|coat of arms||Germany map|
Coordinates: 49 ° 8 ' N , 9 ° 14' E
|Administrative region :||Stuttgart|
|Administrative headquarters :||Heilbronn|
|Area :||1,099.9 km 2|
|Residents:||343,068 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||312 inhabitants per km 2|
|License plate :||HN|
|Circle key :||08 1 25|
|Circle structure:||46 municipalities|
|Address of the
|District Administrator :||Detlef Piepenburg (independent)|
|Location of the district of Heilbronn in Baden-Württemberg|
The district of Heilbronn is a district in Baden-Württemberg . It belongs to the Heilbronn-Franken region in the Stuttgart administrative region . Its area encloses the urban district of Heilbronn , which lies in the middle of the district area, but does not belong to the district.
The district of Heilbronn is traversed from the south in a wide arc to the northwest by the Neckar , which divides the district into two roughly equal parts. The Neckar basin , bordered by the Odenwald and Kraichgau, fills more than a third of the circular area. Heilbronn and Neckarsulm lie in the middle . His brown soils made of loamy sand on Keuper with plenty of loess are fertile. The lowest point of the circle at Gundelsheim with 139 m above sea level. NN lies here in the narrowing valley. Otherwise, hills dominate the landscape. The western part is mainly part of the Kraichgau with wide plateaus and large fields, the eastern part rises towards the Hohenlohe plain to the Löwenstein mountains . In the Zabergäu , the mild weather on the Stromberg and Heuchelberg enables viticulture as well as in the valleys of the Neckar and its tributaries and in parts of the Kraichgau. At 564 m, the highest point is in the southeast of the district near Wüstenrot in the Mainhardt Forest. Between Kocher and Jagst , barren plateaus again tower over the relatively deep river indentations in the east, which contain only small but very fertile agricultural areas. Other waters are Bottwar , Brettach , Lein , Elsenz , Zaber , Seckach , Sulm and Schozach .
The list of places in the district of Heilbronn contains the places (including hamlets , residential areas and deserted areas ) of the district of Heilbronn in the geographical sense.
The district of Heilbronn borders in a clockwise direction in the north on the districts of Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis , Hohenlohekreis , Schwäbisch Hall , Rems-Murr-Kreis , Ludwigsburg , Enzkreis , Karlsruhe and Rhein-Neckar-Kreis .
Division of space
According to data from the State Statistical Office , as of 2015.
The Heilbronn district has the following nature reserves . According to the protected area statistics of the State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation Baden-Württemberg (LUBW), 391.28 hectares of the district are under nature protection, that is 0.36 percent.
- Altneckar Horkheim : 43.2 ha; Landmarks Lauffen am Neckar , Nordheim and Heilbronn
- Böttinger quarry ponds : 6.1 ha; Gundelsheim district
- Brettachtal above Geddelsbach : 25.7 ha; Districts Geddelsbach (Hohenlohekreis) and Maienfels
- Brühl : 20.4 ha; Weinsberg district
- Elsenzer Bruchgraben : 19.8 ha
- Two meadows : 6.9 ha; Löwenstein district
- Frankenbacher gravel : 14.4 ha (of which 9.7 ha in the Heilbronn district), municipality of Leingarten
- Gäßnersklinge-Hohberg : 13.7 ha; Heinsheim district
- Haberschlachter Valley : 18.1 ha; District Brackenheim
- Semi-dry grassland in the Fuchs area : 4.3 ha; Jagsthausen district
- Hörnle : 20.1 ha; Roigheim district
- Knortrenwald : 4 ha; district Obergimpern
- Lauffener Neckarschlinge : 60.7 ha; District Lauffen am Neckar
- Impact slope of the Neckar near Lauffen : 2.96 ha; Districts Lauffen am Neckar , Talheim and Horkheim
- Schlierbach-Kohlrain : 40.0 ha; Gemarkungen Rappenau , Heinsheim and Siegelbach
- Spitzenberg-Michelbach-Baiershilder : 45.9 ha
- Vineyard in the Hergstbachtal : 3.8 ha; Mark Möckmühl-Korb
- Meadows in the Rot- and Dachsbachtal near Finsterrot : 12.8 ha; Markings Wüstenrot and Finsterrot
- Wildenberg : 49.4 ha; Markings Grantschen and Eberstadt
- Zaberauen from Meimsheim and Botenheim : 34 ha; Districts Brackenheim , Botenheim and Meimsheim
The district of Heilbronn goes back to the old Oberamt Heilbronn , which was established after the transition of the former imperial city to Württemberg after 1803 and to which more than half of the communities of the dissolved Oberamt Weinsberg were attached in 1926 . On January 29, 1934 the Oberamt Heilbronn was transferred to the Heilbronn district (since November 28, 1938 Heilbronn district), which was enlarged on October 1, 1938 to include the municipalities of the dissolved Oberämter Neckarsulm , Brackenheim , Marbach and Besigheim . At the same time, the Heilbronn district was created. Since then Heilbronn has not belonged to the district area, but remained the seat of the district administration.
In May 1939, around 107,000 people lived in around 30,000 households in the Heilbronn district; the area of the district was around 85,000 hectares. The number of inhabitants rose steadily to over 119,000 people during the Second World War and the immediate post-war period up to December 1945, despite many victims. The male losses from war and relocation were largely offset by relocation gains (refugees from the destroyed cities and displaced persons), while the female population grew strongly. In December 1945, the Heilbronn district was around 600 people (around 1%) behind the pre-war population among its male inhabitants, while the female population had grown by 14,000 people (around 26%) over the same period. The clear surplus of women had a particular impact on employment structures.
During the district reform , the Heilbronn district was expanded on January 1, 1973 to include seven communities in the Sinsheim district , two communities in the Mosbach district , three communities in the Öhringen district and the Finsterrot community in the Schwäbisch Hall district .
As early as January 1, 1971, the municipality of Korb in the district of Buchen was incorporated and incorporated into the town of Möckmühl . On September 1, 1971, Unterkessach was added, which opened up in the city of Aries . The district of Heilbronn, in turn, ceded the town of Kleingartach to the district of Sinsheim on December 1, 1971.
Gronau moved to the Ludwigsburg district on January 1, 1972 . On March 1, 1972, Ruchsen was taken over from the Buchen district and integrated into the town of Möckmühl. Kirchhausen came to the Heilbronn district on July 1, 1972. One day before the district reform came into effect, on December 31, 1972, the municipality of Stein am Kocher - previously in the district of Mosbach - was incorporated and incorporated into the city of Neuenstadt am Kocher .
The communities of Biberach (January 1, 1974), Frankenbach and Horkheim (both April 1, 1974) were given to the city of Heilbronn.
On January 1, 1977, Brettach came to the Hohenlohe district through its reunification from Wüstenrot to Bretzfeld .
After the municipality reform in Baden-Württemberg has been completed, the district still comprises 46 municipalities, including 17 towns and of these, in turn, three large district towns (Bad Rappenau, Eppingen and Neckarsulm). The largest city is Neckarsulm , the smallest municipality is Roigheim in the northeast of the district.
Population development after the district reform in 1973
The population figures are census results (¹) or official updates from the Baden-Württemberg State Statistical Office ( main residences only ).
The district is administered by the district council and the district administrator.
The district council is elected for five years by those entitled to vote in the district. The local elections on May 26, 2019 led to the following preliminary results.
|Parties and constituencies||
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||25.3||19th||36.7||27||38.0||29||43.9||37||47.7||38||38.2||33||38.2||31|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||15.3||12||20.1||15th||23.3||18th||22.3||17th||24.1||18th||29.1||23||30.3||24|
|GREEN||Alliance 90 / The Greens||14.8||11||10.8||8th||9.4||7th||7.7||6th||7.1||5||9.1||7th||8.2||6th|
|AfD||Alternative for Germany||7.8||6th||3.7||3||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||6.7||5||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|ÖDP||Ecological Democratic Party||3.7||3||3.2||2||3.6||2||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|THE LEFT.||THE LEFT.||2.9||2||2.5||2||2.5||1||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|FDP / FWV||Free Democratic Party / Free Electoral Association||-||-||22.3||17th||23.2||18th||19.5||15th||15.4||11||17.4||14th||-||-|
|WNM||Forest, nature and people||-||-||0.7||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Flat share||Electoral associations||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||18.3||15th|
- WG: Voter associations, as the result from 1989 cannot be broken down into individual groups of voters.
The district council elects the district administrator for a term of office of 8 years. He is the legal representative and representative of the district as well as chairman of the district council and its committees. He heads the district office and is an official of the district. His area of responsibility includes the preparation of the district council meetings and its committees. He calls meetings, chairs them and implements the resolutions passed there. He has no voting rights in the committees . His deputy is the first state official.
The district councils of the district Heilbronn:
- 1933–1939: Walther Fuchs
- 1939–1945: Ernst Heubach
- 1945 Emil Beutinger :
- 1945–1948: Hermann Sihler
- 1948–1966: Eduard Hirsch
- 1966–1989: Otto Widmaier
- 1989–2005: Klaus Czernuska
- since 2005: Detlef Piepenburg
The former Oberamtmen are shown in the article Oberamt Heilbronn .
coat of arms
The blazon of the coat of arms of the district of Heilbronn reads: In red a mutilated silver eagle below. The coat of arms was awarded to the district on June 20, 1955 by the state government, after the new formation of the district again on September 3, 1973 by the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of the Interior.
The coat of arms goes back to the oldest city seal of the city of Lauffen am Neckar , which probably shows an imperial eagle . At the time of the award in 1955, it was still assumed that the mutilated eagle was the coat of arms of the Counts of Lauffen , who owned or administered parts of today's district in the High Middle Ages. It is now assumed that the Counts of Lauffen had a lion or leopard in their coat of arms.
Before 1955, the district had a different coat of arms, which had been adopted by the Heilbronn District Office. In 1927, the administrative body of the Upper Office requested a proposal for a coat of arms from the Württemberg archives. The archive management recommended a coat of arms which, as symbols for Neckar shipping and viticulture, should show a silver anchor in blue, each accompanied by a silver cup. The district council, however, rejected the two cups as an overly emphasized symbol of enjoyment. Instead, the Oberamt adopted a different coat of arms designed by Walther Eberbach in 1928 , which remained in use until 1955. In a split shield with a lowered, curved tip, it showed a silver ear of wheat in front in black, behind in red a silver hammer turned to the left, below in gold a hanging blue grape; a blue anchor in the silver heart shield. The ear of wheat stood for agriculture, the hammer for industry and trade, the grape for viticulture and the anchor for shipping on the Neckar. From a heraldic point of view, this coat of arms was too overloaded, which is why in 1954 negotiations between the Baden-Wuerttemberg archives department and the district office came to a simpler, history-based coat of arms, from which the coat of arms awarded in 1955 emerged.
See also: List of coats of arms in the Heilbronn district
Economy and Infrastructure
In the 2016 Future Atlas , the district of Heilbronn was ranked 16th out of 402 districts, municipal associations and urban districts in Germany, making it one of the regions with “very high future prospects”. In the 2019 edition, it was ranked 22nd out of 401.
The federal highways 6 Mannheim - Nuremberg and 81 Stuttgart - Würzburg cross at the Weinsberger Kreuz in the district . Furthermore, several federal roads as well as state and district roads open up the district.
In 1848, the Württemberg State Railroad used the Neckar Valley for its first railway line in this area from Stuttgart to Heilbronn ( Northern Railway ). This was followed in 1862 by the Kocherbahn to Schwäbisch Hall and in 1866 by the extension of the Northern Railway along the Neckar Valley to Bad Friedrichshall-Jagstfeld. From here, construction continued in the Jagsttal in 1869 to Möckmühl and on in the direction of Osterburken , where the Badische Odenwaldbahn Heidelberg –Würzburg was reached.
For the Baden State Railway , Bad Friedrichshall-Jagstfeld was the starting point for connections to Heidelberg , namely in 1868/69 the Elsenz Valley Railway via Sinsheim to Meckesheim - there also with a connection to the Badische Odenwald Railway - and in 1879 the Neckar Valley Railway along the river valley via Eberbach.
In the years 1878 to 1880 the Kraichgaubahn Heilbronn – Karlsruhe was built , of which the two state railways and the city of Karlsruhe had each built a section. In 1900, in Eppingen, the Badische Staatsbahn branched off a connection to Steinsfurt near Sinsheim.
The Württemberg State Railroad dedicated two 750 mm narrow-gauge railways to local traffic:
- The Bottwarbahn reached from Marbach am Neckar , starting in 1894 Beilstein, Ilsfeld 1899 and 1900 the Heilbronner South Station , from where one of the main train station could only reach by tram. From 1901 a standard-gauge connecting line initially only served freight traffic.
- The Zabergäubahn connected Lauffen am Neckar with Güglingen from 1896 and reached Leonbronn in 1901 .
A third narrow-gauge railway, the Jagsttalbahn , was opened by the Vering & Waechter company in 1900 and 1901 from Möckmühl in the direction of Dörzbach.
In the lower Kochertal, the Württembergische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft started operating the Untere Kochertalbahn from Bad Friedrichshall-Jagstfeld to Neuenstadt in 1907 and on to Ohrnberg in 1913 as a standard-gauge branch line .
Two routes operated by Badische Lokal-Eisenbahnen AG only marginally touched the district:
- the Katzbachbahn Odenheim – Hilsbach, opened in 1900, ran through what is now the Eppinger suburb of Elsenz
- the Neckarbischofsheim Nord – Hüffenhardt branch line, opened in 1902, connects Obergimpern and Siegelsbach to the railway network, but has been without regular traffic since August 2009.
The rather dense railway network reached a maximum extent of almost 235 km. After the closure of several branch lines, 143 km of passenger traffic remained in operation. The following were shut down for passenger traffic:
- 1951: Jagsttalbahn Möckmühl – Jagsthausen (–Dörzbach) (16 km; between 1967 and 1979 resumption for school traffic)
- 1960: Katzbachbahn (Odenheim–) Elsenz (–Hilsbach) (3 km)
- 1966: Bottwartalbahn (Marbach–) Beilstein – Heilbronn Süd (21 km)
- 1986: Zabergäubahn Lauffen – Güglingen – Leonbronn (20 km; by 2011 the reactivation to Zaberfeld is planned for light rail operations)
- 1993: Lower Kochertalbahn Bad Friedrichshall-Jagstfeld-Kochersteinsfeld (-Ohrnberg) (19 km)
- 2009: Krebsbachtalbahn (Neckarbischofsheim Nord–) Obergimpern – Siegelsbach (–Hüffenhardt) (7 km)
The S4 line of the Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft runs on the Kraichgaubahn and parts of the Heilbronn – Crailsheim railway from Achern via Karlsruhe, Bretten , Eppingen and Heilbronn to Öhringen .
The district of Heilbronn is responsible for the following vocational schools : Peter-Bruckmann-Schule (commercial and domestic school) Heilbronn, Andreas-Schneider-Schule (commercial school) Heilbronn, Christiane-Herzog-Schule (domestic and agricultural school) Heilbronn and Christian-Schmidt- School (commercial school) Neckarsulm, as well as the following special education and advice centers : Brothers Grimm School (special focus on language) with kindergarten in Heilbronn, Hermann Herzog school (focus on vision) with kindergarten in Heilbronn, Kaywald School (focus on mental development and physical and motor skills Development) with school kindergarten Lauffen am Neckar and Astrid-Lindgren-Schule (special focus on mental development and physical-motor development) with school kindergarten Neckarsulm.
The district of Heilbronn with the Heilbronn partner of the SLK-Kliniken Heilbronn gGmbH (SLK stands for S tadt and L and k reis) . The company operates the hospitals Klinikum am Gesundbrunnen Heilbronn, Klinikum am Plattenwald Bad Friedrichshall, Brackenheim Hospital with geriatric rehabilitation, Möckmühl Hospital and Löwenstein Clinic in the city and district of Heilbronn .
There are 15 Jewish cemeteries in the city and district of Heilbronn : in Affaltrach , Bad Rappenau , Bad Wimpfen , Berwangen , Eppingen , Heilbronn , Heinsheim , Ittlingen , Kochendorf , Neckarsulm , Neudenau , Oedheim , Schluchtern , Sontheim and in Stein am Kocher . They are cultural monuments that are worth protecting - stone witnesses to formerly existing Jewish communities and a lively Jewish community life up to the 1930s.
(Residents on December 31, 2018)
Municipalities before the district reform
Before the district reform in 1973 or before the community reform , the (old) district of Heilbronn comprised 99 communities , including 15 towns . In 1945 the former Baden community Schluchtern was added to the 97 communities since 1938 and in 1952 the former Hessian town Bad Wimpfen , which had belonged to the district of Sinsheim since 1945 , to the district of Heilbronn.
On March 7, 1968, the state parliament of Baden-Württemberg set the course for a community reform . With the law to strengthen the administrative power of smaller municipalities , it was possible for smaller municipalities to voluntarily unite to form larger municipalities. The beginning in the old district of Heilbronn was made by the communities of Großgartach and Schluchtern, which merged on January 1, 1970 to form the new community of Leingarten . The municipality of Klingenberg was incorporated into the Heilbronn district on the same day and thus left the district. In the period that followed, the number of communities steadily decreased. On January 1, 1972, the municipality of Gronau was incorporated into the municipality of Oberstenfeld , Ludwigsburg district. On July 1, 1972, Kirchhausen was also incorporated into the Heilbronn district. These communities also left the district. The remaining communities in the old district of Heilbronn merged on January 1, 1973 in the new, enlarged district of Heilbronn; however, on January 1, 1974, he gave the municipality of Biberach and on April 1, 1974 the municipalities of Frankenbach and Horkheim, which before 1973 belonged to the old Heilbronn district, to the Heilbronn urban district.
The largest community in the old district of Heilbronn was the city of Neckarsulm . The smallest community was Bittelbronn.
The old district of Heilbronn last covered an area of 872 km² and had a total of 193,751 inhabitants at the 1970 census .
The table shows the population development in the old district of Heilbronn up to 1970. All population figures are census results.
In the table, the municipalities of the old district of Heilbronn are before the municipal reform. With the exception of the five municipalities incorporated into the Heilbronn district (¹) and Gronau, which is part of the Ludwigsburg district due to its incorporation into Oberstenfeld, all of the communities still belong to the Heilbronn district today.
The Heilbronn district is managed by the HeilbronnerLand e. V. marketed for tourism under the name HeilbronnerLand . In Heilbronner Land, over one million overnight stays are counted every year. The Heilbronner Land is characterized by diverse natural landscapes, with vineyards and river landscapes as well as extensive forest areas in two nature parks:
Cycling and wine are the main tourist themes in the Heilbronn district. Winter sports can only be found in parts of the Swabian-Franconian Forest Nature Park . On the Breitenauer See in the Weinsberger Valley and on the Neckar near Lauffen there is the possibility to practice water sports such as sailing and windsurfing. There is a wide range of spa and wellness offers in the brine baths in Bad Wimpfen and Bad Rappenau .
Places worth seeing include the historic Kaiserpfalz Bad Wimpfen , the parks of the State Garden Show 2008 in Bad Rappenau and the half-timbered town of Eppingen . Along the German Framework Road and Castle Road in the Heilbronner Land is more interesting towns and castles find.
The Wildparadies Tripsdrill near Cleebronn is an extensive zoological park on the Stromberg with around 50 animal species.
A dense network of cycle paths runs through the district of Heilbronn, where many long-distance cycle paths through Baden-Württemberg meet. Numerous signposted day tours enable rallies along the long-distance cycle paths.
- Kocher-Jagst-Radweg - 340 km in the valleys of Kocher and Jagst
- Neckar Valley Cycle Path - 410 km from Villingen-Schwenningen to Mannheim
- Kraichgau-Hohenlohe-Weg - 160 km from Bad Schönborn to Rothenburg ob der Tauber
- Alb-Neckar-Radweg - 270 km from Ulm to Eberbach
- Castle Road Cycle Path - cycle from castle to castle
In the Stromberg-Heuchelberg Nature Park and the Swabian-Franconian Forest Nature Park, in particular, there are numerous hiking trails, some of which are nationally attractive. The basic structure is the hiking trail system of the Swabian Alb Association with longitudinal and cross paths.
- Neckarsteig - 124 km certified quality hiking trail from Heidelberg to Bad Wimpfen
- Jagst cultural hiking trail - 103 km from Bad Friedrichshall to Langenburg
- Frankenweg (HW 8) - 220 km from Pforzheim to Rothenburg ob der Tauber
- Württemberg Wine Trail
On July 1, 1956, the district was assigned the distinctive sign HN when the vehicle registration number that is still valid today was introduced . It is still issued today.
- The state of Baden-Wuerttemberg - official description according to districts and municipalities (in eight volumes); Edited by the Baden-Württemberg State Archives Department; Volume IV: Stuttgart District - Regional Associations Franconia and East Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart 1980, ISBN 3-17-005708-1
- Julius Fekete: Art and cultural monuments in the city and district of Heilbronn . Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-8062-1662-2
- The nature reserves in the Stuttgart administrative region . Edited by Reinhard Wolf . Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Stuttgart 2002. ISBN 3-7995-5173-5
- Literature from and about the district of Heilbronn in the catalog of the German National Library
- Website of the HeilbronnerLand e. V.
- ↑ State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
- ↑ Survey of land according to type of actual use in 2015
- ↑ LUBW protected area statistics ( Memento from January 20, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ Notices from the Württemberg and Baden State Statistical Office No. 1: Results of the population census and the determination of residence on December 4, 1945 in North Württemberg, Stuttgart 1946
- ↑ a b Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality register for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 450 f. and 464 ff .
- ↑ https://www.statistik-bw.de/Wahlen/Kommunal/02043000.tab?R=KR125
- ↑  ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Distribution of votes in the district elections 1989–2009
- ↑  ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Distribution of seats in district elections 1989–2009
^ Sources for the coat of arms section:
Heinz Bardua: The district and community coat of arms in the Stuttgart administrative region . Theiss, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-8062-0801-8 (district and municipality coat of arms in Baden-Württemberg, 1). P. 22
Eberhard Gönner : Book of arms of the city and district of Heilbronn with a territorial history of this area . Archive Directorate Stuttgart, Stuttgart 1965 (Publications of the State Archive Administration Baden-Württemberg, 9). P. 51 f.
The district coat of arms for the district of Heilbronn (accessed on January 8, 2013)
- ↑ Future Atlas 2016. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017 ; accessed on March 23, 2018 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ PROGNOS future atlas. Handelsblatt, accessed on December 10, 2019 .
- ↑ State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).