Stuttgart. Only when the Württemberg municipal code came into force in 1930 was the title of Lord Mayor officially introduced for all cities with more than 20,000 inhabitants.
After 1918, with the dissolution of the Kingdom of Württemberg, the city lost its importance as a royal seat; it became the capital of the People's State of Württemberg within the Weimar Republic designated the German Reich . During the Kapp Putsch in March 1920, Stuttgart was the seat of the Reich government for a few days .
The first municipal council elections were held in the American-occupied zone very early after the end of the war. In Stuttgart election day fell on May 26, 1946. Before the end of the two-year election period, the second municipal council election, with a six-year election period, took place on December 7, 1947. From 1947 to 1971, half of the municipal council (30) was elected every 3 years ("rolling system of renewal elections"). The term of office of the municipal councils was six years. The entire municipal council has been elected for a five-year term since 1975.
The electoral system in Stuttgart is a proportional representation system in which the voter has extensive possibilities of influencing the casting of votes by cumulating (accumulating votes for one candidate up to three votes) and variegating (compiling names from different lists). In total, as many votes are available to each voter as there are local councils to elect (60). The Sainte-Laguë method has been used to allocate seats since 2014 . There is no threshold clause .
After the Second World War, the non-party lawyer Arnulf Klett was mayor from 1945 to 1974, then the lawyer Manfred Rommel ( CDU ) from 1974 to 1997 and then the lawyer Wolfgang Schuster (CDU) from 1997 to 2013. On October 21, 2012 the linguist Fritz Kuhn ( Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen ) was elected Lord Mayor. He took office on January 7, 2013.
The next election as Lord Mayor of Stuttgart is scheduled for November 8, 2020, incumbent Kuhn is not running for re-election.
In all 23 districts there has been the possibility - partly since 1995 - of forming youth councils . There are currently 12 committees in 15 districts. Project groups exist in districts in which too few candidates have registered. All young people between the ages of 14 and 18 who have lived in the district for at least three months are entitled to vote and are eligible for election. The number of seats depends on the number of inhabitants. The term of office is two years, the last elections took place from January 18 to February 5, 2016. Each of the youth council bodies sends three, and each of the active project groups one delegate to the city-wide working group of the Stuttgart Youth Council . He elects three equal speakers from his ranks to represent him, as well as other representatives in various committees in the city.
coat of arms
The coat of arms of the city of Stuttgart shows a soaring black horse - the so-called "Stuttgarter Rössle" - in a golden field. The coat of arms in its current form has been in official use since April 11, 1938. The city colors are black and yellow. The city flag was awarded on July 10, 1950 by the Württemberg-Baden Council of Ministers .
The first surviving illustration of the Stuttgart city arms comes from the city seal of the year 1312. It shows two horses of different sizes ( heraldically ) striding to the right in the early and high Gothic triangular shield. In the city seal of 1433, the shape of the city arms was changed. The coat of arms shows a (heraldic) horse galloping to the right in a late Gothic round shield. This coat of arms essentially served as the official Stuttgart city coat of arms until the 19th century. The representation of the horse has been changed several times over the years. It was shown walking, running, galloping, jumping, climbing and erect. In 1938 the current form prevailed. Originally its basic color was silver, for the first time in 1699 according to a book of coats of arms gold. This color gradually gained acceptance in the second half of the 19th century, based on the Württemberg house colors. It is a "talking" coat of arms, that is, the original stud, to which the city is said to go back, is symbolized here.
The sports car manufacturer Porsche - based in Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen - has the city arms in a slightly modified form in its company logo. The similarity of the coat of arms to that of the Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari , however, is coincidental: It goes back to Francesco Baracca , the most successful Italian fighter pilot in the First World War. This adorned his plane with a rearing horse, which he had derived from the coat of arms of the cavalry regiment in which he had previously served, the "Reggimento Piemonte Reale Cavalleria". Baracca's mother gave Enzo Ferrari the suggestion to use the symbol as a good luck charm on his cars. Ferrari put this into practice from 1932. He underlaid the black horse with the yellow coat of arms of his hometown Modena . In this composition, a coat of arms was created that is very similar to that of Stuttgart.
Stuttgart was one of the pioneers in the subject of town twinning in post-war Europe. Just three years after the end of World War II, the city entered into a partnership with St. Helen's in the land of the former war opponent Great Britain. Today, Stuttgart maintains city partnerships with the following ten cities on four continents:
In addition, the following city friendships are maintained:
As part of the Franco-German friendship , the Zuffenhausen district has been linked with the French city of La Ferté-sous-Jouarre since 1977 , and Vaihingen with Melun since 1985 . Bad Cannstatt has also had a partnership with Újbuda , the XI, which is similarly rich in mineral water , since 1996 . District of Budapest, Hungary .
Culture and sights
Opera, theater and ballet
The Stuttgart State Theaters , with their Stuttgart Opera, Stuttgart Ballet and Stuttgart Drama divisions, are the largest three-division theater in the world. The main venues are located in the Upper Palace Gardens and were built from 1909 to 1912 by the Munich architect Max Littmann as the Royal Court Theater: the opera house (formerly “Big House”) is largely preserved, the theater (formerly “Little House”) was destroyed in the Second World War and from 1959 to 1962 replaced by a new building based on a design by Hans Volkart at the same location. The Kammertheater (opened in 1983) and the North Studiobühne (opened in 2010) are also part of the state theaters' venues. A total of almost a thousand performances take place at the state theaters each season. The Stuttgart Opera was voted Opera House of the Year six times . The Stuttgart Ballet is one of the world's leading ballet companies.
The theater in Stuttgart consists of the venues Das Alte Schauspielhaus and Komödie im Marquardt . The Old Playhouse was built in 1909 on the site of a former barracks and was the most renowned theater in the city until the reopening of the Small House of the State Theater in 1962. The comedy in Marquardt was founded in 1951 in the former Hotel Marquardt and is primarily used for comedic entertainment. The theaters in Stuttgart are the spoken theaters with the highest audience figures in Baden-Württemberg and are therefore among the top five German spoken theaters.
The “FITZ” center for puppet theater in the “Unterm Turm” cultural area has been in existence for over 20 years, and since 2003 the JES - Young Ensemble Stuttgart - has also been here. The tri-bühne theater can also be found here .
The Friedrichsbau Varieté was brought back to life in 1994 in a rotunda in the new Friedrichsbau building on historical ground after the splendid Art Nouveau building was completely burned out in the Second World War. After the owner L-Bank gave notice , the theater moved to Pragsattel in 2014 .
The art of pantomime has a nationwide unique and special status in Stuttgart . This is due to the pantomime theater Makal City Theater GmbH, which can be seen as a guest performance and touring theater, as well as the international pantomime theater, which has its home in the east of Stuttgart with year-round pantomime events and performances with the Black Theater. In addition, there is the opportunity to learn the art of pantomime on a professional level. The founder of pantomime in Germany is the master pantomime Peter Makal " Ambassador of Art ".
The Rosenau cabaret stage in the west of Stuttgart can look back on a long and traditional history. It also serves as a stage for young talent in the fields of cabaret, comedy and cabaret. Due to the special combination of cultural and culinary offerings, the Rosenau is also known as the “living room of the West”.
The nationally best known literary cabaret in Stuttgart is the Renitenztheater . It was founded in 1961, making it the city's oldest cabaret stage.
The puppeteers in the "Theater am Faden" have been dancing the puppets and marionettes, which they often made themselves, since 1972. Other puppet theaters are the "Theater in the Bathtub" in the Höhenpark Killesberg and the "Theater Tredeschin" in the Haußmannstrasse. The "Theater La-Plapper-Papp" has called itself a stick puppet theater since 1960.
Nelly's Puppet Theater plays with puppets and marionettes for children aged three and over. The Theater am Olgaeck , which focuses on cultural exchange with Eastern Europe, plays in the same building .
The Theaterhaus Stuttgart led its existence from 1984 in the district of Wangen - since 2000 on the Pragsattel, here the Stuttgart Theater Prize is awarded annually. Since 2008 the theater has had a permanent ballet company with Gauthier Dance .
The production center for dance and performance in the old rock cellar in Stuttgart Feuerbach offers a platform for freelance dance and performance art in Stuttgart .
The "Treffpunkt Rotebühlplatz " is mainly known for dance, theater, the international solo dance theater festival and new music.
The State University for Music and Performing Arts Stuttgart maintains the Wilhelma Theater in Bad Cannstatt .
Not far from the Wilhelma Theater, the theater ship has been at the Mühlgrün pier in Bad Cannstatt since 2008 . Mainly comedies and cabaret can be seen on the converted inland cargo ship.
The “Wortkino” can be found in Werastraße.
The oldest amateur theater in Stuttgart, the ABV-Zimmertheater (founded in 1921, the theater department of the Allgemeine Bildungsverein 1863 eV Stuttgart) plays in the building of the former state parliament on Heusteigstrasse.
Swabian Volkstheater play among others the “Boulevärle”, the “Stuttgarter Komödle”, “d'Scheureburzler” and the “Neugereuter Theäterle”.
In the SI-Centrum two musical theaters are located - the "Stage Palladium Theater" and the "Apollo Theater Stage". The German premieres of Miss Saigon (1994), Beauty and the Beast (1997), Tanz der Vampire (2000), 42nd Street (2003), Wicked - Die Hexen von Oz (2007), Rebecca (2011 ), Mary Poppins (2016) and Anastasia (2018).
The Merlin cultural center offers cultural programs in the fields of music, cabaret, theater, performance, literature, short film and children's theater.
Five of Baden-Württemberg's eleven state museums are located in Stuttgart, such as the Old and New State Galleries . Opened around 1843 and expanded to include the new building in 1984, the Staatsgalerie enjoys European attention. Art from the 14th century to modern times can be viewed in the architecturally interesting rooms, including works by Cranach the Elder , Rubens , Rembrandt , Monet , Renoir , Cézanne , Picasso and Beuys .
The Württemberg State Museum is housed in the Old Castle . Founded in 1862 by Wilhelm I, King of Württemberg, its roots go back to the 16th century, when the dukes of that time collected everything that was rare, precious and unusual. The country's history from the Stone Age to the modern age is presented. In addition to the headquarters, there are two other branches in Stuttgart and eight branches in Baden-Württemberg.
The House of History Baden-Württemberg was founded in 1987. In 2002 it was given its own museum building on the Stuttgart culture mile. National history, objects typical of the country and a theme park that puts the problems of the present in a historical context are the three most important subject areas. The House of History has five branches in the country.
Natural history and fossil fuel are the cornerstones of the State Museum of Natural History in Stuttgart , which has two branches in the Rosenstein Park: the Museum at the Löwentor and the Museum Schloss Rosenstein . The first is dedicated to the numerous fossil finds in Baden-Württemberg. A large part of the exhibition includes everything related to dinosaurs . The Natural History Museum, which has been housed in Rosenstein Castle since 1954 , was founded in 1791 as the "Natural History Collection". The biological collection is a crowd puller and the natural science collection is one of the most important in Europe.
The Linden Museum is an ethnographic museum. Its origins can be traced back to 1882, and it has had its own building since 1911. It is one of the largest ethnographic museums in Europe and provides information about Africa, the Orient, South Asia, East Asia, the South Seas, North America and South America. The permanent exhibitions on non-European ethnic groups deserve special attention .
In addition to these state museums, there are many other museums in the state capital. The Stuttgart City Art Museum was opened in March 2005 as the “successor museum ” of the Stuttgart City Gallery. In the first year after the opening of the house, it became an attraction with 330,000 visitors. Its exposed location in the Königsstraße pedestrian zone also contributes to this, as does the extraordinary architecture of a strict glass cube surrounding the exhibition rooms. In essence, modern art is part of the collection. It houses the most important collection of Otto Dix 's works. The City Museum has been located in the Wilhelmspalais , which was converted into the StadtPalais , since April 2018 .
With almost 550,000 visitors in 2009, the Mercedes-Benz Museum is the most-visited museum in the city. The company's vehicle collection has existed since 1923. The Mercedes-Benz World was opened in 2006 . On their way through the museum designed by UNStudio , visitors experience a journey through time through 120 years of automotive history. Historical vehicles from the first car in the world to the legendary Silver Arrows to the present day of the Mercedes-Benz brand can be viewed. The Porsche Museum in Zuffenhausen, which opened in 1976, showed around 20 constantly changing exhibits until the new museum was completed on January 31, 2009. In the meantime, around 80 vehicles can be viewed in the architecturally extremely interesting new building, with models being shown alternately.
In the Hegelhaus (birthplace of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ) the life of the philosopher born in Stuttgart is depicted. Several lapidaries can be visited in and around Stuttgart. The tram museum documents the history of the Stuttgart trams (SSB) with historical vehicles from 1868 to 1986 as well as objects from operation and technology. In the Fire Brigade Museum Stuttgart (Münster) the development of fire fighting in Stuttgart is described. The Theodor-Heuss-Haus on the Killesberg was opened in 2002 and since then has been showing the life of the first Federal President Theodor Heuss in his former home. The “Signs of Remembrance” memorial at the Nordbahnhof reminds us that more than 2000 Jews from Stuttgart and Württemberg were deported from this place during the Nazi era between 1941 and 1945.
Libraries and Archives
The Württemberg State Library , together with the Badische Landesbibliothek (BLB) in Karlsruhe, is the regional library for Baden-Württemberg. The WLB is specifically responsible for the administrative districts of Stuttgart and Tübingen. The state library is particularly dedicated to the procurement, indexing, archiving and provision of literature on Württemberg, the so-called Württembergica. Together with BLB, it also has the right to deposit copies for Baden-Württemberg (since 1964, previously only for Württemberg) and is therefore an archive library.
The Stuttgart University Library (UBS) is a central facility of the University of Stuttgart . It forms the center of the university's library system and ensures that research, teaching and studies are supplied with literature and other information resources. In addition to the members of the university, it is also available to citizens of the city. Together with other academic libraries and documentation centers in the Stuttgart area - such as the Hohenheim University Library - UBS forms the library information system for the Stuttgart region (BISS).
The main state archive in Stuttgart is the archive responsible for the ministries of the state of Baden-Württemberg. It has been located right next to the WLB since 1965 and has been part of the Baden-Württemberg State Archives since 2005 . It contains the holdings of the county or the duchy of Württemberg until 1806, the central authorities of Württemberg from the 19th and 20th centuries and the rulers and imperial cities in southern Württemberg that fell to Württemberg as a result of the mediatization at the beginning of the 19th century.
The Stuttgart City Archive is the archive responsible for the state capital Stuttgart. It preserves the historically valuable written and pictorial material of the city authorities and collects the legacies of people and institutions with significant city history as well as individual documents and images on the history of Stuttgart. The material stored in the archive is generally accessible to the public and can be viewed in the reading room at Bellingweg 21 in Bad Cannstatt.
The regional church archive stores the holdings of the Württemberg church leadership and other church bodies and institutions: the ducal and royal Württemberg consistory, the Evangelical upper church council, deanery and parish archives, educational institutions, works and associations as well as estates and collections. It also has the microfilms of all church registers (especially baptism, marriage, death and family registers) from the Evangelical Church in Württemberg . These are made available on the Internet via the Archion archive portal, which is also located in Stuttgart .
The “Archive of the Donors” is dedicated to the dead in the city. Since 2005 the donors have been working on a memory book about “The Dead of the City”. So far, around 5000 names of victims of the National Socialist regime have been recorded.
- State Orchestra Stuttgart (Orchestra of the Württemberg State Theaters) with over 400 years of history; the forerunner was first mentioned in a document in 1589 as the Württemberg court orchestra ; General music director is Sylvain Cambreling
- Stuttgart Philharmonic ; founded in 1924
- SWR Symphonieorchester des Südwestrundfunks (SWR); Created in 2016 from the merger of the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra of the SWR, founded in 1946, and the SWR Symphony Orchestra of Baden-Baden and Freiburg .
- Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra V .; founded in 1945 by Karl Münchinger
- SWR Big Band Stuttgart; founded in 1951 as the "Südfunk-Tanzorchester"
- Young Chamber Orchestra Stuttgart ; Conductor: Alexander Scherf, founded in 1960 as the "Stuttgart Youth Chamber Orchestra"
- Daimler Symphony Orchestra Stuttgart; founded in 1979
- Christophorus Symphony Orchestra ; founded in 1969
- Student Symphony Orchestra Stuttgart ; founded in 1990
- Stuttgarter Liederkranz ; founded in 1824
- Stuttgart hymn choir boys
- Boys' choir collegium iuvenum Stuttgart
- St. Eberhard Cathedral Chapel
- Girls' choir at St. Eberhard Cathedral , founded in 1994 by Martin Dücker
- Kolping Choir Stuttgart; founded in 1872 as the "singing department of the Catholic Gesellenverein Stuttgart", today the second largest male choir in Stuttgart
- SWR Vocal Ensemble Stuttgart; founded in 1946 as "Südfunk-Chor Stuttgart"
- Bach Choir Stuttgart
- " Gächinger Kantorei "; founded in 1954 by Helmuth Rilling , named after the place where it was founded in Gächingen on the Swabian Alb
- Chamber Choir Stuttgart ; founded in 1968 by Frieder Bernius
- Württemberg Chamber Choir ; founded in 1970 by Dieter Kurz
- Stuttgart Kantorei; founded in 1994 founded by Kay Johannsen
- Untertürkheimer Kantorei; founded in 1892 as the "Evangelical Church Choir Untertürkheim"
- Chamber choir “ Cantus Stuttgart ”; founded in 1996 as "Cantus Cannstatt"
- New Choir Stuttgart; founded in 1985.
- Singakademie Stuttgart ; founded in 2002 as an ensemble ad libitum Stuttgart
- Academic choir of the University of Stuttgart
- Philharmonia Choir Stuttgart; was formed in 1986 from the Philharmonia Vocal Ensemble and the Philharmonic Choir
- Stuttgart Oratorio Choir
The Neckar Valley Viaduct Untertürkheim is a 1400 meter long combination of several bridges on the federal highway 14 in the Neckar Valley near Stuttgart-Untertürkheim. The plans for a connecting road from the Remstal into the Neckar valley go back to 1932, but construction did not begin until 1986.
The Nesenbach valley near Stuttgart-Vaihingen is bridged by the Nesenbach viaduct . The original building was destroyed in 1945 and only rebuilt in 1946. As part of the expansion of the S-Bahn line to Vaihingen, the viaduct was replaced in 1982/1983 by a new, four-track bridge that visually corresponds to the former viaduct.
The Stuttgart-Münster railway viaduct runs across the Neckar Valley and connects Untertürkheim with Kornwestheim. The bypass line was put into operation in 1896, the 855-meter-long bridge was replaced by a concrete-steel construction in 1985.
The Stuttgart-Münster power plant serves primarily as a waste incineration plant . The power plant, which has existed since 1908 and is located directly on the Neckar, can also be operated as a heating and coal-fired power plant as well as with gas turbines. In 1964 the 182 meter high chimney was added.
The Stuttgart-Gaisburg thermal power station is a coal-fired power station on the banks of the Neckar in Stuttgart-Gaisburg. It is used exclusively to provide district heating. Also in Gaisburg is the Stuttgart-Gaisburg gas works , built in 1874/75 , which was used to generate gas by means of coal gasification until 1972 and has been used for gas storage since then. 1928–1929 the 100 meter high gas boiler was built, which is considered the landmark of the district.
In the Züblin house in Stuttgart-Möhringen is the headquarters of Ed. Züblin AG. The striking office building in reinforced concrete prefabricated construction was built in 1983–1984. The glass-roofed inner courtyard is used several times a year as a location for music events and theater performances.
In the center of Stuttgart is the Stiftskirche , main church of the Evangelical Church in Württemberg . It was first dated in 1170, then expanded, destroyed and rebuilt several times. It is considered a landmark in the city center.
The Protestant Leonhard Church is the second oldest church to be founded in Stuttgart's old town. Today's church found its origin in a chapel consecrated to St. Leonhard around 1337, which initially probably served as a station for pilgrims on the Way of St. James.
The Protestant hospital church was a late Gothic hall church that was built between 1471 and 1493 for the Dominican order.
In 1478 the Protestant town church St. Germanus was built in Untertürkheim , but was mentioned in a document as early as 1289. According to a chronicler, the church was built as a thank you for some very fruitful years and led to Untertürkheim becoming an independent parish.
The St. Eberhard Cathedral (formerly: Stadtpfarrkirche St. Eberhard) has been the second cathedral church in the Rottenburg-Stuttgart diocese since 1978 . In 1808 the foundation stone was laid for this first new Catholic church in Stuttgart since the Reformation. The church was consecrated on October 1, 1811.
St. Barbara was built in 1783/1784 as a Catholic church in Hofen . Pilgrimages to the Stuttgart Madonna, brought to Hofen by the last Catholic priest of the Stuttgart collegiate church in 1535, have been held since 1954.
The Protestant St. Vitus Chapel, built in 1380, is in Mühlhausen . Wall paintings from the 15th century with scenes from the Bible and the St. Vitus legend are significant in terms of art history.
The Martinskirche in Plieningen is the oldest church in Stuttgart . The original church, made of wood, was built around 600 AD. The origin of the Romanesque stone building lies in the St. Martinus Church, which was built in the Mönchhof in the 12th century.
The old castle is located in the center of Stuttgart on Schloßplatz and dates back to a moated castle from the 10th century. The first castle was built around 950 to protect the mare garden. The New Castle is in the immediate vicinity . The foundation stone for the baroque residence of Duke Carl Eugen was laid on September 3, 1746, it was not completed until 1807. After the end of the monarchy, the New Palace became the property of the State of Württemberg in 1918.
The Hohenheim Castle of the same name is located in the Hohenheim district . It was built between 1772 and 1793 by Duke Carl Eugen for his future wife Franziska von Leutrum. Today the palace is mainly used by the University of Hohenheim and is surrounded by the Hohenheim Gardens .
Also under Duke Carl Eugen, the Solitude Palace (French: solitude ) was built as a hunting and representation palace from 1764 to 1769 . Located on a long ridge between the cities of Leonberg, Gerlingen and the Stuttgart districts of Weilimdorf and Botnang, it offers an unobstructed view to the north of the Württemberg lowlands towards Ludwigsburg. The Akademie Schloss Solitude is a foundation under public law that awards residency grants to artists for six or twelve months. During the scholarship period, the artists live and work in 45 furnished studios, which are located in the castle's two former office and cavalier buildings.
The natural history museum is housed in Rosenstein Castle. It was built from 1822 to 1830 under King Wilhelm I in a classical style. It is located on the edge of the Neckar valley in the middle of the Rosenstein Park, which was created at the same time . From the castle you have a clear view of the mausoleum, the burial chapel on the Württemberg , which was built for King Wilhelm's second wife Katharina Pavlovna .
In the east of Stuttgart , the Villa Berg and the surrounding park were built from 1845 to 1893 on behalf of the Württemberg Crown Prince Karl . The villa, built in the style of the Italian neo-renaissance , acted as the initial building of the southwest German villa architecture of the 19th century.
Originally intended as a "bathhouse", construction began in 1842 on the first building of the so-called Wilhelma on the instructions of the king . The architect Ludwig von Zanth managed to combine what was understood by the Moorish style with the skills of German craftsmen, the living needs of a Swabian monarch and the Central European climate. When the Wilhelma was inaugurated in 1846 on the occasion of the wedding of Crown Prince Karl and the Tsar's daughter Olga Nikolajewna , there was a ballroom, two main buildings with several court rooms, various pavilions, greenhouses and spacious parks.
The Wilhelmspalais on Charlottenplatz was the residence of the last King of Württemberg, Wilhelm II. It was built between 1834 and 1840 primarily as the residence of his two oldest daughters, Marie and Sophie. The Stuttgart central library was located in the building for many years and now houses the city museum after renovation .
The Stuttgarter Stäffele are the city's well-known staircases: there are more than 400 with a total length of over 20 kilometers. Most of them date from the time of viticulture in the city until the beginning of the 19th century. In order to be able to cultivate the steep terraces at all, stairs and paths had to be created. Later, when the city continued to grow up the slopes and the vineyards were partially displaced by houses and streets, the stadiums were used as footpaths to the newly built residential areas. Some have been artistically expanded and supplemented with plants and fountains.
Well-known Stäffele are, for example, the Wächterstaffel, the Eugenstaffel, the Sängerstaffel, Buchenhofstaffel or the Sinner's relay.
The Stäffele popularly earned the town's inhabitants the nickname Stäffelesrutscher .
Because of its hilly topography, Stuttgart is also a city of tunnels. These include road, rail, S-Bahn and light rail tunnels.
The Wagenburg tunnel from 1941 originally served as an air raid shelter . The 824 meter long south tube was expanded until 1958 and when it opened it was the longest road tunnel in Germany. The Heslach tunnel with a length of 2300 meters was built from 1980 to 1991. This is followed on the B 14 by the Viereichenhautunnel (290 meters) and the Gäubahn tunnel (450 meters) to the Schattenring.
When it was built, the 124 meter long and 10.5 meter wide Schwab Tunnel was the widest tunnel in Europe. It was built from 1894 to 1896, making it the second inner-city tunnel in Europe after the Sigmundstor in Salzburg . Tram line 8 also ran through this tunnel until 1972.
Other tunnels are:
- the Johannesgraben tunnel (approx. 200 meters) on the federal motorway 831 in Stuttgart-Vaihingen,
- Hengstäcker (780 meters) and Österfeld tunnels (370 meters) on the north-south road ,
- at the merging of the B 10 and B 14: the Berger Tunnel, the Leuze and Schwanenplatz Tunnels (500 meters) in Stuttgart-Berg near the mineral baths,
- Pragsatteltunnel (720 meters) of the B 10 at Löwentor and
- the Feuerbacher Tunnel (about 1200 meters), which relieves the Feuerbach from the B 295.
The oldest railway tunnel in Stuttgart is the four-track Prague tunnel to Feuerbach. The first of the two tubes was completed in 1846. The Kriegsberg tunnel and the Hasenberg tunnel are on the route to Böblingen and are part of the Gäubahn . The Rosenstein tunnel on the route to Bad Cannstatt had already started in 1844 and was completed in 1846. It has long been out of service, but still walled up, because from around 1912 two new tubes were built east of it, which are now in operation as a suburban railway tunnel and a long-distance railway tunnel. The city center is crossed by the 8,788-meter-long S-Bahn tunnel of the connecting line between the Hauptbahnhof and Österfeld stations . Part of this tunnel is also called the Hasenberg tunnel .
Light rail tunnel
Beginning in the mid-1960s, the Stuttgart tram was expanded into a light rail , with numerous inner-city routes being laid underground. At the same time, the tunnels were equipped with an extended clearance profile required for the light rail vehicles so that they could be changed from meter to standard gauge . The entire inner city area was tunnelled by 1983, followed by the Weinsteig Tunnel (1987), Degerloch (1990), Feuerbach Siemensstraße (1984), Feuerbach Wiener Straße (1990), Weilimdorf (1992), Killesberg (1993), Botnanger Sattel (1994) ), Gerlingen (1997), Waldau (1998), Sillenbuch (1999), Ruit (2000), Steinhaldenfeld (2005), Fasanenhof with crossing under the B27 (2010) and Zuffenhausen (2011). As part of the construction work on Stuttgart 21 , the main station - city library tunnel was relocated and both directions of travel were divided into different tubes, and an underground branch from the Heilbronner Strasse tunnel to Budapester Platz was built (2017). The branching structure with the Staatsgalerie stop is under construction (commissioning expected in 2019).
Towers and skyscrapers
One of the city's landmarks is the Stuttgart TV tower , which was built south of the urban basin in the Degerloch district. It stands a little below the highest point of the Bopser (also called Hoher Bopser ; ). As the world's first reinforced concrete television tower , it was built from 1954 to 1955 and is 216.61 m high. Originally, a 200 meter high steel lattice mast, which was common at the time, was intended as a carrier for radio and television antennas. The idea of making the tower cage also usable for tourism paid off just five years after it was built: the construction costs of 4.2 million DM were amortized by the entrance fees . The television tower thus became the model for various structures around the world.
The Stuttgart telecommunications tower of Deutsche Telekom AG stands on the Frauenkopf ( ) . Also made of reinforced concrete, it is 192 m high. Built between 1970 and 1972, it cost around DM 9.5 million. In addition to these two, the Stuttgart radio tower , built in 1966 on the Raichberg , and the radio tower Stuttgart-Burgholzhof (1989) near Pragsattel, are among the city's better-known radio towers.
The 61 meter high Tagblatt Tower in Stuttgart-Mitte was built between 1924 and 1928 and was thus the first exposed concrete high -rise in Germany. It is also considered a landmark of the cityscape. The name comes from the original use by the daily newspaper Stuttgarter Neues Tagblatt .
The 42 meter high Killesberg tower , built as a lookout tower, is located in the Killesberg Park . In 1993 the International Horticultural Exhibition was exhibited in the park . An artificial elevation was required to allow a broad overview of the area. The shape came about because the builders had the requirement, on the one hand, to create a filigree tower that would fit into the landscape, and on the other hand, had to do justice to the actual task of providing an overview. The result was the cable net construction.
Other observation towers are the Bismarck tower in Stuttgart-Nord and the Burgholzhof observation tower in Bad Cannstatt. The former stands on the Gähkopf ( ) and offers a good view of the Stuttgart city area as well as distant views in all directions. It was built between 1902 and 1904. The Burgholzhof observation tower, built in 1891, allows a good view of Stuttgart-East, Bad Cannstatt and the Neckar Valley to Esslingen am Neckar.
The Kriegsbergturm in the Stuttgart district of Relenberg is a lookout tower built in 1895 at 353 meters above sea level. NN high mountain of war . This is only open to the public for special occasions.
In Stuttgart-Degerloch there is a 400 cubic meter water tower that was built between 1911 and 1912.
The tower of the main station rises 56 meters in the center of the city. The construction of the station took almost eight years from the laying of the foundation stone in 1914 to its opening in 1922, delayed by the First World War. A Mercedes star with a diameter of five meters rotates on the viewing terrace .
Weißenhofsiedlung and Kochhofsiedlung
The Weißenhofsiedlung was initiated in 1927 as part of an exhibition by the Deutscher Werkbund and built under the direction of Mies van der Rohe on Stuttgart's Killesberg . The settlement is considered one of the most important architectural settlements of modern times.
In 1933, against the backdrop of the National Socialist takeover, another settlement, the Kochhofsiedlung, was built as a model settlement under the direction of the architect Paul Schmitthenner and representatives of the Stuttgart School .
The Stuttgart Central is the largest train station in Stuttgart and the center of the Stuttgart S-Bahn service and together with the most important stop Charlottenplatz junction of the Stuttgart rail. The architects Paul Bonatz and Friedrich Eugen Scholer began the earthworks in 1914. Completion was delayed by the First World War. It was officially opened in 1922, but was not finally completed until 1927. In 1987 Stuttgart Central Station was entered in the monument book as a cultural monument of particular importance. In 2010 and 2012, the north and south wings of the station were dismantled due to the Stuttgart 21 rail project .
The Mercedes-Benz Arena , the former “ Gottlieb Daimler Stadium” and “Neckar Stadium”, was also built by Paul Bonatz from 1929 to 1933 and was put into operation in 1933 under the name of “ Adolf Hitler -Kampfbahn”. In 1935 it was expanded from 35,000 to 70,000 places. After the war, the US crew renamed the stadium “Century Stadium” and later “Battle Track” and used it for baseball games. In 1949 it was named "Neckar Stadium". Between 1949 and 1951 the stadium was expanded again to 97,500 seats. The grandstands were rebuilt in the course of the 1974 World Cup . The stadium now held 72,000 spectators. In 1986 the arena was the first German stadium to have a color display board for the European Athletics Championships . As part of the renovation for the World Athletics Championships in 1993 , it was renamed the "Gottlieb Daimler Stadium", and since 2008 it has been called the "Mercedes-Benz Arena". Between 1999 and 2005 there were further construction measures, in 2009-2011 the conversion to a pure football stadium took place without a running track surrounding the playing field.
The largest multi-purpose hall in Stuttgart, the Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle, is right next to the Mercedes-Benz-Arena . It was built in 1983 and named after the murdered employer president Hanns Martin Schleyer . After the modernization in 2005–2006, the hall has 15,500 seats and standing places. The Schleyer Hall is connected to the Porsche Arena, which opened in 2006, through a joint forum . This is mainly used for sporting events. The Carl Benz Center is in the immediate vicinity . The event center, which opened in 2006, offers around 20,000 square meters of floor space. The Art Nouveau celebration hall and the only crematorium in Stuttgart were built in the Prague cemetery from 1905 to 1907 .
The market hall is an Art Nouveau building in the city center. It was built from 1911 to 1914 on the spot where a vegetable market had been since 1864. At first it served as a food exchange with over 400 stalls. After severe destruction in World War II, the market hall was rebuilt and has been a listed building since 1974. Today it is a consumer market. Close by, the former Hotel Silber on Karlsplatz was once the headquarters of the Gestapo .
Also in the city center is the Stuttgart City Hall , the seat of the Stuttgart city administration. The magnificent previous building, built in the Flemish late Gothic style between 1901 and 1905, burned out completely after bombing in 1944. Despite the destruction, parts of the two side wings could be preserved during the reconstruction. The town hall has existed in its current form since 1956. The 60.5 meter high clock tower towers over the Stuttgart market square . In 2004, the town hall was renovated and brought up to the latest technical standards under the direction of Professor Walter Belz for 26 million euros.
The Carl Zeiss Planetarium is located in the Middle Palace Garden. The foundation stone was laid by the Zeiss VI A projector donated by the Carl Zeiss Foundation to the city of Stuttgart in 1969, but construction of the planetarium could only begin in 1975 with the support of numerous donations and was completed in 1977.
The Stuttgart radio house was built from 1972 to 1976 by the architect Rolf Gutbrod and was considered the most modern radio house in Europe when it went into operation. It stands in the area of the former Stuttgart city hall in the Berg district. It has been the seat of the director of the Südwestrundfunk since 1998 and thus the headquarters of the two-country establishment and the state broadcasting center for Baden-Württemberg. In 2000, the Stuttgart radio house was added to the list of cultural monuments by the Baden-Württemberg State Monuments Office. The three-part building complex with its blue-silver facade cladding is still considered a unique structure in the broadcasting landscape. The aforementioned Villa Berg in the immediate vicinity served as the broadcast studio for Südwestrundfunk from 1950 to 2004.
The tea house and the marble hall are in Weißenburgpark . The tea house of the former villa, completed in 1913, is an Art Nouveau pavilion. The colorful ceiling painting with musicians' scenes is worth highlighting. Today the tea house with an adjacent large garden terrace is a popular excursion destination in summer. The marble hall, also completed by Heinrich Henes in 1913, is located on the slope below the tea house. The marble hall was originally used as a festive garden hall and has been available for events again since 1994 after a renovation in the early 1990s.
The old stone house at Grabenstrasse 11 in Stuttgart was a well-fortified residential building and, next to the stud house, one of the oldest secular buildings in the city. It probably dates from the time of the siege of Stuttgart by Rudolf von Habsburg in 1286; it was first mentioned in a document in 1393.
There are two striking residential high-rise buildings in Möhringen. The Fasan 2 is characterized by the fact that two building complexes are connected on several levels by accessible bridges. Pheasant 2 was built between 1964 and 1965 and is 64 meters high. In the immediate vicinity is the Salute high-rise , which was built between 1961 and 1962 with a height of 70 meters and 20 stories and which received the Paul Bonatz Prize in 1967 . The Hannibal housing estate in Asemwald was built from 1968 to 1972 and consists of three apartment blocks with a height of up to 70 meters and 22 floors. Originally, a single complex was planned based on Corbusier's model of the "living machine", but this was not approved due to its gigantic dimensions.
The SI Center is located in Stuttgart-Möhringen . Consisting of two musical theaters, the Stuttgart casino, 19 restaurants and bars, a film palace with six cinemas, 17 conference rooms for up to 1000 people, the Millennium Hotel, the SI Suites and the VitaParc SchwabenQuellen (wellness), the adventure center is one of the largest in Stuttgart Recreational facilities. The Hotel Stuttgart International has stood there since 1960, and new buildings have been added to its surroundings over the years.
Other noteworthy buildings are the Liederhalle , the Villa Gemmingen-Hornberg and the administration building of the Württembergische Sparkasse .
Created by Max Bill and Heinz Mack in 1989, the group of three statues is a 32 meter high, three-part sculpture made of enamel on steel. Until the end of April 2006 it stood in front of the former DaimlerChrysler corporate headquarters in Möhringen, and since then in front of the Mercedes-Benz Museum in NeckarPark.
The “ Signs of Remembrance ” memorial at Stuttgart's North Train Station reminds us that more than 2000 Jews from Stuttgart and Württemberg were deported and murdered from this location during the Nazi era between 1941 and 1945. With the help of the association “Signs of Remembrance e. V. ”the memorial was built and officially inaugurated on June 14, 2006. The names of the deported Jews can be read on the 70-meter-long wall along the tracks.
Parks and bodies of water
The 600-year-old castle garden begins right in the center at the Old Castle . A count's garden near the old castle is first mentioned in 1350. The approximately 61 hectare castle garden follows the course of the canalised Nesenbach up to the Neckar. It is divided into three large areas, the "Upper Castle Garden" (about 14 hectares), the "Middle Castle Garden" (about 19 hectares) and the "Lower Castle Garden" (about 28 hectares). The Upper Palace Garden extends from the Old Palace to the level of the main train station and includes, among other things, the state theater and the state parliament building . It goes over the Ferdinand-Leitner-Steg into the middle palace garden, which is bordered in the northern area by the street “Am Schlossgarten”. For example, the planetarium and the state pavilion are located here. The “Green Bridge” leads to the Lower Castle Garden, which stretches to the mineral baths in Stuttgart-Berg near the banks of the Cannstatter Neckar. Here the palace gardens merge seamlessly into the 65 hectare Rosensteinpark , which is bordered in the southwest by railroad tracks, to the north by the Wilhelma zoological-botanical garden and the "Pragstrasse" and in the northwest by the Löwentor. Due to the old trees and the extensive meadows, the Rosenstein Park is the largest English landscape park in southwest Germany. King Wilhelm I had the garden laid out between 1824 and 1840, which included the construction of the classical palace - today's Rosenstein Museum. Via the “Lodzer Steg”, the “Brünner Steg” and the “Bombaystegen” one arrives at the adjacent, approximately 50 hectare high park Killesberg in the district of Stuttgart-Nord. The complex goes back to the 1939 Reichsgartenschau , for which the area previously used as a quarry was redesigned into a park and exhibition area. From 1939 to 1945 the site was the collection point for the Württemberg Jews for transports to the concentration camps. Since the 1950s, the Höhenpark has hosted horticultural exhibitions such as the German Garden Show 1950 , the Federal Garden Show 1961 and the International Horticultural Exhibition 1993 .
All three facilities - the Schlossgarten, the Rosensteinpark and the Killesbergpark - together form the famous Stuttgart “ Green U ”.
North of the Rosenstein Park is the state's own zoological and botanical garden, the Wilhelma . It has existed in its current form since 1953. In the historic palace complex from 1846, around 8,000 animals of 1,050 species and around 5,000 plant species are shown on around 28 hectares. This makes Wilhelma the second-richest zoo in Germany after the Berlin Zoo. Because of the mineral springs found in 1829, the then King Wilhelm I wanted to have a "bath house" built in the palace park as an auxiliary building. The planning of the complex began in 1837 and the construction of the first building began in 1842. In the course of the planning, the bath house had become a comfortable residential building with several rooms, including a domed hall with two adjacent greenhouses, each with a corner pavilion. When Wilhelma was inaugurated in 1846, there was a ballroom, two main buildings with several court rooms, various pavilions, greenhouses and spacious parks.
The Hohenheim Gardens are part of Hohenheim Palace . In 1776, Duke Carl Eugen from Württemberg had an English facility built around which more than 35 hectares of park area were created by the 20th century. Large parts of the ensemble are used today by the University of Hohenheim for research purposes. The most important parts are the Landes arboretum with the "Exotic Garden" and the "Botanical Garden". The gardens are complemented by a vineyard and a sheep pasture, which cover another 2.2 hectares.
The Uhlandshöhe is an elevation on the eastern edge of the city center. It lies roughly in the triangle between the city center, Bad Cannstatt and the Frauenkopf. It was used as a quarry until the late Middle Ages. The Stuttgart Beautification Association bought parts of the site between 1861 and 1896 and designed an extensive park with viewing terraces and a memorial to the poet Ludwig Uhland . This is also where the “Uhlandshöhe Observatory” is located, established in 1919 by the “Schwäbische Sternwarte e. V. “founded.
The Weißenburgpark is an approximately five hectare green area in Stuttgart-Süd on the hill called Bopser . The so-called tea house and the marble hall are located there on the hillside, and are used today as an excursion restaurant or event location. The building and park were laid out in the years 1843/44 to 1912/13 (changed for the 1961 Federal Garden Show).
The Birkenkopf is a 511 meter high mountain and thus the highest point in the inner city area. The top 40 meters was piled up from rubble from the ruins of World War II.
The Stuttgart oak grove , a nature reserve since 1958, is located in the Sillenbuch district . Around 200 oaks stand there in a park-like landscape. The oldest among them are 300 to 400 years old and have trunks four to six meters in circumference.
The Hoppenlaufriedhof in Stuttgart-Mitte is the oldest cemetery in Stuttgart that has been preserved . It was founded in 1626 as a hospital cemetery after a donation of land by Johann Kercher, who was the first to be buried there. The last burial took place in 1880, the last urn burial in 1951.
The largest cemetery in the city is located in the district of Degerloch, with around 31 hectares: The Stuttgart Forest Cemetery was established in 1913. The cemetery, which is 100 meters higher, is connected to Südheimer Platz by a funicular. Many celebrities are buried here.
The main cemetery, which opened in 1918, is located in the Muckensturm district of Bad Cannstatt . With 29.6 hectares, it is the second largest cemetery in Stuttgart. He has had an Armenian cemetery since 1944 and a Muslim one since 1985. A large Jewish burial ground was laid out in 1937/38 as there was a shortage of space in the Prague cemetery.
The third largest cemetery is the Prague cemetery from 1873 with an Art Nouveau crematorium . The now around 20 hectare facility houses the only crematorium in Stuttgart, which was built between 1905 and 1907. As a whole, the cemetery is considered a cultural monument. In 1874 the cemetery was expanded to include a section for members of the Israelite faith. The Russian Orthodox Church of St. Alexander Nevsky is located on the site of the Prague Cemetery.
The Uff-Kirchhof in Bad Cannstatt is one of the oldest cemeteries in Stuttgart. It was built in the 8th or 9th century at the crossroads of a Roman road and has served as a churchyard for the hamlet of Uffkirchen and its parish since the Middle Ages . After the village of Uffkirchen was abandoned, Cannstatt used the church and cemetery. The late Gothic St. Mary's Church, now called “Uffkirche”, is a listed building and is used as a cemetery chapel.
The Max-Eyth-See is an artificially created lake directly on the Neckar , at the foot of vineyards between Stuttgart-Mühlhausen and Stuttgart-Hofen. In 1920, intensive gravel mining resulted in a pit that became the largest lake in Stuttgart in 1935 when the Neckar was canalized. In 1961 the area and the lake were placed under landscape protection. The Max-Eyth-See is a local recreation area as well as a natural area.
The park lakes in the red deer and wild boar park in Stuttgart-West are a popular destination for hikers and athletes, mainly in summer. Bärensee, Neuer See and Pfaffensee form the three-kilometer-long trio of reservoirs. The lakes were artificially dammed up between 1566 and 1826 to improve Stuttgart's water supply.
Other lakes in the urban area are the "Rohrer See" in Rohr, the "Probstsee" in Möhringen and the "Riedsee" between Möhringen and Sonnenberg. Rare water birds can be seen at the lakes.
Mineral baths (urban)
- Mineral bath / thermal brine bath Bad Cannstatt
- Mineral Bath Leuze ( Stuttgart-East )
- Mineral Bath Berg (Stuttgart-East)
- CMT - Fair for Caravan, Motor and Tourism (January)
- Stuttgart Film Winter , organized by Wall 5 (January)
- DTB Cup (March)
- Long Night of the Museums (March)
- Retro Classics , fair for oldtimers (March)
- Stuttgart Spring Festival on the Cannstatter Wasen (April / May)
- International Festival of Animated Film (April / May)
- Stuttgart run (Stuttgarter Zeitung run), half marathon and several other runs (June)
- Allmand Open Air , the largest open-air student festival in Stuttgart in the dormitory area of the University of Stuttgart Vaihingen (June)
- Mercedes Cup (formerly International Weissenhof Tournament), international tennis tournament (June)
- Hamburg fish market on Karlsplatz (July)
- Stuttgart Festival of Lights on the Killesberg (July)
- Summer Festival of Cultures on the Market Square (July)
- Christopher Street Day (July)
- Free and outdoors , 3-day music-political-cultural spectacle (beginning of August)
- Stuttgart summer festival in the palace garden and on the palace square (August)
- Stuttgart wine village in the city center (August / September)
- European Music Festival Stuttgart of the International Bach Academy Stuttgart in the Liederhalle (September)
- Cannstatter Volksfest on the Cannstatter Wasen - every four years connected with the Main Agricultural Festival (LWH) (end of September / October)
- Porsche Tennis Grand Prix in the Porsche Arena (September / October)
- Stuttgart Night , earlier Stuttgart Culture Night (October)
- Stuttgart German Masters , large indoor riding tournament in the Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle (October / November)
- Stuttgart trade fair autumn (November)
- Flea market , spring and autumn flea market all over the city center
- Stuttgart Book Weeks (November / December)
- Film show Baden-Württemberg (November / December)
- Stuttgart Christmas Market (formerly called "Christmas Fair") in the city center ( Advent season )
- World Christmas Circus on the Cannstatter Wasen (December / January)
- Dragon Days , Festival of Fantastic
- Königstrasse , the main axis of the pedestrian zone
- Calwer Strasse, pedestrian zone in Stuttgart-Mitte
- Calwer Passage, covered pedestrian zone in Stuttgart Mitte
- Hauptstätter Straße , central traffic axis
- Breuninger am Marktplatz, Germany's fourth largest department store
- Stuttgart rack railway
- Stuttgart funicular
- Historic tram lines 21 and 23
- Killesbergbahn Stuttgart
- Stuttgart observatory on the Uhlandshöhe
- Panoramic restaurant in the Hannibal skyscraper
- Sculpture Stuttgardia
Stuttgart has several stadiums and arenas for top sport events. The city's most important sports center is on Cannstatter Wasen in the Neckarpark . There you will find, among other things, the Mercedes-Benz Arena football stadium and the four multifunctional halls Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle , Porsche-Arena , Scharrena and Carl Benz Center . Another large sports area is on the Waldau in Degerloch . In addition to a large number of popular sports facilities, the Gazi Stadium on the Waldau and the Waldau ice sports center are located there .
In addition, numerous other international sporting events were held in Stuttgart, e. B .:
- 1977: World Weightlifting Championship
- 1983: World Championship in formation dancing
- 1985: Final round of the European Men's Basketball Championship
- 1986: European Athletics Championships
- 1987: Stage goal of the Tour de France
- 1989: Gymnastics World Championships
- 1989: final in Davis Cup
- 1989: Finals of the European Women's Volleyball Championship
- 1991: Road cycling world championships
- 1991: European wrestling championships
- 1992: European Championships in rhythmic gymnastics
- 1992: European table tennis championships
- 1993: World Athletics Championships
- 2006–2008: World Athletics Finals
- 2007: Gymnastics World Championships
- 2007: Road cycling world championships
- 2007: Games of the handball world championship
- 2009: European table tennis championships
- 2019: Gymnastics World Championships
The tennis tournaments Mercedes-Cup and Porsche Grand Prix , the riding tournament German Masters , the gymnastics world cup event DTB-Pokal , the German Open Championships in dance and the Stuttgart run are held annually. Until 2008, a six-day race was held annually in the Schleyer Hall .
Stuttgart is home to two well-known football clubs. The VfB Stuttgart , with more than 68,000 members of the largest sports clubs in Germany. The club has been German champions five times and German cup winners three times. He plays his home games in the Mercedes-Benz Arena in Neckarpark . The Stuttgarter Kickers , who also belonged to the Bundesliga for two seasons in the 1980s and 1990s, have been playing in the Oberliga Baden-Württemberg since 2018/19 ; their home games take place in the Gazi Stadium on the Waldau in Degerloch . Other football clubs that used to be known nationwide are Sportfreunde Stuttgart and FV Zuffenhausen .
The TV Bittenfeld played since the season 2015/16 under the name TVB 1898 Stuttgart in the German Handball League Men. The home venue is the Scharrena , some of the home games also take place in the Porsche Arena due to capacity reasons . The VfL Pfullingen / Stuttgart played 2001-2006 in the Bundesliga, where he its home games in the Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle austrug. In the 1990/91 season, the SG Stuttgart-Scharnhausen played in the Bundesliga.
The women's volleyball team Allianz MTV Stuttgart (until 2010 Allianz Volley Stuttgart , until 2012 Smart Allianz Stuttgart ) has played in the Bundesliga since 2008 . She became German champion in 2019, after being runner-up four times in a row from 2015 to 2018, and also won the DVV Cup three times . Three times German champion in women's volleyball was CJD Feuerbach . The club withdrew its first team from the Bundesliga in 1996 for financial reasons.
In ice hockey , Stuttgart is represented by the Stuttgart Rebels in the regional league and in the youth field. The home games are played in the Waldau ice sports center in Degerloch . In American football , the Stuttgart Scorpions are active in the German Football League . They play their games in the Gazi Stadium on the Waldau . In 2007 they became German runner-up . In water polo was Cannstatt 2006 German champions. In women's tennis , the TC Weissenhof is the four-time German champion and the TEC Waldau the 2006 German champion. The hockey club HTC Stuttgarter Kickers won the German championship in 2005 and the 2006 European championship championship .
The second largest traditional sports club is MTV Stuttgart with 9,100 members. In artistic gymnastics , the women's team became German champions in 2010 and from 2012 to 2018 , while the men made it in 2014. MTV was the last Stuttgart club to be represented in a professional league with a basketball team in the 2005/06 season before leaving the 2nd Bundesliga withdrew. The last great success of a basketball team from Stuttgart was the German championship of BC Stuttgart-Degerloch in 1950 .
The billiards club BC Stuttgart 1891 has been playing in the 1st snooker Bundesliga since 2013 and was German champion in 2014 and 2017 . In addition, the club played for several years in the 2nd three-cushion Bundesliga and in the 2nd pool-Bundesliga . The TSV Weilimdorf was 2019 Futsal German champions .
The two sports clubs in Stuttgart with the largest number of members after VfB Stuttgart are the two Alpine Club sections Swabia with almost 32,900 members and Stuttgart with almost 28,100 members. The third DAV section, the Wroclaw section with almost 700 members, was originally founded in 1877 in Wroclaw .
Economy and Infrastructure
In the Future Atlas 2019 , the city of Stuttgart was ranked 5th out of 401 rural districts and cities in Germany, making it one of the places with “top future opportunities”.
In 2016, Stuttgart achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 51.571 billion, making it sixth in the ranking of German cities by economic output . The share in the economic output of Baden-Württemberg was 11.3%. In the same year, GDP per capita was € 82,397 (Baden-Württemberg: € 43,632, Germany € 38,180) and is the eighth highest of all urban districts in Germany. In 2016, the city's economic output recorded nominal growth of 1.5%. In 2016 there were around 519,300 gainfully employed people in the city. The unemployment rate was 3.9% in December 2018 and thus above the Baden-Württemberg average of 3.0%, but below the German average. Stuttgart is the center of the Stuttgart metropolitan region, which generated a gross domestic product of around € 226 billion in 2014.
Stuttgart is one of the highest-income and economically important cities in Germany and Europe. The Stuttgart region is one of the centers of German medium -sized companies with around 1,500 small and medium-sized companies . These are primarily suppliers to the large, global automotive and mechanical engineering companies. Many high-tech companies have settled in the city and its surroundings, including Daimler , Porsche , Bosch , which have their global headquarters here, but also Siemens , Kodak and Lenovo . Due to this economic situation, not only of the city, but of the entire region, it is often referred to colloquially or jokingly as the Stuttgart bacon belt . According to the GaWC study in 2016, Stuttgart was one of the cities categorized with “Beta−”.
Personalities such as Fritz Leonhardt , Frei Otto or Jörg Schlaich are considered examples of important engineers in the city. Engineering offices such as SBP , Leonhardt Andrä und Partner and Knippers Helbig planned structures such as the Expo Axis in Shanghai or the airport in Shenzhen . Well-known architectural offices include Behnisch & Partner ( Munich Olympic site , Bundestag building ) and Behnisch Architects ( NordLB , Ozeaneum Stralsund ).
The financial center of Stuttgart with the Stuttgart Stock Exchange in Frankfurt's second-largest stock exchange in Germany. The Landesbank Baden-Württemberg (LBBW) is one of the largest German banks and is Germany's largest Landesbank. Your subsidiary BW-Bank is also the Sparkasse of the city of Stuttgart. The Südwestbank AG , the Schwäbische Bank and the Ellwanger & Geiger banking house are privately organized .
With Württembergische Versicherung , Württembergischen Lebensversicherung (both subsidiaries of Wüstenrot & Württembergische ), SV SparkassenVersicherung , WGV and Allianz Lebensversicherung , several insurance companies have their headquarters in Stuttgart.
With Wolff & Müller , Züblin and Gottlob Rommel , three large national construction companies are also based in Stuttgart . Mateco GmbH , based in Stuttgart, is a large rental company of work platforms .
The city of Stuttgart has also been the seat of a casino since 1996 . It is the third casino in the state of Baden-Württemberg after Baden-Baden and Konstanz . All three have been operated since 2003 under the direction of Baden-Württembergische Spielbanken GmbH & Co. KG , based in Baden-Baden.
There are 175 accommodation establishments in Stuttgart with a total of 18,900 beds. In 2014, 3.47 million overnight stays by 1.82 million guests were counted, 8.2 percent more than in the previous year. The occupancy rate was 71 percent.
With around 400 hectares of vineyards, Stuttgart is one of the largest wine-growing communities in Germany. Well-known are the Stuttgart Mönchhalde in the city center , the Cannstatter Zuckerle and the locations of Untertürkheim, Rotenberg and Uhlbach (see the main article on viticulture in Stuttgart ).
Electricity and gas supply
In addition to its own electricity generation in the Münster , Gaisburg power plants and the run-of-river power plants on the Neckar, Stuttgart is mainly supplied via three overhead lines, which lead from the nationally important EnBW substations in Pulverdingen , Wendlingen and Hoheneck to substations in the Stuttgart city area (Weilimdorf, Seewiesen, Möhringen ). They were all designed with an operating voltage of 220 kV, but since the end of the 2000s they have only been operated with 110 kV.
In the Stuttgart city area there are a total of 25 substations of the 110 kV level of EnBW or today Netze BW . In addition, there are around 1400 km of 10 kV medium-voltage cables from Stuttgart Netze , which are almost completely laid underground and connect 7700 transformer stations.
There is still a 110 kV line from the Möhringen substation to the Sindelfingen substation, and there is another 110 kV substation in Obertürkheim, which is fed from a branch of the former 9461 plant , an overhead line from Hoheneck to Altbach (previously to Niederstotzingen ) becomes. All other 110 kV lines of the public power grid in Stuttgart are designed as underground cables due to the development.
In 2011, the municipal council of the state capital Stuttgart decided to establish its own, 100 percent municipal utility. Stadtwerke Stuttgart , which has been operating since July 2012, is the second establishment of a large-scale municipal utility in Germany since the market was liberalized in 1998. Since February 2013, it has been offering green electricity and natural gas for all private and commercial customers in Stuttgart. The municipal utilities are also increasingly operating their own wind and solar power systems and are contractors for energy systems for heat and power generation. October 2014 also the Stuttgart City Council decided majority, the operation of the 5000 km long electricity and the 1700 km long gas network in the state capital - a cooperation of Stadtwerke Stuttgart and EnBW subsidiary - retroactive to January 1, 2014 networks BW to forgive . The cooperation model received the highest number of points when the concession for the energy supply networks was awarded over the next 20 years. After a transition phase, the joint venture will initially be responsible for the electricity network from 2016 and for the gas network from 2019.
In the past there were also numerous medium-voltage overhead lines in the urban area, but these were replaced by underground cables that were less prone to interference. The last above-ground section ran over the tracks of the Gäubahn on Knappenweg in Dachswald until 2017 .
The supply of the electrical railway lines of the Deutsche Bahn in the city area takes place via the central feed point Zazenhausen in the north of the city. For the S-Bahn to Bernhausen and Herrenberg there is a substation in Rohr, which is supplied via a traction current line branching off the Zazenhausen – Eutingen railway line near Ehningen and which for the most part runs parallel to the Herrenberg – Stuttgart railway line. In addition, there are further substations in the surrounding area for feeding in further S-Bahn lines, for example in Leonberg or Waiblingen.
The Bärensee, the Neue See and the Pfaffensee in the west of the city previously served as a drinking water supply for Stuttgart. Since 1917, Stuttgart has been supplied with drinking water from the Danube Valley near Langenau, among other things, by the state water supply. The line reaches the eastern part of the city via Göppingen in Rotenberg. Since 1958, drinking water has also been coming from Lake Constance via the Lake Constance water supply . The feed point is located in Rohr in the southwest of the city. There are water towers in Degerloch and on the Gähkopf ( Bismarck Tower ).
Since the opening of the new Terminal 3 in March 2004, Stuttgart Airport has a capacity of 12 million passengers. In 2003 around 7.6 million guests flew, in 2004 already 8.8 million; In 2005, 9.5 million passengers flew to and from Stuttgart. There are currently more than 11 million
Gliding is possible on the Green Heiner in Weilimdorf.
The city is also an important rail hub . There are connections from Stuttgart Central Station to Vaihingen / Enz - Pforzheim - Karlsruhe - Strasbourg - Paris (since summer 2007 with TGV connections, see LGV Est européenne ), to Heilbronn - Heidelberg - Mannheim - Frankfurt am Main - Mainz - Cologne - Düsseldorf - Dortmund / - Hanover - Hamburg / - Berlin , to Plochingen - Göppingen - Ulm - Munich - Salzburg - Linz - St. Pölten - Vienna (- Bratislava or - Győr - Budapest ), to Memmingen - Kempten (Allgäu) - Oberstdorf (via Ulm) , to Ravensburg - Friedrichshafen - Lindau (via Ulm), to Freudenstadt / Rottweil (train division in Eutingen im Gäu ), to Horb - Rottweil - Singen am Hohentwiel - Schaffhausen - Zurich , to Waiblingen - Schwäbisch Hall - Hessental - Ansbach - Nuremberg , to Rottenburg - Horb and Hechingen - Balingen - Sigmaringen - Aulendorf (via Plochingen, Reutlingen and Tübingen , there train division), to Ludwigsburg - Heilbronn - Bad Friedrichshall - Würzburg / Mosbach - Neckarelz and to Schwäbisch Gmünd - Aalen .
The Stuttgart rail hub also includes the container terminal in Obertürkheim and the Kornwestheim marshalling yard , which has one of the most modern container terminals in the DB area. Both terminals are part of DUSS (Deutsche Umschlaggesellschaft Schiene-Straße).
As part of the controversial Stuttgart 21 project, the Stuttgart railway junction is being fundamentally reorganized. Among other things, approximately 60 km of new railway lines and four new stations (new arising Hauptbahnhof , new airport railway station , S-Bahn station Mittnachtstraße and sidings Untertürkheim ). The new Wendlingen – Ulm line is to be built at the same time . In 1997, the Stuttgart city council approved the urban planning framework for the project , and the first sub-areas began to be developed shortly afterwards.
Local public transport
Local public transport ( ÖPNV ) is served by seven S-Bahn lines from DB Regio (see: S-Bahn Stuttgart ) as well as 17 light rail lines (including two on-demand lines), a cog railway line , a funicular line and 56 bus lines operated by Stuttgarter Straßenbahnen AG (SSB) , line 101 of the Esslingen am Neckar trolleybus (operated by the Esslingen am Neckar municipal transport company) and several bus lines operated by private transport companies. In addition, some regional train lines take on local transport tasks within the city (for example the "Schusterbahn" ).
All of these local means of transport, including the cog railway and the funicular, can be used at uniform prices within the Stuttgart Transport and Tariff Association (VVS).
In a count on October 21, 2014, around 827,000 road vehicles (up to 3.5 tons) passed the city limits of Stuttgart every day. The number of vehicles registered in Stuttgart reached a new record at the end of 2014 at 348,103. In the accident statistics, too, the number of registered traffic accidents has increased continuously since 2015 and with 26,824 accidents (2017) has reached the highest value since 1979. After an increase to 73 hours per year, the city ranks first among the most congested metropolitan areas in Germany. The increase in traffic jam time by 8.5 hours compared to 2014 is mainly attributed to the record number of 50,000 more vehicles registered in Stuttgart.
Despite the highest traffic load in Germany and the risk of congestion at all, Stuttgart has hardly any options for bypassing the town and does not have its own motorway ring like many other German cities ( see also Nordostring Stuttgart ), so that in addition to intensive local traffic, extreme through traffic loads the city center in the valley basin. This excessive volume of traffic results in severe pollution of the air quality and a high level of CO 2 and nitrogen oxides , which is why the city of Stuttgart has already been forced to issue a fine dust alarm several times .
The A 8 motorway ( Karlsruhe - (S) - Ulm - Munich ) forms the southern city limits and the A 81 ( Singen - (S) - Heilbronn - Würzburg ) passes west of the city. From the Stuttgart motorway junction , both motorways run together to the Leonberger Dreieck , a few kilometers to the west, where the A 81 then branches off again in a northerly direction. This section has three to five lanes in each direction with an extremely high volume of traffic and a considerable gradient.
At the Stuttgart-Vaihingen motorway junction , formerly also known as the Stuttgart-Vaihingen junction, the straight-ahead direction of the A 81 is a short section of the motorway that leads as the A 831 to the Stuttgart- Vaihingen exit and then as the B14 over the Schattenring towards the city center. This motorway junction is on the Sindelfingen marker; The former headquarters of IBM Germany and the highest point in Stuttgart, the Bernhartshöhe, are located in the forest in Stuttgart.
Across the center of Stuttgart extend the federal roads B 14 ( Stockach - Herrenberg -Stuttgart- Schwäbisch Hall - Nürnberg - Waidhaus ) and B 27 ( Blankenburg - Heilbronn -Stuttgart- Tübingen - Lottstetten ) as well as through the urban area, the B 10 ( Eppelborn - Pforzheim - Stuttgart - Ulm - Neusäß ) and B 295 (Stuttgart-Leonberg- Calw ). Except for the B 14, they all come together on the Pragsattel , the largest traffic junction in downtown Stuttgart.
The B 10 (towards Göppingen / Ulm), the B 14 (towards Schwäbisch Hall), the B 27 (towards Tübingen) and the B 29 (from Fellbach towards Aalen) are each developed like a motorway and form a star-shaped structure of expressways around the city .
A total of eleven expressways lead from the Stuttgart hinterland towards Stuttgart city center. These are:
- Direction Karlsruhe
- Direction Ulm
- Direction Heilbronn
- Towards singing
- Direction Vaihingen / Enz
- Direction Göppingen
- Direction Schwäbisch Hall
- Direction Ludwigsburg / Bietigheim-Bissingen
- Direction Tübingen
- Towards Aalen
- towards Gerlingen / Leonberg
Historic street names
The Stuttgart street names were fundamentally changed in 1811 and later changed again more often. Older street names are inevitably given in older literature and in old newspapers and magazines.
Air pollution and air pollution control measures
The “Am Neckartor” measuring station in Stuttgart has the highest number of exceedances of the daily fine dust limit in Germany every year. From 2005 to 2017 the station counted 41 to 187 exceedances of the daily PM10 limit value. In addition, the measuring station measured the highest nitrogen oxide pollution in Germany for several years, the limit value was regularly exceeded by twice in Stuttgart.
This is one of the reasons why an environmental zone was set up in Stuttgart in 2008 , in which driving bans apply. In Stuttgart it is defined for the entire city area including all 23 city districts. Only some road sections are excluded, including the A 8 motorway and part of the A 831 , as well as sections of two federal highways .
The fine dust sticker has been mandatory for vehicles since March 1st, 2008. Since then, vehicles in the environmental zone have had to belong to at least pollutant group 2. As of July 1, 2010, the driving ban according to the labeling ordinance was extended to vehicles in pollutant group 2 (red sticker). The green sticker has been compulsory since January 1, 2012 and there is a driving ban for vehicles in pollutant group 3 (yellow sticker). While the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Transport is campaigning for a blue sticker , the Federal Ministry of Transport rejected it in March 2018.
In January 2016, the city of Stuttgart introduced the so-called fine dust alarm . When the weather was appropriate, citizens were asked not to use their motor vehicle and to leave comfort ovens switched off. Since then, the particulate matter alarm has been sounded every year on certain days between October and April. During this time there were discounts for local public transport. After the air values had improved, the last fine dust alarm ended on April 15, 2020.
However, all of these measures were not sufficient to ensure compliance with the immission limit values. The Stuttgart Administrative Court therefore sentenced the state of Baden-Württemberg on July 26, 2017 to amend the clean air plan for Stuttgart in such a way that it contains the necessary measures to comply with the limit value for NO 2 as quickly as possible . According to the court, diesel traffic is the main cause of air pollution with nitrogen dioxide in metropolitan areas, with a contribution of around 85%. For a noticeable reduction in nitrogen oxide pollution, a significant reduction in the volume of traffic is necessary, especially with regard to diesel vehicles. Since there are no equally suitable, milder measures than driving bans for diesel vehicles, but alternative means of transport are available, driving bans are also proportionate.
In February 2018, in the so-called Diesel judgment , the Federal Administrative Court predominantly rejected the leap revision against this first instance court decision of the Administrative Court and ruled that cities are generally allowed to impose driving bans on diesel cars to keep the air clean. According to a decision of the Stuttgart Administrative Court of 21 September 2018, the state government of Baden-Wuerttemberg had 2,018 10,000 euro penalty to pay, because they refused to implement the ban for diesel vehicles with the Euro-5 standard. The Administrative Court of Baden-Wuerttemberg (VGH) upheld the decision of the Administrative Court on 12 November 2018 that Stuttgart has to immediately begin planning driving bans for vehicles of the Euro standard. 5
Since January 1, 2019, only diesel vehicles from the Euro 5 standard have been allowed to drive in the entire city area . There was a three-month transition period for the residents of Stuttgart. A decision to include vehicles with gasoline engines that do not at least meet the Euro 3 standard failed because of the federal government's resistance to the blue sticker. As of January 1, 2020, the diesel driving ban for individual route sections was extended to vehicles complying with the Euro 5 standard.
On March 31, 1958, the port of Stuttgart was opened by Federal President Theodor Heuss . The four Neckar suburbs Wangen, Hedelfingen, Obertürkheim and Untertürkheim are located at the second largest inland port on the Neckar. After the expansion in 1968, it became the most important trimodal transport hub (water, rail, road) in the Stuttgart region .
Stuttgart is considered an important media city. The director of the public broadcasting company Südwestrundfunk has his seat in the Stuttgart radio house . Two radio programs for Baden-Württemberg are produced there ( SWR1 and SWR4 ). In addition to current magazines (e.g. sports), the news programs for the third program and the regional show are produced live in the television studios. The radio programs of the SWR are broadcast from the Stuttgart TV tower and for the city area also from the Stuttgart radio house, the TV programs since the introduction of DVB-T from the Stuttgart TV tower . Stuttgart also has an additional regional television station with Regio TV .
Other audiovisual media (for example, Antenne 1 , bigFM , Die Neue 107.7 , Free Radio for Stuttgart ) are also located in Stuttgart. Their programs are broadcast from the Stuttgart telecommunications tower and the chimney of the Münster power plant. Because of the US military stationed in the Stuttgart region, the AFN is also present. Along with Karlsruhe, Stuttgart is one of the two locations of the Baden-Württemberg State Media Center, which is subordinate to the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport .
In addition, the city is one of the leading locations in Germany for specialist publishers. Nationally known are, among others, Deutscher Sparkassenverlag , Ernst Klett Verlag , Kohlhammer Verlag , Metzler Verlag , Motor Presse Stuttgart and Georg Thieme Verlag . With the German Bible Society and the Catholic Bible Works , the largest Bible publishers by far are based in Stuttgart.
After all, the Stuttgarter Zeitung , which is one of the largest regional newspapers in Germany, and the Stuttgarter Nachrichten as well as smaller local editions of other daily newspapers such as the Cannstatter Zeitung appear here . Among the city magazines , Lift appears once a month, while Prinz Stuttgart can be found on the Internet and Moritz - Das Stadtmagazin is the city magazine with the highest circulation in Baden-Württemberg.
Education and Research
Around 11% of all money for research and development in Germany is spent in Stuttgart. In addition to the two universities ( Stuttgart and Hohenheim ), there are five institutes of the Fraunhofer Society (the second largest location in Germany), several Max Planck institutes and other facilities in Stuttgart . Large parts of the Stuttgart research landscape have meanwhile been concentrated on the research campus in Vaihingen .
- The Karlsschule, since December 1781 as the University of the Hohe Karlsschule , was founded in 1770 by Duke Carl Eugen and was initially located in the ducal Solitude Palace . It served as a military academy, an art academy and later as a general college; it was dissolved in 1794.
- University of Stuttgart - founded in 1829, Polytechnic in 1876; 1890 Technical University; University since 1967
- University of Hohenheim - founded in 1818 as a school for agriculture and forestry; 1847 academy; 1904 Agricultural College; University since 1967
- University of Music and Performing Arts Stuttgart (HMDK) - founded in 1857
- State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart (ABK) - the institution goes back to the "Académie des arts" founded by Duke Carl Eugen von Württemberg in 1761, which later becomes the Royal Academy of Fine Arts and finally the current institution.
- University of the Media (HdM) - founded in 2001 by the merger of the "University of Applied Sciences Stuttgart - University of Printing and Media - HDM" with the "University of Applied Sciences Stuttgart - University of Library and Information Science - HBI" (founded 1942), since 2005 University of Media
- Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences (HFT) - founded in 1832 as the "Württemberg Winter Construction School", later the "Royal Building Trade School", then "Stuttgart State Building School", from 1995 Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences - University of Technology and since 2005 Stuttgart University of Technology
- Baden-Württemberg Cooperative State University Stuttgart (DHBW) - founded in 1974 as a vocational academy
- AKAD University Stuttgart - founded in 1959
- Free University of Stuttgart - Seminar for Waldorf Education - founded in 1928
- FOM - University of Economics and Management - founded in 1991 (not head office)
- Hamburger Fern-Hochschule - founded in 1997 (not head office)
- University of Communication and Design - founded in 2012
- Macromedia University - founded in 2006
- IB University for Health and Social Affairs
- International School of Management - founded in 1990 (not head office)
- IUBH Fernstudium Stuttgart - founded in 1998 (not head office)
- media Akademie - Hochschule Stuttgart - founded in 2015
- Merz Academy - founded in 1918
- SRH Fernhochschule - founded in 1918 (not head office)
- Steinbeis Business Academy - founded in 2001 (not headquarters)
- VWA University - founded in 2013
Non-university research institutes
- Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research (MPI-FKF)
- Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems , formerly Max Planck Institute for Metals Research (MPI-MF)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Labor Economics and Organization (IAO)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics (IBP)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology (IGB)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation (IPA)
- Fraunhofer Information Center for Space and Building (IRB)
- Research Institute for Automotive and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS)
- German Aerospace Center e. V., Stuttgart site (DLR)
The state capital Stuttgart is also a "corporate sponsoring member" of the Max Planck Society .
- Technical High School Stuttgart
- Volkshochschule Stuttgart - a wide range of courses in the areas of politics / society, culture / creativity, health / environment, languages, professional qualifications, information and communication technology
- Stuttgart Business School
Location of the first Waldorf school
1919 in Stuttgart by Emil Molt , director of the Waldorf-Astoria cigarette factory , and of Rudolf Steiner on the Uhlandshöhe the first Waldorf school , founded one of the founded by Steiner anthroposophy and humanistic educational ideals following comprehensive school form that exists in many countries of the world today.
There have been several American barracks in Stuttgart since the end of World War II :
- in Vaihingen the Patch Barracks with the United States European Command (EUCOM)
- in Möhringen the Kelley Barracks with the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM)
- in Burgholzhof the Robinson Barracks and former grenadier barracks
- The Reiterkaserne in Cannstatt was built as dragoon barracks at the beginning of the 20th century over the remains of a Roman fort and was last used by the US armed forces as Wallace and McGee Barracks . After the American military area was released, its military use ended.
The Bundeswehr maintains the Theodor-Heuss-Kaserne (formerly Funkerkaserne) in the Bad Cannstatt district . This includes, among other things, the career center of the Bundeswehr Stuttgart, MAD -stelle 5 and a branch of the Federal Office for Personnel Management of the Bundeswehr (BAPersBw V Sz Süd), as well as the state command Baden-Württemberg .
Stuttgart is the seat of the THW regional association of Baden-Württemberg of the Federal Agency for Technical Relief . There is also an office for the social insurance for agriculture, forestry and horticulture (SVLFG).
The Evangelische Altenheimat Foundation has existed since 1874 . The physically handicapped association Stuttgart e. V. takes care of the integration of physically disabled people into everyday life with events, day care centers and a transport service for the disabled.
Wolfgang Schuster (* 1949), who was mayor of the city between 1996 and 2012, has been an honorary citizen since 2012 .
sons and daughters of the town
- Gaisburger Marsch , a stew that was invented in the Gaisburg district of Stuttgart
Stuttgart as namesake
- Klaus Garber , with the participation of Stefan Anders and Thomas Elsmann (eds.): City and literature in the German-speaking area of the early modern period . Niemeyer, Tübingen 1998, pp. 308–383: Reinhard Breymayer : Urban and literary life in Stuttgart in the 17th century. ISBN 3-484-36539-0 .
- Jürgen Hagel: People and nature in the Stuttgart area. Silberburg-Verlag, Tübingen 2001, ISBN 3-87407-385-8 .
- Jürgen Hagel: The paradise of the Neckar Bad Cannstatt. In: Wolfgang Niess, Sönke Lorenz (ed.): Cult baths and bath culture in Baden-Württemberg. Markstein-Verlag, Filderstadt 2004, ISBN 3-935129-16-5 .
- Timo John: The royal gardens of the 19th century in Stuttgart . Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft , Worms 2000, ISBN 978-3-88462-156-1 .
- Erich Keyser (Ed.): Württembergisches Städtebuch. Volume IV Sub-Volume Baden-Württemberg, Volume 2, In: German City Book. Handbook of urban history - on behalf of the working group of historical commissions and with the support of the German Association of Cities, the German Association of Cities and the German Association of Municipalities. Stuttgart 1961.
- Daniel Kirn: Stuttgart. A little city history. Sutton, Erfurt 2007, ISBN 978-3-86680-137-0 .
- Ulrike Kreh: Natural monuments Stuttgart. Natural treasures on the doorstep. Edited by Office for environmental protection of the state capital Stuttgart. Verlag regionalkultur Ubstadt-Weiher, 2005, ISBN 3-89735-405-5 .
- Hermann Lenz : Stuttgart. Portrait of a city . Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 2003, ISBN 3-458-17158-4 .
- Roland Müller: Stuttgart at the time of National Socialism. Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-8062-0541-8 .
- Roland Ostertag (ed.): The Bosch area. Verlag Karl Krämer, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-7828-1613-7 . (Series: Stuttgart Posts)
- Roland Ostertag, Christoph Böhmer (Ed.): Stuttgart… where? Part 1; with contributions by Jürgen Baumüller, Helmut Böhme, Otto Borst, Daniel Cohn-Bendit, Hermann Glaser, Hans Luz, Roland Ostertag, Paul Sauer, Thomas Sieverts, Roland Wick, Bernhard Winkler, Thomas Valena. Karl Krämer Verlag, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-7828-4027-5 .
- Roland Ostertag (Ed.): Stuttgart… where to? Volume 2, with contributions by Max Bächer, Helmut Böhme, Otto Borst, Hermann Hesse, Timo John, Wolfgang Kil , Arno Lederer, Roland Ostertag, Frei Otto, Hannelore Schlaffer, Walter Siebel, Klaus Töpfer. Karl Krämer Verlag, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-7828-4042-9 .
- Paul Sauer : Memories of Stuttgart. Flechsig, Würzburg 1999, ISBN 3-88189-245-1 .
- Albert T. Schaefer: Stuttgart Panorama. With texts by Manfred Rommel. edition braus, Heidelberg 2006, ISBN 3-89904-224-7 (photo book).
- Hartmut Schäfer: Findings from the "Archaeological Desert": The collegiate church and the old castle in Stuttgart. Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg 31, 2002, pp. 249–258.
- Jörg Schweigard: Stuttgart in the Roaring Twenties: Politics, society, art and culture in Stuttgart 1919–1933. Braun-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2012, ISBN 978-3765086090 .
- Erwin Teufel (ed.): Great Stuttgart. Figures from five centuries. DVA, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-421-05054-6 .
- Maria Zelzer (Ed.): Stuttgart under the swastika. Chronicle 1933–1945. Cordeliers, Stuttgart 1983, ISBN 3-608-91931-7 .
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