Location of the Hohenlohe plain
The Hohenlohe level is a plateau in the districts of Hohenlohe , Heilbronn and Schwäbisch Hall in Baden-Württemberg and in the district of Ansbach in Bavaria ( Germany ). The term “Hohenlohe Plain” is rather vaguely defined and sometimes stands for a smaller, sometimes for a larger landscape. The Hohenloher and Haller Plains natural area is firmly defined within limits, and together with the Kocher-Jagst Plains natural area to the north, it more or less corresponds to the broadest definition.
The Hohenlohe level belongs to the Neckar and Tauber-Gäuplatten , which extend from the Upper Rhine to the Tauber valley. It is located in the northeast of Baden-Württemberg, a small part in the east towards the Tauber, for example between Rothenburg ob der Tauber in the north and Diebach or Wettringen in the south, already belongs to Bavaria. Listed clockwise, it borders on the building land in the northwest and north , in the east on the Frankenhöhe , in the south on the Swabian-Franconian Forest with its Keuper landscapes of Ellwanger and Limpurger Mountains , Mainhardter Forest and Waldenburg Mountains . A little bit to the west meets the Neckar valley , beyond which the hilly Kraichgau lies in the west . Your southern part near Schwäbisch Hall is the Haller level .
According to the shape of the terrain, the Hohenlohe plain is a flat to flat hilly plain at heights of around 300 towith individual elevations of just over height, which is divided by deeply cut river valleys.
Geographically, this landscape roughly has the contour of a right-angled triangle, with a long southern cathetus between the near mouths of the great right Neckar tributaries Jagst and Kocher near Bad Friedrichshall at the western tip and the right-angled corner near Crailsheim and a shorter eastern cathetus from there to about Uffenheim - Langensteinach north of Rothenburg ob der Tauber . On the long south side, the northern outlets of the two main rivers mentioned above from the Keuperbergland as well as those of the larger Kocher tributaries create a severely torn border to the neighboring mountain landscape. From west to east, between the step-edged bays of Brettach , Ohrn , Kocher, Bühler and finally Jagst, there are sometimes wide mountain ledges. Just before the east side, the third large river Tauber of the Hohenlohe level rises a little north of the Jagst and then runs north as a step edge river in front of the Frankenhöhe, which is why fewer large bays have emerged on this step edge.
Of the landscape described, the natural area of the same name includes the edge of a few to a dozen kilometers wide in the south and east in front of the step edge. The rest of the interior of the triangle around the large parallel north arches of Kocher and Jagst, on the other hand, forms the natural area of Kocher-Jagst Plains .
The natural area Hohenloher and Haller Ebene is structured as follows:
(for 12 Neckar and Tauber-Gäuplatten )
- 127 Hohenloher and Haller level
- 127.1 Hot plates and crooked plane
- 127.2 Western Hohenlohe Plain
- 127.3 Bay of Hall with rose garden
- 127.4 Middle Hohenlohe Plain
- 127.40 Haller level (identical to 127.4!)
- 127.5 Vellberg Bay
- 127.6 Crailsheim Bay
- 127.7 Eastern Hohenlohe Plain
- 127.8 Upper Taubertal
- 127.9 bays at the edge of the franc
- 127 Hohenloher and Haller level
The Kocherplatten and Krumme Ebene (127.1) are the westernmost part of the Hohenloher Ebene and border roughly from Neckarsulm in the south to Gundelsheim in the north to the flat valley floodplain of the Neckar, in which the two large rivers Kocher and Jagst von here at Bad Friedrichshall shortly after one another East-northeast and northeast flow together. Towards the east, this deepest part of the Hohenlohe plain narrows down to the narrow strip between Kocher and a northern foothill of the Sulmer mountain range near Langenbrettach .
The western Hohenlohe level (127.2) is located immediately north of the step edge of the Keuperberge, which is very restless due to the valley bays of the large lower Kocher tributaries Brettach and Ohrn and their bounding mountain ledges, and is approximately encompassed by the large northward arch of the Kocher after its exit from the mountain landscape. In the west it only borders on the previous unit for a short distance, most recently across the lower valley of the (Neuenstädter) Brettach . Its northern border to the shell limestone of the Kocher-Jagst plain (main unit 126) deviates at the end of the Kocher arch to the north at Kochersteinsfeld from the valley edge, then runs approximately to the east, crossing the central secondary valleys of Ohrn , Sall and Kupfer , and then above the north-south Follow the river section up the left edge of the valley from Kocherstetten near Künzelsau to about Untermünkheim near Schwäbisch Hall .
The Haller bay with Rosengarten (127.3) is the forest mountains enclosed to about three-quarters through which the river at its southern edge in Westheim almost opposite zumündende beaver almost circular reamed step edge bay of the digester between the Western Hohenlohe plain in the far north, the Waldenburg Hills ( 108.5) in the north and northwest, the Mainhardter Wald (108.41) in the southwest and south, the Limpurger Mountains (108.60) in the east. Between its spur Einkorn and the so-called Kocheneck near Untermünkheim, the Kochertal valley running northwards to the right upper slope edge is also included in it, which is why it borders eastwards on the Haller level (127.4).
The Haller level (127.4) extends from its western border between Einkorn and Kocheneck on a first sub-level between the Limpurger Mountains in the south and the Kocher running northeast after its bend near Untermünkheim to the east to the upper slope of the lowest Bühlertal valley, which runs northwest to the Kocher, below Oberscheffach (to 126.31). After this bottleneck between the exit of the tributary from its own step-edge bay ( Vellberger Bucht, 127.5) and the beginning of the lower valley, the Keuper-distant border of the Haller level jumps back to the north on the other side of the Bühler and then comes closer and closer to the second and larger level section Jagsttal (126.21, behind a wedge of 126.60)) approximately eastwards to Tiefenbach , from where it reaches the flatter northern edge of the Keuperberge near Maulach in a short southwest run , which on this side of the Bühler meanwhile in the form of the subunit Burgberg-Vorhöhen and Speltachbucht ( 108.71).
The Vellberger Bucht (127.5) is the elongated step-edge bay of the Bühler , between Bühlertann - Kottspiel in the south-southeast, where its largest tributary Fischach flows almost in the opposite direction, and approximately the end of the middle course at Talweiler Anhausen . On the left side it mainly borders on Fischbacher Bucht and Randhöhen (108.61), finally on the Limpurger Berge (108.60), on the right on the Ellwanger Berge (108.70) and then a little longer on the Burgberg-Vorhöhen and Speltachbucht (108.71).
In the east the Haller level borders the Crailsheimer Bucht (127.6), this is the Keuperstufenrandbucht of the Jagst . This almost circular, poorly structured gypsum keuper landscape was cleared on the left side of the river by the Maulach running in front of the Burgberg foreshore and reaching the Jagst at an obtuse angle near the southern end of the bay , on the right by some smaller streams from the edge of the southern Franconian height (114.0) . here. At the southernmost point of the bay near Crailsheim-Jagstheim, the Speltach , which is roughly parallel to the Maulach, flows out .
Because in the further course the Keuperkante at the edge of the Hohenlohe Plain bends to the north-north-east and so initially only short runs of the right, inconsistent tributaries to the Jagst, which flows north to north-west here, are comparatively small, the following edge bays of the Frankenhöhe (127.9) to the north-north-east .
The southernmost subunit of these marginal bays is the Gronach Bay (127.93), it starts at the Crailsheim Bay north of the Jagst inlet Kreuzbach and then includes the partly only slightly separated valley basins of the Entenbach and above all the eponymous Gronach .
To the north is the Michelbach Bay (127.92), the drainage area of the stream from the local Brettach (upper and middle course) and the Wallhausen Weidenbach (lower course), which usually seeps away a little below this village, which begins at the gap where it is named Michelbach but the again larger Jagst tributary Brettach flows after a curve at Rot am See .
With this big U he then circles the narrow southern part of the Rothberg-Ramholz-Ridge (127.90), which starts close to Wallhausen, and then with its more important northeast part from Rot am See-Kühnhard to move northeast to about Diebach . Its highest elevations are the eponymous mountains Rothberg ( ) and Ramholz ( ), two witness mountains in front of the Frankenhöhe , which are separated by the upper course of the Tauber near the source .
Between this ridge and the edge of the Keuperstufen is the flat basin of the Wettringer and Oestheimer Bucht , which is drained north to west by the upper Tauber and two other streams flowing to it below the natural area, the Oestheimer Mühlbach and the Wohnbach .
To the west of Gronach Bay, Michelbach Bay and Rothberg-Ramholz-Ridge, roughly west of the Gröningen - Brettheim line and northwest of the Brettheim – Diebach line, the extensive Eastern Hohenlohe Plain (127.7) begins, the last and largest of the three main plains in the entire natural area. Its further eastern border towards the Frankenhöhe runs northwards from Diebach, past Gebsattel and Rothenburg ob der Tauber in the east, to the south bank of the Steinach near Uffenheim- Langensteinach; at last it already borders on the 3rd order Greater Region of the Main Franconian Plates (13). The further border of the Eastern Hohenlohe Plain runs a little below its bend in direction at Tauberzell across the Tauber valley to the southwest to the northwest tip of the Brettach catchment area at Schrozberg -Kälberbach, on the entire section towards the Tauberland (129). The narrow Muscheĺkalk-Kerbtal of the Tauber from Rothenburg down to Tauberzell is left out, it forms its own small and not further subdivided unit Upper Taubertal (127.8) of the Hohenlohe plain. The border from this to the Tauberland roughly in the northwest is heavily bulged, because on this side are the plateau upper reaches of the southern Tauber tributaries, especially the Herrgottsbach and Vorbach , on the other side their deep limestone valleys. The following western border of the eastern Hohenlohe plain runs as far as Gerabronn , from where, as it approaches the Jagst valley more and more, it passes near Kirchberg in the southeast to Gröningen and closes there; on the other side of this section are the Kocher-Jagst plains (126) with the Jagst valley as the next major cut into the plains.
The entire area of the Eastern Hohenlohe Plain is heavily karstified and shows phenomena such as creek shrinkage , dry valleys, frequent single dolines, rows of sinkholes near the outcrop of the thin Unterereuper layer partly on top of the shell limestone , cave formations and karst springs. The best known are the Schandtauber with their large karst cave and karst spring.
This unit is divided from south-west to north-east into the Blaufelden- Gerabronner level (127.70), which roughly encompasses the above-ground catchment area of the Brettach down to the lower reaches of Rot am See- Beimbach, also the south-west Rothenburger Landwehr (127.71) and finally the north-east Rothenburger Landwehr (127.72). The name of the last two refers to the former Rothenburger Landwehr , as the former Landhege of the imperial city was called and also the territory enclosed by it.
As can be seen, the three main levels of the main unit are only connected via the southern bays at the outlet of the two large sister rivers Kocher and Jagst , which extend to the Keuperberge (108 and 114) in the south and to the Kocher-Jagst plains (126 ) attributed valley landscapes. The western and central parts are connected by the Haller Bay (127.3) near Schwäbisch Hall through which the Kocher flows ; The central and northeastern part is the sequence of Crailsheim Bay and Gronach Bay (127.93) on the Jagst.
The Hohenlohe Plain is drained westwards by the Jagst, which rises in the foothills of the Alb and the Kocher coming from the Alb , both of which first cross the Swabian-Franconian Forest and then flow in the plains in front of it, like many of its tributaries, in deep and steep valleys . The Tauber , which drains to the north, rises in front of the Frankenhöhe on the plain itself.
The course of the rivers often follows the geotectonically Variscan direction (NE-SW), such as the lower reaches of Kocher and Jagst, or the Hercynian direction (SE-NW), which is almost perpendicular to it , such as the upper reaches of Kocher, Jagst and Tauber. Even the side valleys often adhere to these main axes and thus determine the alignment of the road network and the settlement in the area. Some towns in the floodplains, such as Künzelsau , Niedernhall , Ingelfingen and Forchtenberg in the narrow Kochertal valley, are occasionally hit by floods in autumn and winter because of their location.
Opportunities for viewing
A good view over the Hohenlohe plain is offered by some places on the southern edge of the mountains: The town of Waldenburg (approx. ) on a northern foothill of the Waldenburg mountains is known as the "Hohenlohe balcony". On the Einkorn ( ) near Schwäbisch Hall , which has a similar top on the northern edge of the Limpurger Mountains , a tower offers a view primarily over the Kocherbucht and the Haller Plain. From the Burgbergturm on the Burgberg ( ) between Frankenhardt and Crailsheim , the eastern part of the plain is particularly visible.
Geology and geomorphology
The Hohenlohe level is part of the south-west German layer level country and belongs to the Triassic landscape . Part of this tiered land are the Gäuf areas, which also include the Hohenlohe Plain. The layers of shell limestone form the subsoil here, they are covered over large areas by those of the Lettenkeuper and overlaid with loess clay. Tauber, Jagst and Kocher with their larger tributaries cut deep into the mostly hard limestone and dolomite layers of the shell limestone, creating narrow sections of the valley. The individual Keuper layers resist erosion to different degrees, in particular the gypsum keuper ( Grabfeld formation ), which is close to the base of the Keuper layer package, is slightly subroded by leaching. This contributed to the fact that at the transition of the rivers coming from the south from the Keuperbergland into the Hohenlohe Plain, wide valley bays were created, from west to east these are:
- the Brettachbucht (127.20) on the Brettach (to the Kocher) near Bretzfeld
- the Haller Bucht (127.3) at the Kocher and at the Bibers
- the Vellberger Bucht (127.5) at the Bühler
- the Crailsheim bay (127.6) on the Jagst
- the Gronach Bay (127.93) on the Gronach near Gröningen
- the Michelbacher Bucht (127.92) on the Brettach , a later, below Wallhausen , seeping left spring course of the Brettach (to Jagst) as Weidenbach
- the Wettringer bay (to 127.91) on the Tauber
- the Oestheimer Bucht (to 127.91) on the Oestheimer Mühlbach and the Wohnbach
In the edge zones of these bays, due to the more resistant galena and the Corbulabank (formerly called Engelhofer Platte), leveling developed. Raw gypsum is mined here, especially in the Schwäbisch Hall and Crailsheim areas . Muschelkalk is extracted in a number of quarries on the Hohenlohe Plain and mostly processed into gravel .
The Hohenlohe Plain is a fertile old farming country with little forest. The plateaus owe their fertility to the overlying Lettenkeuperschichten and loess loam. The region is the largest muschelkalk karst area in Germany with more than 2000 sinkholes as well as numerous dry valleys and isolated cave systems such as the fox labyrinth near Schrozberg - Schmalfelden .
Hohenlohe is part of the cool, temperate Central European climate zone with a predominantly maritime character. The different altitudes cause small-scale differentiations. The larger valley areas of the Hohenlohe Plain are among the warmest areas in Baden-Württemberg. The summer warmth on the slopes allows viticulture in the region. Precipitation increases with altitude. While the Tauberland bordering to the north, with 700 mm of annual precipitation, is one of the more dry areas, the plateaus and the Keuperrand step have significantly more precipitation. In the highest areas of the Keuperberge, precipitation of up to 1000 mm can be recorded. In spring and autumn, inversion weather often creates valley fog.
Settlement and transport
Hohenlohe and the Hohenlohe Plain are among the most sparsely populated areas in Germany. In the districts of Hohenlohekreis, Schwäbisch Hall and Main-Tauber-Kreis there are only around 120 inhabitants per km² on average (Germany: 230 inhabitants per km²). The settlements are often located in the deeply cut valleys, which also determined the development of traffic. At the time of the carriages and wagons, steep valley climbs hindered traffic across the valley axes. State roads later opened up the area, which - often following old trade routes - led over the plateaus and crossed at junctions such as Heilbronn , Schwäbisch Hall , Crailsheim , Bad Mergentheim and Tauberbischofsheim . With the construction of several railway lines between 1860 and 1870, other axes were created. Only the construction of the A 6 motorway , which was completed in the early 1980s, overcame the natural obstacles. It runs from west to east over the Hohenlohe plain and the valley landscapes of the Kocher-Jagst plains (126) that divide it and connects the Rhine valley via Heilbronn with Nuremberg. The 185 m high Kochertal bridge is the highest motorway bridge in Germany.
- Wolf Dieter Sick: Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 162 Rothenburg od Tauber. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1962. → Online map (PDF; 4.7 MB)
- Josef Schmithüsen : Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 161 Karlsruhe. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1952. → Online map (PDF; 5.1 MB) (only to a minimum of 127.1)
- Otto F. Geyer, Manfred P. Gwinner : Geology of Baden-Württemberg. 4th, revised edition. Schweitzerbart, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 3-510-65146-4 .
- Christoph Borcherdt: Baden-Württemberg. A geographic country studies (= Federal Republic of Germany 5 = scientific country customers 8). Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1991, ISBN 3-534-07905-1 .
- Otto Bauschert (Ed.): Hohenlohe (= writings on political regional studies of Baden-Württemberg. Vol. 21). Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-17-012246-0 .
- Hans Hagdorn , Theo Simon: Geology and landscape of the Hohenloher Land (= research from Württembergisch-Franconia. Vol. 28). Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1985, ISBN 3-7995-7627-4 .
- Rudolf hose : Hohenlohe Franconia. Landscape, history, culture, art. Glock and Lutz, Nuremberg 1964.
- Natural area profile Hohenloher-Haller Ebene (127) - LUBW (PDF; 13.0 MB; information )