|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Stuttgart|
|Height :||157 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||99.88 km 2|
|Residents:||125,960 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||1261 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||07131, 07066|
|License plate :||HN|
|Community key :||08 1 21 000|
|LOCODE :||DE HEN|
|City structure:||9 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Harry Mergel ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Heilbronn in Baden-Württemberg|
Heilbronn [ haɪ̯lˈbrɔn ] is a city in the north of Baden-Württemberg and with 125,960 inhabitants the seventh largest city in the state . The city is located on the Neckar , about 50 kilometers north of the state capital Stuttgart , is a separate urban district and also the seat of the Heilbronn district , which completely surrounds it. In addition, Heilbronn is the regional center of the Heilbronn-Franconia region (until May 20, 2003 Franconia region ), which encompasses the north-east of Baden-Württemberg, and belongs to the outskirts of the European metropolitan region of Stuttgart . The area around Heilbronn is mostly called the Unterland in the rest of the region .
Mentioned for the first time in 741, Heilbronn achieved the status of an imperial city in 1371 and, due to its location on the Neckar, developed into an important trading center from the late Middle Ages. At the beginning of the 19th century Heilbronn became one of the centers of early industrialization in Württemberg. Heilbronn's old town was completely destroyed in the air raid on December 4, 1944 and rebuilt in the 1950s. Most of the buildings in the city center date from this period.
Heilbronn is known as the city of wine because of its extensive vineyards . The city is also called Käthchenstadt , after the name of the title character in Heinrich von Kleist's play Das Käthchen von Heilbronn .
On February 1, 2020, the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of the Interior, Digitization and Migration awarded the city of Heilbronn the title of University City .
Heilbronn is located in northern Baden-Württemberg in the fertile valley of the Heilbronn Basin created by the Neckar , a northern branch of the Neckar Basin . In the west there is the comparatively little hilly Gartacher Feld . In the east, from north to south, the Heilbronn Mountains encircle the city as foothills of the Löwenstein Mountains ; on the slopes of which there are extensive vineyard landscapes; these include the Büchelberg , Galgenberg , Gaffenberg , Hintersberg , Reisberg , Schweinsberg and Wartberg surveys . To the north lies the Sulmer mountain range .
The highest point of the urban area is located in the extreme southeastern tip of the urban forest, Neckarsulm . The urban area extends in north-south direction over 13 kilometers, in east-west direction over 19 kilometers. Heilbronn has a share in the three natural areas Neckar Basin, Kraichgau and Swabian-Franconian Forest Mountains .high Reisberg, the second highest elevation is the Schweinsberg with . The district reaches its lowest point at on the Neckar on the border with
Heilbronn is located in the northern part of the diversely fragmented south-west German layer level country . A deep borehole that was carried out in 1912/13 in the neighboring town of Erlenbach in Heilbronn at down to a depth of 856 m and supplemented by seismic investigations in 1954/56 , provided information about the rock composition in the Heilbronn area. The surface of the original Variscan basement , composed of gneiss and granite , is therefore 1080 to . Above it lie layers of sedimentary rocks several hundred meters thick , at the bottom those of the Permian (around 390 m Rotliegend , 23.6 m Zechstein ), followed by those of the Triassic : 517.2 m Buntsandstein (around 80 m Lower Buntsandstein , 370 m Middle Buntsandstein , 67 m Upper Buntsandstein ), around 238 m Muschelkalk (72.7 m Lower Muschelkalk , 86.1 m Middle Muschelkalk , 78.7 m Upper Muschelkalk ) and finally Keuper (27.5 m Lower Keuper , 25.7 m Middle Keuper ) . In the middle Muschelkalk in the north of the city center and in the north-west of the city area a rock salt deposit up to 45 m thick is deposited, which is mined .
With the Middle Keuper, the level of the Neckar is almost reached, which divides the urban area from south to north. In the floodplain, which encompasses large parts of the Heilbronn industrial area and the western part of the city between Altneckar and Neckar Canal, it is overlaid by a three-meter-high ceiling of Talau gravel deposited by the Neckar , on which in turn around three meters of alluvial loam lie. Farther away from the river there are layers of gravel that are only five to ten meters thick under the city center, but reach up to 35 m in the west of the urban area between Böckingen, Frankenbach and Neckargartach. Almost everywhere there is still a 6 to 13 meter thick layer of blown, fertile loess and loess loam .
The Heilbronn Mountains in the east of the urban area, not covered by river deposits, reflect the further geological sequence of layers that was eroded in the rest of the urban area. On 28 to 29 meters Unterer Keuper follow 130 to 150 meters of gypsum keuper ( Grabfeld formation ) and a 20 to 45 meter thick reed sandstone layer, which was formerly exploited in quarries and whose brown-yellow Heilbronn sandstones previously shaped the Heilbronn townscape. The three highest mountains in the south-east of the urban area, the Reisberg ( ), the Schweinsberg ( ) and the Hintersberg ( ), still bear the higher layers of the Lower colored marl and the Lehrberg layers (together around 32 to 35 meters) and silica sandstone (5 to 16 meters).
Starting in the north and running clockwise , the cities of Bad Wimpfen and Neckarsulm , the municipality of Erlenbach , the city of Weinsberg , the municipalities of Lehrensteinsfeld , Untergruppenbach , Flein and Talheim , the city of Lauffen am Neckar , the municipality of Nordheim , the city of Leingarten and the city of Schwaigern border , the community of Massenbachhausen and the city of Bad Rappenau an Heilbronn. All neighboring cities and communities are in the Heilbronn district . Heilbronn has grown together with Neckarsulm to form a closed settlement area.
|Heilbronn||-||61,801||31.334 km²||74072, 74074,
|Biberach||1st January 1974||5.115||10.582 km²||74078||07066|
|Boeckingen||June 1, 1933||23,292||11.353 km²||74080||07131|
|Frankenbach||April 1, 1974||5,786||8.889 km²||74078, 74080||07131|
|Horkheim||April 1, 1974||4,052||4.852 km²||74081||07131|
|Kirchhausen||July 1, 1972||3,936||11.471 km²||74078||07066|
|Klingenberg||January 1, 1970||2,436||2.721 km²||74081||07131|
|Neckargartach||October 1, 1938||9,839||11.249 km²||74078||07131|
|Sontheim||October 1, 1938||12,021||7.400 km²||74074, 74081||07131|
The urban area of Heilbronn is divided into nine districts. In addition to Heilbronn itself, these are the formerly independent communities of Biberach , Böckingen , Frankenbach , Horkheim , Kirchhausen , Klingenberg , Neckargartach and Sontheim .
Some districts also have other locations in the geographical sense, such as individual courtyards and residential areas . In detail, these are the Konradsberg farms in Biberach , the Hipfelhof in Frankenbach and the Altböllinger Hof , Neckarau and the Neuböllinger Hof in Neckargartach .
Locations that have passed and no longer exist today are Hetensbach and Rühlingshausen on the Böckingen mark, Utenhusa on the Biberach mark, Altböckingen , Hanbach and Rappach on the Heilbronn mark, Böllingen and Trapphof on the Neckargartach mark and Ascheim and Widegavenhusa on the Kirchhausen mark.
Böckingen, Frankenbach and Neckargartach belonged to Heilbronn as imperial cities until the beginning of the 19th century. Böckingen and Neckargartach were incorporated again in 1933 and 1938; the former village of the Teutonic Order Sontheim also came to Heilbronn in 1938. The remaining districts followed with the territorial reform in the 1970s: 1970 Klingenberg, 1972 Kirchhausen, 1974 Biberach, Frankenbach and Horkheim. Apart from the districts of Biberach and Kirchhausen, which are relatively far away from the core city and which are completely surrounded by agricultural land, Heilbronn and its districts have grown together to form an almost closed settlement area.
Division of space
According to data from the State Statistical Office , as of 2015.
The following nature reserves can be found in the city of Heilbronn :
- Altneckar Horkheim : 43.2 ha (of which 30.9 ha in the city of Heilbronn); Horkheim district
- Frankenbacher gravel : 14.4 ha (of which 4.7 ha in the city of Heilbronn); Frankenbach district
- Köpfertal : 32.0 ha; Heilbronn district
- Impact slope of the Neckar near Lauffen : 2.96 ha; (of which 0.7 ha in the city of Heilbronn); Horkheim district
- Reed sand quarry near the Jägerhaus with the surrounding area : 29.6 ha; Heilbronn district
The Neckar Valley near Heilbronn is one of the warmest areas in Baden-Württemberg. There is a moderate continental climate with mild winters and warm to hot summers, which favors the extensive viticulture. According to data from the German Weather Service , the average annual temperature in the normal period 1961–1990 was 9.8 ° C, the annual precipitation was 758.1 mm.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Heilbronn
Source: DWD data for the normal period 1961–1990
Heilbronn and the surrounding area belong to the northern area of the Stuttgart agglomeration . The city is the regional center of the Heilbronn-Franconia region and thus one of a total of 14 regional centers designated as part of the state development plan 2002 of the state of Baden-Württemberg. This also takes on the tasks of the central area for the entire district of Heilbronn except for the northeast, which forms the central area of the city of Neckarsulm . Specifically, these are the cities and communities Abstatt , Bad Rappenau , Bad Wimpfen , Beilstein , Brackenheim , Cleebronn , Eberstadt , Ellhofen , Eppingen , Flein , Gemmingen , Güglingen , Ilsfeld , Ittlingen , Kirchardt , Lauffen am Neckar , Lehrensteinsfeld , Leingarten , Löwenstein , Massenbachhausen , Neckarwestheim , Nordheim , Obersulm , Pfaffenhofen an der Zaber , Schwaigern , Siegelsbach , Talheim , Untergruppenbach , Weinsberg , Wüstenrot and Zaberfeld .
Measures of spatial significance are being developed for the Heilbronn-Franken region by the Heilbronn-Franken regional association .
Settlement and city foundation
The oldest human traces in the fertile Neckar floodplains in the Heilbronn basin date from the Paleolithic Age (30,000 BC). Ancient long-distance routes that crossed the Neckar met there in prehistoric times near Heilbronn . In the 1st century AD, the Romans secured their border along the Neckar Limes with forts , including the Heilbronn-Böckingen fort , where eight Roman roads met. After the Romans, the Alamanni ruled the Neckar area from the middle of the 3rd century and were ousted around 500 by the Franks , who settled their eastern provinces with royal courts. The first larger settlement in the area of today's core city probably goes back to such a royal court.
The place is mentioned for the first time as villa Helibrunna in a donation dated to 741. The name suggests a well or a spring. A market was first mentioned around 1050, a port around 1140. The place developed into an important trading center early on and after the end of the Carolingians it passed to their regional princes, the Counts of Calw . The former Franconian prince's court split up into mansions, and these in turn split up into smaller parts. In addition to various counts, monasteries with their Heilbronn foster farms and the Teutonic Order that appeared from around 1225 , who established the Deutschhof as a commander and owned the neighboring town of Sontheim , property rights in Heilbronn also came into the hands of the patriciate , which was becoming more and more influential , including its early representatives the Erer and the Lutwin counted. In 1225 the city was first referred to as an oppidum (fortified city) and was given to Württemberg as a fief of the Hohenstaufen king Heinrich (VII) .
In 1281 King Rudolf I of Habsburg granted Heilbronn town charter , the first time a town council was mentioned, which was formed from the patriciate. The Kilian's Church and a market square with a town hall were first mentioned by name around 1300 . With the foundation of the Katharinenspital in 1306, an urban health and welfare system was formed. In 1322 King Ludwig the Bavarian granted the city high jurisdiction .
The port and the water-powered mills on the Neckar , which from 1333 onwards could be dammed and diverted for the benefit of the city thanks to the Neckar privilege , allowed trade in Heilbronn to flourish. Heilbronn became the “Little Venice” of inland shipping due to the handling monopoly. In 1360 the citizenship was able to acquire the mayor's office from the previous fiefdom holder Württemberg .
Imperial city from 1371
On December 28, 1371 city through a constitutional emperor was Charles IV. To the Imperial City . An extremely close relationship with the emperor and an alliance with the Electoral Palatinate from 1417 to 1622 consolidated the position vis-à-vis Württemberg.
In 1519 Götz von Berlichingen was imprisoned as a prisoner of the Swabian Federation in Heilbronn. During the Peasants' War , Jäcklein Rohrbach appeared as a rebellious peasant leader in Heilbronn. He committed the Weinsberg bloody deed with the Neckar-Odenwälder farmers around Easter 1525 and then plundered the Heilbronn Carmelite monastery outside the city walls . In the city itself, the anger of the peasants was only directed against the Teutonic Order in the Deutschhof.
The city of Heilbronn, which had the right of patronage over the preacher position in Kilian's Church, joined the Reformation early on. The Heilbronn catechism from 1528, written by the Kilian Church preacher Johann Lachmann , is one of the earliest Protestant catechisms. The first Protestant mayor, Hans Riesser , took part in the Speyer protest in 1529. The economic stability in the further course of the 16th century led to a further flourishing of the city, in which about 4000 people lived at that time. Numerous historical buildings date back to this period, including the ornate west tower of the Kilian's Church , the meat shop and the Heilbronn town hall .
During the Thirty Years' War , the city and the surrounding imperial towns suffered greatly. After the Battle of Wimpfen , Neckargartach was burned down in 1622 . In 1633, the Swedes concluded the Heilbronn Alliance with the Protestant southern German imperial cities in the Deutschhof . At that time the city was surrounded by a bulwark . From 1634 to 1647 the city was again in the hands of imperial troops, after which French and then Palatine troops moved in. Even after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 the city remained a parade ground and evangelical district fortress of the Swabian Empire . In late 1688, Heilbronn was occupied by the French under Ezéchiel de Mélac in the Palatinate War of Succession , who abducted nine members of the patrician families as hostages for more than a year when they withdrew from the advancing Electorate of Saxony troops in December 1688. The last witch trial took place in the imperial city in 1694 .
After the political stabilization, magnificent buildings in the Rococo style were built around 1750 , such as the municipal archive building , the orphanage, breeding and workhouse , the Kraichgau archive and the shooting house . From 1770 onwards, the cattle and horse market made Heilbronn one of the largest slaughterhouses in southwest Germany for over a century.
Wuerttemberg upper administrative city from 1802
As a result of mediatization, Heilbronn came to Württemberg with other imperial cities in September 1802 and became the seat of the Oberamt Heilbronn . Two of the senior officials of the 19th century, namely Joseph Christian Schliz and Friedrich Mugler , became the city's first two honorary citizens.
From 1815 the Neckar was made navigable again, which had been blocked by countless weirs and mills since the high Middle Ages. The Wilhelm Canal was built for this purpose from 1819 to 1821 . Industrialization in Heilbronn was driven by the Heilbronn paper mills on the Neckar, which in 1820 switched to factory-like production with the installation of large paper machines and developed into large companies, which in turn were followed by downstream processing companies. In 1832 Heilbronn was the city with the most factories in the Kingdom of Württemberg ; it was called the Swabian Liverpool .
In the course of the 19th century, the city's population increased about sixfold, so that it quickly grew beyond the medieval city limits, which have remained almost unchanged for centuries. The old city gates and city walls were torn down. New roads and bridges were built. From 1839 suburbs were developed as planned, now also west of the Neckar, where the old station stood from 1848 . Heilbronn was initially the terminus of the Württemberg Northern Railway from Stuttgart . By 1880, under the direction of the Württemberg State Railways, additional rail connections from Heilbronn to other important southern German cities were built.
In 1848 Heilbronn was considered the center of the March Revolution in Württemberg . Up until the summer of 1849 there were often unrest in the city, which could only be suppressed several times by sending royal soldiers from Stuttgart.
With the steady growth of the city, a new general building plan was drawn up by Reinhard Baumeister in 1873 , which was followed until around 1900 for further urban development. The Kaiserstraße became an important east-west traffic axis. The raft port was built in 1875, followed by the salt port in 1886 and Karlshafen in 1888. On January 16, 1892, Heilbronn was the first city in the world to be supplied with electricity when it was connected to the power grid of the power station in Lauffen . With the Südbahnhof in 1900, another important cargo handling point was created.
The most important Heilbronn companies of that time included the silver goods factory Peter Bruckmann & Sons , the Heilbronn sugar factory , the Cluss brewery , the Knorr soup factory and the Heilbronn mechanical engineering company .
At the beginning of the 20th century there were numerous workers' and sports clubs and a liberal press landscape in the pronounced industrial and working-class city. The later Federal President Theodor Heuss was editor-in-chief of the Neckar-Zeitung from 1912 to 1917 , which at the time enjoyed supraregional attention. The city was considered a "red stronghold". There were no major revolutionary acts in the November revolution of 1918/19 .
Period of National Socialism and World War II
The local group of the NSDAP, founded in 1923, was meaningless until the " seizure of power ", but from 1933 onwards, under district leader Richard Drauz, it energetically equalized the local associations and the local press. In 1933 the Württemberg Political Police, which from 1936 traded as the "Secret State Police - Stapoleitstelle Stuttgart ", set up a field service in Heilbronn, which observed and pursued political opponents, Jews and forced laborers until the end of the war.
In 1935, with the canalization of the Neckar, the major shipping route Heilbronn-Mannheim and the Heilbronn Canal Port were opened, which together with the other Heilbronn ports is still an important transshipment point on the Neckar and one of the ten largest German inland ports. In 1936 the autobahn to Stuttgart was completed.
The former town of Böckingen was incorporated into Heilbronn in 1933. As part of an administrative reform, the previously independent communities of Sontheim and Neckargartach joined Heilbronn on October 1, 1938, and the urban district became and at the same time the seat of the new district of Heilbronn . With 72,000 inhabitants, the city was now the second largest in Württemberg after Stuttgart.
In September 1944, the SS set up the Neckargartach concentration camp in the Neckargartach district , a subcamp of the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp , in which over 1,000 prisoners who were exploited by forced labor in the armaments industry and elsewhere in the entire city area were temporarily concentrated (July 1944 to April 1945, Part of the Neckar camp). At the time it was run as the Steinbock SS labor camp . 246 of those who died are buried in the concentration camp cemetery on Böllinger Strasse .
During the Second World War , Heilbronn was often the target of Anglo-American air raids from December 1940. The British air raid on December 4th 1944 , in which the old town was completely destroyed and over 6,500 people lost their lives, became a disaster for the city. When American troops occupied Heilbronn on April 12, 1945, the city only had 46,350 inhabitants.
Second half of the 20th century
After the end of the Second World War in 1945 Heilbronn belonged to the American zone of occupation and until 1952 to the state of Württemberg-Baden . With a tremendous effort, the completely destroyed city was rebuilt in just a few years. Only a few significant individual buildings were rebuilt in their historical form, most of the quarters were built over with contemporary architecture from the 1950s. From 1951 US troops were permanently stationed in Heilbronn.
After the Federal Motorway 6 from Heilbronn to Mannheim with the monumental Neckar Valley Bridge was opened to traffic in 1968 and the A 81 to Würzburg followed in 1974, the A 6 to Nuremberg in 1979, the regional economy experienced a strong upswing thanks to improved traffic development. Numerous large companies settled in newly created industrial and commercial areas along the new traffic arteries and the economic region in its current form emerged.
With the incorporation of Klingenberg in 1970, Heilbronn exceeded the number of 100,000 inhabitants and became a major city . In 1972 and 1974 Kirchhausen , Biberach , Frankenbach and Horkheim were added. During the Baden-Württemberg district reform in 1973 , Heilbronn remained an independent city and the seat of the now enlarged district of Heilbronn . The city became the seat of the regional association of Franconia , from which today's regional association Heilbronn-Franconia emerged.
The Fleiner road and Sülmerstraße, who formed the city before the war the central north-south axis and have been retained in the reconstruction as thoroughfares, is designed in the 1970s to pedestrian areas in order, in the surrounding areas to calm the traffic. In its place, the parallel avenue became the most important inner-city north-south axis, on it underpasses and buildings in contemporary style such as the 14-story shopping house from 1971, the Wollhauszentrum built in 1974 and the Heilbronn Theater opened in 1982 .
In 1977 the USA stationed nuclear-armed short-range missiles of the Pershing IA type on the Heilbronn Waldheide , which were replaced by Pershing II medium-range missiles as part of the NATO double decision 1984–1985 . The population was not informed about it, from July 1984 the rockets were then a topic in the local council and in the regional press after public pressure. A missile disaster on the site in 1985 caused publicity, protests and a blockade of the site. After signing the INF treaties , the US Army withdrew the missiles in 1987 and the last units in 1992. Since then there are no more military facilities in Heilbronn.
From 1998 the city was connected to the local transport network of the Stadtbahn Karlsruhe , for this purpose large areas of Heilbronn's inner city were rebuilt again by 2005.
The Heilbronn Stadtbahn was extended in sections to Öhringen until 2005 and now crosses Heilbronn from west to east. Another branch to Neckarsulm , which was built from 2011 to 2013, branches off from this route . Further large-scale buildings in the city area that have been newly built in recent years are two Neckar bridges and the two shopping centers Stadtgalerie and Klosterhof . In addition, the north and south of the city were greened and built on as part of the federal-state funding program "Socially Integrative City".
In 2005 and 2006 Heilbronn was Germany's first UNICEF children's city.
The killing of a policewoman in Heilbronn in the early summer of 2007 caused a sensation and brought the city into international media coverage. The alleged perpetrator, the “ Heilbronner Phantom ”, turned out to be a mere construct due to an investigation error in March 2009. Since November 7, 2011, the crime based on weapons found in Zwickau has been assigned to the right-wing terrorist group National Socialist Underground .
In 2007 the city was awarded the contract for the 2019 Federal Horticultural Show . A former commercial area of around 40 hectares in size directly north of the main train station was selected as the event site, which has now been lavishly prepared for the garden show. Following the Federal Garden Show, the new Neckarbogen district is to be built there .
In Heilbronn (as of December 31, 2019) 27.2% of the total population belong to the Evangelical Church , 20.5% belong to the Roman Catholic Church and 52.3% of the population are included in the statistics under other / no religion . Compared to 2016, the proportion of Protestants has decreased by 3 and that of Catholics by 1.3 percentage points.
Since the Reformation by Johann Lachmann in 1528, Heilbronn has been an almost purely Protestant town with the Kilian's Church as the spiritual center. In 1530, the council and the citizenry declared themselves to be part of the Augsburg denomination . Mayor Johann Spölin signed the Lutheran formula of 1577 for the council of the city of Heilbronn. Catholics were not welcome, Jews were forbidden to settle in Heilbronn. After the transition to Württemberg, the city became the seat of a deanery in 1803, today's church district of Heilbronn . In 1823 a generalate was set up, from which today's Prelature Heilbronn of the Evangelical Church in Württemberg emerged.
The city's Catholic community had its mother church in the Teutonic Order Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul , built by the Teutonic Order , which was also responsible for the few Catholics in the districts that were historically part of the city. The districts of Biberach, Kirchhausen and Sontheim are traditionally Catholic, as they once belonged to the Teutonic Order and therefore remained Catholic during the Reformation. Today the Catholic parishes belong to the Heilbronn deanery of the Rottenburg-Stuttgart diocese .
The existence of Jews in Heilbronn has been documented since 1050, but from 1438 until the beginning of the 19th century they were prohibited from residing or settling. In the 1860s, Jews were legally equated with other citizens. The Heilbronn synagogue was inaugurated in 1877 and the building was destroyed during the Reichspogromnacht in 1938. The National Socialists almost completely wiped out the Jewish community by 1939. In the 1980s there were only six families of Jewish faith in Heilbronn. As a result of the influx from Eastern Europe in particular, the community grew to over 150 members. In 2006 the new Jewish Center Heilbronn was inaugurated. The Jewish community in Heilbronn is a subsidiary of the Israelite Religious Community in Württemberg with its seat in Stuttgart.
After 1960, numerous guest workers settled in the city and district of Heilbronn . The number of registered foreigners rose from around 2,500 in 1961 to 13,700 in 1974 (12% of the resident population). For the Muslims among these people, the first Islamic houses of worship were built, initially provisionally in small rooms. Gradually, several mosques were built in the city and district of Heilbronn . a. in Goppelstrasse, Hans-Seyfer-Strasse, Salzstrasse, Weinsberger Strasse and Böckinger Strasse. Salafist positions are conveyed in the Bilal Mosque in Heilbronn .
The number of Muslims in the Heilbronn district is estimated at over 10,000 people. Most of them are Muslims of Turkish descent, some of whom are represented by a Heilbronn branch of the DITIB ; there are also Muslims of Bosnian, Kurdish, Arab and German descent.
The New Apostolic Church had from 1896 municipalities in Heilbronn and the surrounding area, which were initially managed by Frankfurt am Main. In the 1920s they then formed their own Heilbronn area, which on January 1, 1926 became an independent administrative district with 212 communities in Württemberg and Bavaria; the seat of the district was at Lerchenstrasse 8 in Heilbronn. After the Second World War, the Heilbronn district became the Stuttgart district until 1953, with its headquarters there.
Jehovah's Witnesses have been recorded for Heilbronn since 1920, their first groups gathered in Heilbronn from the "Serious Bible Students". The rather small community was attacked and persecuted during National Socialism, and numerous community members died in concentration camps. The Jehovah's Witnesses rebuilt the first Kingdom Hall in Heilbronn in 1953, which has been followed by numerous other halls to the present day.
Other faiths represented in Heilbronn are the Greek-Orthodox Congregation in the Aukirche , the Syrian-Orthodox Congregation in the Mor-Ephräm-Church , the Advent Congregation, the Congregation of committed Christians, the Evangelical-Methodist Congregation with the Pauluskirche , the Free Evangelical Congregation Heilbronn , International Christian Fellowship with ICF Heilbronn, the Free Reformed Baptists, and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints .
Formerly independent communities or districts that were incorporated into the city of Heilbronn:
|year||places||Increase in ha||source|
|June 1, 1933||Böckingen, City (since 1919)||1135|
|October 1, 1938||Neckargartach||1125|
|October 1, 1938||Sontheim||740|
|January 1, 1970||Klingenberg||272|
|July 1, 1972||Kirchhausen||1147|
|1st January 1974||Biberach||1058|
|April 1, 1974||Frankenbach||889|
|April 1, 1974||Horkheim||486|
In the 15th century, around 4,000 people lived within the city fortifications. In 1840 11,300 inhabitants were counted, in 1890 Heilbronn had 30,000 inhabitants. By June 1, 1933, this number doubled to 60,000 inhabitants, among other things through the incorporation of the town of Böckingen (11,593 inhabitants in 1925). As a result of the destruction in World War II , Heilbronn lost around 40 percent of its population, of 77,000 inhabitants in 1939 only 47,000 remained in 1945.
In 1956 the population had reached the pre-war level again, on January 1, 1970 with the incorporation of Klingenberg it exceeded the limit of 100,000 inhabitants, making it a major city . In the 1980s, the city consistently had around 112,000 inhabitants. After German reunification in 1989 and the opening of the Eastern European states, the population reached a temporary high in 1993 with around 122,000 inhabitants, after which the population declined again up to 2000, mainly due to the return of Yugoslav civil war refugees. Since then, continuous growth has been recorded again. As of December 31, 2007, Heilbronn was ranked 59th in the list of large and medium-sized cities in Germany . As of September 30, 2012, the population exceeded 125,000 for the first time with 125,129 inhabitants. At the end of May 2013, however, when the numbers from the 2011 census became known , these population numbers , based on decades of updating old data, were supposedly too high and Heilbronn had 116,059 residents as of May 9, 2011. The city of Heilbronn is bringing an action before the Stuttgart Administrative Court .
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. Up to 1833 these are mostly estimates, then census results (¹) or official updates by the respective statistical offices or the city administration itself.
Before 1843, the number of inhabitants was determined according to inconsistent survey methods. From 1843, the information cites the “local population”, from 1925 the resident population and since 1987 the “population at the location of the main residence”.
¹ census result
Turks form the largest ethnic group among the over 25,000 foreigners in the city. In 1999 the proportion of foreigners was 20.5%. This quota was just reached in 2011 as well. According to the 2011 census , 46.1% of Heilbronn's residents have a migration background . After Offenbach am Main and Pforzheim in Germany, Heilbronn is the city with the third highest proportion of migrants. In 2016, the share of people with a migration background in the total population was 52%, after this share was 45% in 2006. Around 63% of all children and young people come from immigrant families.
Since the last local election on May 26, 2019 , the local council has 40 members. The turnout was 48.7%. The choice brought the following result:
|CDU||9 seats (−3)||22.4% (−8.3)|
|GREEN||8 seats (+3)||20.3% (+7.7)|
|SPD||8 seats (−3)||18.7% (−8.3)|
|FWV||4 seats (+1)||10.0% (+2.4)|
|FDP / DVP||4 seats (± 0)||9.9% (+0.9)|
|AfD||4 seats (+2)||9.7% (+5.6)|
|THE LEFT.||2 seats (+1)||5.3% (+2.2)|
|Pro Heilbronn||1 seat (± 0)||2.7% (−1.0)|
|BIG||0 seats (± 0)||1.1% (+1.1)|
Another member of the council and its chairman is the mayor.
In the five districts that were incorporated into Heilbronn in the 1970s (Klingenberg 1970, Kirchhausen 1972, Biberach, Frankenbach and Horkheim 1974), there are district councils , as they are districts in accordance with the main statute of the city of Heilbronn within the meaning of Section 64, Paragraph 1 of Form the municipal code for Baden-Württemberg. These bodies are to be heard on important matters affecting the district. The final decision on a measure then rests with the municipal council of the entire city of Heilbronn.
District councils have been set up in all parts of the city since June 1, 2014.
The Lord Mayor of Heilbronn is elected for a term of eight years by the citizens of Heilbronn (including EU foreigners). The current incumbent Harry Mergel has been in office since May 1, 2014.
- 1945–1946: Emil Beutinger
- 1946–1948: Paul Metz ( SPD )
- 1948–1967: Paul Meyle ( FDP / DVP )
- 1967–1983: Hans Hoffmann (SPD)
- 1983–1999: Manfred Weinmann ( CDU )
- 1999–2014: Helmut Himmelsbach (independent)
- since 2014: Harry Mergel (SPD)
badges and flags
The blazon of the Heilbronn coat of arms reads: In gold, the red armored and red-tongued black imperial eagle with a breast shield divided by red, silver and blue. The city flag is red-white-blue.
The imperial eagle as a symbol of Heilbronn's imperial immediacy has been documented in the city's seals since 1265. In the city of Heilbronn it always appeared in color on a gold shield background (first verifiable in a coat of arms window from 1487 in the Kilian's Church), while it appeared in the main banner of the imperial cities from 1462, in Siebmacher's coat of arms from 1605 and in coat of arms books from the 18th century on a silver background is pictured.
To distinguish between the imperial and other eagle coats of arms, the breastplate appeared in coat of arms drawings since 1556, and in seals since the 18th century. In JS Schlehenried's plan prospectus from 1658, it even appears alongside the shield with the eagle's coat of arms. The origin of the colors of the breast shield could not be determined with certainty until today. In 1556, 1581 and 1681 they also appeared in the order blue-silver-red; the red-silver-blue sequence, which is common today and which has also found its way into the red-white-blue city flag, was first recorded in 1560. In some seals of the 17th and 18th centuries, the breast shield only contained the capital letters HB indicating the city name. The design for the coat of arms currently used was provided in 1948 by the Stuttgart heraldist Alfred Danzigmann , and the Heilbronn municipal council passed a resolution on July 14, 1949. The final graphic design was done by the Heilbronn graphic artist AW Sauter .
Heilbronn maintains a partnership or friendship with six cities in six countries :
MPs from Heilbronn
The city of Heilbronn, together with the northern municipalities and cities of the district, forms the constituency of Heilbronn for the elections to the German Bundestag . With a direct mandate , the CDU candidate , Thomas Strobl, was elected in the 1998 , 2002 , 2005 , 2009 and 2013 elections. In the election to the 19th German Bundestag , his successor Alexander Throm (CDU) moved into the German Bundestag as a directly elected member. The 2017 defeated competitor Josip Juratovic ( SPD ) moved into the Bundestag via the state list as in 2005, 2009 and 2013. In the elections in 2005, 2009 and 2017, Michael Georg Link was also drawn into the Bundestag for the FDP and, since December 2011, Ulrich Schneider for Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen via the state list. In 2002, no competitor entered the Bundestag; in the 1998 elections, only the SPD competitor Harald Friese entered the Bundestag via the state list.
For the elections to the state parliament of Baden-Württemberg , the city of Heilbronn, since 2006 with other municipalities, is in constituency 18 (Heilbronn) . In the state elections in 2016, four MPs from constituency 18 were sent to the state parliament: Susanne Bay (Greens), Rainer Podeswa (AfD), Rainer Hinderer (SPD) and Nico Weinmann (FDP).
Heilbronn as namesake
The name Heilbronn was given to the following Lufthansa aircraft :
- since 1999: Airbus A321-100 (D-AIRW)
Culture and sights
The most famous church building in Heilbronn is the Protestant Kilian's Church , whose west tower, completed in 1529, with its Reformation pictorial decorations, is considered to be the first significant Renaissance building north of the Alps. The carved St. Mary's altar by Hans Seyfer from the 15th century in Kilian's Church is also an important art treasure. The Catholic Teutonic Minster and the Protestant Nikolaikirche have also existed since the Middle Ages. In the predominantly Protestant city there are also the Wichernkirche (ev.) , Aukirche (Greek-Orth.) , Martin Luther Church (ev.) , Kreuzkirche (ev.) , Christ Church (ev.) , Wartbergkirche (ev .) , Mor Ephräm Church (Syrian-Orthodox) and Augustinian Church (Catholic) numerous newer church buildings.
Historic downtown buildings
On the market square, next to Kilian's Church, is the Heilbronn town hall, which dates back to the 16th century, with its ornate art clock and the hall of honor in the inner courtyard, the historic Käthchenhaus with a striking bay window, the baroque-style business building Haus Zehender and the Safers dating back to the 14th century ' cal pharmacy . The Deutschhof at the Deutschordensmünster, which is only a short distance away, had been a member of the Teutonic Order since the Middle Ages and was essentially given its present form in the 18th century. Today, among other things, the Heilbronn City Archives with the House of City History and the Heilbronn City Museums are housed there. The meat house , which was also used as a museum at times and was built around 1600, takes its name from its former purpose as a municipal court building with a meat hall. The facades of the historic stone buildings usually consist of Heilbronn sandstone .
All the historic buildings in the city center that still exist today were badly damaged or destroyed in the air raid on Heilbronn on December 4, 1944 and rebuilt after the end of the war. The old dairy farm was spared.
Historic buildings outside the city center
The Trappenseeschlösschen is a small water castle in the east of the city. The shooting house in the station suburb to the west of the Neckar, which was built in the Rococo style and also used as the event hall of the Heilbronn horse market , as well as the old Heilbronn station from 1848 and the former post office No. 2 from 1906 to epochs of economic prosperity.
The bulwark tower and the Götzenturm on the Neckar are remnants of the medieval city fortifications. The harbor market tower in Sülmerstrasse was part of the monastery church of the former Heilbronn Franciscan monastery , of which only the tower was renewed after it was destroyed in 1688. The tower on the Wartberg , which is visible from afar , was built as a watchtower above the city in the 12th century. The observation tower on the Schweinsberg was built in 1886 in the style of historicism. The Theresienturm on the Theresienwiese is an air raid shelter from the Second World War.
Fountains and monuments
Heilbronn has many historical fountains ; around 1960 there were still 50 in number. The seven-tube fountain near Kilian's Church from 1541 probably goes back to the source that gave the city its name; it has already been renewed several times. In the city center there is also the Hafenmarktbrunnen from 1593 and the Fleinertorbrunnen from 1601, which were renovated after the Second World War. A large part of the Heilbronn water flowed through the Cäcilienbrunnenhaus from the 16th century in the southeast of the city and from there via a pipe into the city . The Köpferbrunnenanlage in the valley of the Köpfers has been used for local recreation since the 19th century. The 1983 theater fountain at the city theater and the 1996 comedian fountain at Kiliansplatz were recently built in Heilbronn.
The striking monuments in Heilbronn city center are the memorial for Robert Mayer on the market square and the synagogue memorial on the avenue . There are several warrior and expellee memorials in and on the harbor market tower. Memorial stones in the city area also remind u. a. to the former Steinbock concentration camp , to euthanasia victims and to the rocket accident of 1985 on Waldheide .
In contrast to the city center, the old Heilbronn villa districts further east and south survived the Second World War largely unscathed. For this reason, representative town houses from different epochs make up a large part of the Heilbronn monument inventory. The oldest villas in Heilbronn are the classicist Villa Rauch at Wollhausplatz and the Villa Mertz at Rosenberg at Götzenturm, both from 1811. In the Wilhelmstrasse / Cäcilienstraße area, which was laid out from 1840, you will find the classicist Wilhelmsbau (1845), Villa Faißt (1875) and the Villa Link (1871) several other stately buildings. Villa Schliz (Art Nouveau, 1901), Villa Hagenmayer (Historicism, 1899), Villa Pielenz (New Objectivity, 1905) and numerous other villas from the late 19th and early 20th centuries are located in the villa district to the east around Dittmarstrasse and Alexanderstrasse . Century.
The Harmonie concert and congress center is an important venue in Heilbronn. The facility was expanded to its present form between 1999 and 2001 and the Vogelmann art gallery was added in 2009/10 . Around 170,000 visitors are counted annually.
The most important art associations in the city are the Kunstverein Heilbronn , which was founded in 1879 and has held more than 400 events since 1956, and the Künstlerbund Heilbronn , which operates two galleries in Heilbronn.
In addition to their art and sculpture collection, the Heilbronn City Museums in Deutschhof also show exhibits relating to the city's history, archaeological and geological history. The municipal art collection focuses on works by regional artists, including painters from the 18th and 19th centuries such as Heinrich Friedrich Füger and Carl Doerr, and artists from the 20th century such as Heinrich Altherr and Hal Busse . There is also a special collection area with small sculptures and bozzetti by international sculptors such as Wilhelm Lehmbruck and Henry Moore . The archeology collection follows the tradition of the earlier municipal collection of archaeological finds founded by Alfred Schliz (1849–1915) and largely destroyed in World War II. In and around Heilbronn, Friedrich von Alberti (1795–1878), to whom the name triad, the sequence of red sandstone , shell limestone and keuper, goes back , did a great job of researching the history of the earth .
In the Deutschhof there is also the House of City History , where a permanent exhibition of the Heilbronn City Archives on the city's history can be seen. Admission to the permanent exhibitions of the municipal museums and the municipal archives is free, the exhibition rooms are structurally connected. The municipal museums also operate the Vogelmann art gallery together with the Heilbronn art association .
The Kleist Archive Sembdner emerged from the collection of the Kleist researcher Helmut Sembdner, which was purchased by the City of Heilbronn in 1990.
Museum offers on the history of technology in Heilbronn are the Neckargartach Historic Industrial Park of Stadtwerke Heilbronn , which consists of a historic pumping station in the building of the former Widmann paper factory and a historic hammer mill in the Neckargartach district, as well as the Heilbronn South German Railway Museum on the site of the former railway depot in the district Boeckingen.
In 2009, Experimenta , the largest science center in southern Germany, opened in the converted Hagenbuch building . The exhibition was expanded to include a new building in the immediate vicinity by 2019.
Art in public space
Several larger exhibitions and projects in Heilbronn had sculptures as their subject, so u. a. the year of sculpture 1978 proclaimed by the art association , the sculpture avenue 1985 or the sculpture city 1996, of which numerous works have remained in Heilbronn. There are over 50 such works in public space. Following the motto of the 1996 exhibition, the presentation of the objects will continue to take place under the motto of the City of Sculptures Heilbronn .
The Heilbronn municipal theater on Berliner Platz was built between 1979 and 1982 for a total of around DM 55 million and continues the tradition of the municipal theater that was once located there . Together with the adjacent box theater of the Theaterforum K3 , which was completed in 2001 , the Heilbronn Theater offers plays, musicals and operas. In the field of musicals in particular, around 20 world premieres and premieres were presented between 1989 and 2003. In addition to the city theater, the Heilbronn theater ship also offers changing performances.
The first city music director in Heilbronn was the composer and later Maastricht Conservatory Director Otto Wolf (1849–1917). He worked here from 1876 to 1883 and composed a. a. his festival march for the inauguration of the new [Heilbronner] Harmonie building op. 50 (1878). The Württemberg Chamber Orchestra Heilbronn , founded by Jörg Faerber in 1960 , mainly plays baroque and classical music. The city music school Heilbronn is housed in the Theaterforum K3.
Parks and green spaces
Larger parks are the Pfühlpark in the east of Heilbronn, through which the Pfühlbach flows and redesigned in 1926/27, and the Wertwiesenpark am Neckar in the south of the city, which emerged from the Baden-Württemberg State Horticultural Show in 1985 . The Federal Garden Show 2019 has created a new park area in Heilbronn in the former industrial area on the Neckarbogen. The Heilbronn Botanical Orchard , located below the Wartberg, offers an arboretum as well as school and show gardens as well as a collection of historic garden houses. The Wartberg and the Jägerhaus are popular excursion destinations in the mountains east of the city. Not far from the hunter house is located in the forest also the used as a recreational area Waldheide . The total area of the public green spaces in Heilbronn is 414 hectares.
Among the Heilbronn cemeteries, the main cemetery with one of the earliest crematorium buildings from 1905, the cemetery of honor for the victims of the air raid on Heilbronn, the old cemetery with numerous historical tombs and monuments, and the Jewish cemetery established in 1867 are historically significant.
- January: circus palace
- February: horse market
- May: Trollinger Marathon
- July: Gaffenberg Festival
- July / August: Heilbronn folk festival on Theresienwiese
- September: Heilbronn wine village
- October: Heilbronner Hafenmarkt (pottery market; from Schwäbisch Haf (f) en = pot)
- November / December: Christmas market on the market square and around Kilian's Church
- Every two years the Neckar Festival and Neckar Pleasure take place alternately
Important Heilbronn sports clubs are the Heilbronn section of the German Alpine Club , the soccer club FC Union Heilbronn, the Heilbronner ice hockey club (HEC) with the professional team Heilbronner Falken and the handball club TSB Heilbronn-Horkheim .
FC Union Heilbronn emerged from the clubs FC Heilbronn and Union Böckingen and plays its home games in the 17,000-seat Frankenstadion and in the Stadion am See. The HEC emerged from the Heilbronn roller-skating and ice-skating club, which was founded in 1934 and which had great successes at German and international championships in the 1970s and held the German championship in 1976 and the European roller arts championship in the following year. The Heilbronner Falken play their home games in the Kolbenschmidt Arena, which can hold 4000 spectators, next to the older roller sports stadium .
The Heilbronn team Live-Strip.com Racing is active in motorsport . The ATP Challenger tennis tournament Heilbronn Open , named after Heilbronn, takes place annually in January in neighboring Talheim .
For the latitude and school sports 49 municipal gymnasiums and sports halls are in the city are available, and there are 37 sports fields, 34 soccer fields, 68 tennis courts and other equestrian equipment, shooting ranges, climbing facilities, squash courts, water sports and skate equipment. The city's 67 sports clubs have around 29,000 members.
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2016, Heilbronn achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of 6.405 billion euros within the city limits, making it 55th in the ranking of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was 52,004 euros (Baden-Württemberg: 43,632 euros, Germany 38,180 euros) and is thus well above the regional and national average. In 2016 there were around 96,500 gainfully employed people in the city. The unemployment rate was 4.6 percent in December 2018 (in the Heilbronn district it was 2.8 percent).
The Heilbronn commercial structure has changed constantly. At the beginning of industrialization, businesses in the food and beverage industry, the chemical, paper and silver goods industries dominated, but these were soon joined by the stone and earth and textile industries. Some branches of industry, such as the textile and silver goods industries, have now completely disappeared, while others have relocated, such as the wood and metal processing industries. Today, the metal industry (automotive accessories and toolmaking), the electrical industry, the food and beverage industry, the paper and printing industry, the chemical industry and salt mining are of particular importance.
In 2010 the Heilbronn business location comprised around 92,000 jobs. The ten largest employers are: Campina , Heilbronner Voice , Illig Maschinenbau , Kaufland (and Kaufland Foundation), Kreissparkasse Heilbronn , District Office Heilbronn , SLK-Kliniken , Südwestdeutsche Salzwerke , Unilever and the city of Heilbronn itself.
Of the approximately 61,000 employees who are subject to social security contributions, around 30 percent work in manufacturing , 24 percent in trade, hospitality and transport and 46 percent in other service companies. There are also around 1500 craft businesses in Heilbronn. Retail sales in 2010 were around 950 million euros.
In the Future Atlas 2019 , the city of Heilbronn was ranked 32nd out of 401 districts and cities in Germany, making it one of the places with "very high future opportunities".
The industrialization in Heilbronn started with the Heilbronn paper industry . While paper production by the Rauch brothers and Gustav Schaeuffelen ceased by the Second World War, paper processors and wholesalers such as Baier & Schneider (brand name Brunnen ), Berberich paper , Mayer envelope and Kilian packaging are still important today.
The Wolffkran company , founded by Friedrich August Wolff in Heilbronn in 1854 as an iron foundry, is one of the oldest crane manufacturers in Germany. Today the company headquarters of the now international crane manufacturer is located in Zug, Switzerland. Wolffkran still produces construction cranes in Heilbronn, and since 2008 also in Luckau.
The chemical company Brüggemann was founded in Heilbronn in 1868. The company mainly produces alcohols, plastic additives, reducing agents and zinc compounds.
The company "Schill + Seilacher" (chemicals for leather production) was founded in Heilbronn in 1877 by Christoph Seilacher and his brother-in-law Karl Schill, but moved to Stuttgart-Feuerbach in 1881. Today the company is based in Böblingen .
From 1925 there was an automobile plant of the Neckarsulm company NSU in Heilbronn , which was taken over by Fiat in 1928 and from then on built NSU Fiat cars. A model of the Fiat 500 was manufactured there from 1952 to 1955, the model 1100 D in 1960. From 1973, Fiat Germany was a mere sales company based in Heilbronn, the headquarters were relocated to Frankfurt am Main in 1996. Other companies of the group such as Fiat Bank GmbH are based in Heilbronn.
The mechanical engineering company Illig was founded in Heilbronn in 1946 and specializes in forming and punching machines, especially thermoforming machines . The company is now one of the ten largest employers in the city.
The Läpple Group, an automotive supplier and toolmaker, which has been based in Heilbronn since 1950 , employed over 2,100 people in 2012, the majority of them in Heilbronn.
The 50,000 square meter Telefunkenpark emerged from the Heilbronn semiconductor plant of the Telefunken group, which was inaugurated in 1960 . Several Telefunken successor companies, including Azur Space Solar Power , AIM Infrared Modules and Vishay, produce semiconductors and solar cells in the Telefunkenpark . Atmel's wafer production was sold to Telefunken Semiconductors , which has been insolvent since February 2015. As of September 2015, five companies employed around 1200 people there.
The trading company Pflanzen-Kölle , founded in Ulm, has had its headquarters in Heilbronn since 1890 and currently around 1200 employees. Gustav Lichdi AG , which existed in Heilbronn from 1904 to 1980 , was one of the first retail chains with self-service shops from 1950. The company Kaufland , which is based in neighboring Neckarsulm, and the associated Kaufland Foundation also have branches and administrative facilities in Heilbronn, so that the company, which belongs to the group of the Heilbronn honorary citizen Dieter Schwarz, is one of the ten largest employers in Heilbronn.
The bookstore Fr. Stritter , which has existed since 1688, is one of the most traditional companies in Heilbronn .
banks and insurance companies
Almost 30 banks are represented in the Heilbronn district, and the local banking business looks back on a long tradition. As early as the 11th century bankers are said to have stayed in Heilbronn, the so-called " Kawerschen " in southern France . Heilbronn has been an important banking location since the second half of the 19th century. The first bank in town was the private bank Rümelin & Co, which had good connections to institutes in Frankfurt am Main ( Rothschild ) and was once the only bank in Württemberg outside of Stuttgart. Today there are bank buildings on three of the four blocks at the corners of the central downtown intersection of Allee and Kaiser- / Moltkestrasse.
The largest institute in the city is the Kreissparkasse Heilbronn , which emerged from the Oberamtssparkasse founded in 1856, with a business volume of 7.5 billion euros, around 100 branches and over 1,500 employees. The Heilbronn branch of the former Dresdner Bank , now Commerzbank , is the second oldest. It goes back to the Max Gumbel-Kiefe banking business founded in 1860, which was taken over by Darmstädter Bank in 1918, which merged with Dresdner Bank in 1930. The Volksbank Heilbronn is on the Heilbronner banker Abraham Gumbel back of the in 1909 Heilbronner Bank Corporation founded. In 1956 the house took on the legal form of a cooperative, and since 1982 it has been called Volksbank Heilbronn. Today, with total assets of just under 1.6 billion euros, it is the largest credit union in the region.
In addition to these banks, the following are represented in Heilbronn: Südwestbank , Sparda-Bank Baden-Württemberg , Norisbank , Targobank , Santander Consumer Bank , Baden-Württembergische Bank , BBBank , Hoerner Bank , GE Money Bank , the HypoVereinsbank , SEB AG, Fürstlich Castell'sche Bank and Fiat Bank .
The Württembergische und Badische Versicherungs-Aktiengesellschaft (Wüba) was founded in 1837 as the Württembergische Schiffahrts-Assecuranz-Gesellschaft zu Heilbronn . After multiple sales, Wüba became a brand of the insurance company Chartis Europe SA on December 1, 2009 with around 300 employees
Heilbronn is the seat of the Südwestdeutsche Salzwerke AG , which has operated a salt mine in the city since 1883 , which is connected to the Bad Friedrichshall salt mine , which was closed in 1994, by a tunnel . For the Heilbronn mine, whose salt mining has progressed far to the west in the course of time, the new "Konradsberg" shaft was completed in the Heilbronn district of Biberach. According to the company, the Heilbronn rock salt mine is the largest in Western Europe.
The Knorr food processing company, founded in Heilbronn in 1838 , has since become, after being sold several times, a brand of the international Unilever Group, which continues to produce and research in Heilbronn.
The city was also an important brewery location for a long time . In 1816 there were already six companies in this branch in the city. The Cluss Brewery , founded in 1865 and sold to Dinkelacker in 1982 , became the most famous and long-lived brand . In today's Böckingen district, the Schuchmann'sche brewery was important around 1900 . Today there are only a few house breweries in Heilbronn.
The viticulture in Heilbronn has a long tradition and is an important economic factor in the city. With 514 hectares (about two thirds of which are for red grape varieties ), the city of Heilbronn has the third largest vineyard area in the Württemberg wine-growing region after Brackenheim and Lauffen am Neckar . Trollinger , Schwarzriesling , Lemberger , Riesling and Kerner are mainly grown. The Heilbronn University offers a degree program in wine business to.
The viticulture in Heilbronn, first mentioned in a document in 1146, probably existed in Roman times. The city received a lot of income from the taxes levied by the local Wengertern on the production yields , as well as from the taxes of the artisans working for the viticulture and the merchants who deal with wine. The little wine books from the city tax room are among the most important sources of city history. In the time of the imperial city, the council laid down the annual work of the vine gardeners by ordinances. In 1556 there were 170 private presses and trotters. In 1797, Goethe named the number of 12,000 acres of vineyards around the city. In 1905, the young Theodor Heuss wrote his doctoral thesis on "Viticulture and the Winegrower's Estate in Heilbronn am Neckar". The first Reich conference of German viticulture took place in Heilbronn in 1937.
In 1888 Heilbronner wineries merged to form the Heilbronn Weingärtnergesellschaft, which cooperated early on with the winegrowing companies in Weinsberg and Neckarsulm and merged with the Heilbronn winegrowers' cooperative founded in 1919 in 1933. On July 14, 1972, it merged with the wine growers' cooperatives from Erlenbach and Weinsberg to form the Heilbronn-Erlenbach-Weinsberg cooperative winery ; Since 1973 it has been located just beyond the Heilbronn city limits in the Erlenbach district . Over 1000 winemakers are united in it. Numerous private wineries are based in Heilbronn.
In Heilbronn there are over 550 restaurants and around 1,700 guest beds. Around 250,000 overnight stays are counted every year.
Supply and disposal
In the industrial area of Heilbronn operates EnBW AG , the power plant Heilbronn . Of the total of seven blocks, one, block 7, is still in commercial operation. Blocks 5 and 6 are only operated within the framework of the network reserve if requested by the network operator. All blocks are fired with hard coal, block 7 also has the option of co-incinerating sewage sludge. The power plant is visible from afar thanks to its two 250 meter high chimneys, which are among the tallest free-standing structures in Baden-Württemberg, and its 140 meter high cooling tower. The Block E event center has been located in a disused block of the power plant since 1998 .
Heilbronn is the seat of a studio of the Südwestrundfunk (SWR). The regional program Frankenradio is broadcast from here on SWR4 Baden-Württemberg . The private broadcaster L-TV produces a regional news window for the greater Heilbronn / Ludwigsburg area. The private radio broadcaster Radio Ton is based in Heilbronn; In addition, the private radio station Antenne 1 has a studio in Heilbronn.
Heilbronn's voice has been published as a daily newspaper in Heilbronn since 1946 . The echo advertising paper is distributed free of charge twice a week . There are also the monthly city magazines Freizeit Journal , Moritz and Phonk .
Since September 2011 the independent, multimedia society magazine Hanix has been published ten times a year .
At the motorway junction Weinsberg , located about six kilometers east-northeast of the city center in the neighboring town of Weinsberg , the federal highways 81 ( Würzburg - Stuttgart ) and 6 ( Mannheim - Nuremberg ) intersect, which run through sections of the city. The federal highways 27 ( Mosbach - Stuttgart ), 39 ( Mainhardt - Sinsheim ) and 293 (to Karlsruhe ) run through the city itself . An important relief road that connects the A 6 in the north near Obereisesheim across the city with the B 27 in the south near Sontheim is Neckartalstrasse . The main street in the city center is the avenue .
Heilbronn has campaigned for the promotion of the Green Arrow to an extraordinary extent for the West German states . This traffic sign has been installed at 52 intersections in the city since 1996, and the city also launched a nationwide information campaign.
Heilbronn is one of the few major German cities that is not served by the long-distance train network of Deutsche Bahn AG , but the city is a railway junction: The Frankenbahn connects Stuttgart with Würzburg , the Neckartal and Elsenztalbahnen branching off at the Bad Friedrichshall Hauptbahnhof railway junction lead to Heidelberg and Neckargemünd , the railway line Heilbronn – Crailsheim reaches Schwäbisch Hall via Öhringen and creates a connection to Nuremberg .
For the 2019 Federal Horticultural Show in Heilbronn, the city will be served for the first time by an Intercity Express train pair that connects Cologne and Stuttgart via Heilbronn Monday to Friday . On weekends there is an Intercity from Mainz / Wiesbaden to Heilbronn on Saturdays and in the opposite direction on Sundays. According to media reports, the ICE connection is often canceled at short notice and fails for several days in a row. In response to a letter of complaint from the Mayor of Heilbronn, Deutsche Bahn announced in July 2019 that “the ICE train connection via Heilbronn should be deleted from the timetable without replacement”.
The Heilbronn Stadtbahn , which is operated by the Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft , runs on the Kraichgau Railway from Karlsruhe . The S4 line currently runs through several stops in Böckingen, the main train station, the Heilbronn city center and continues on the Heilbronn – Crailsheim railway to the Öhringen suburb of Cappel. Because there were long delays in the construction of the new line through the Heilbronn urban area and in the renovation and electrification of the existing line from Heilbronn to Öhringen, the official opening was postponed several times and only took place on December 10, 2005. Since December 2013, a new route to Bad Friedrichshall has been branching off the existing route on the avenue in the city center , which is served by the S41 and S42 lines. Since 2014 these lines have been running on rail tracks to Sinsheim and Mosbach - Neckarelz . Another tram line to Zaberfeld is also being investigated .
Several old train stations in Heilbronn are no longer served today. The Bottwartalbahn , a narrow-gauge railway to Marbach am Neckar , which began operating in 1966, began earlier at Heilbronn's Südbahnhof . The remaining freight traffic to the Südbahnhof ended in 2000. The stop in Klingenberg and the Böckinger train station on the Frankenbahn have now also been closed , and with the expansion of the Stadtbahn in the direction of Öhringen, the Karlstor stop on the Heilbronn – Crailsheim line has also been closed.
Local public transport (ÖPNV) in the city is provided by buses operated by the Heilbronn municipal utilities and several other transport companies. In addition, the Stadtbahn (see above) operates according to the Karlsruhe model . The Heilbronn tram operated in the city from 1897 to 1955 , which in turn was replaced by the Heilbronn trolleybus that existed from 1951 to 1960 .
The city belongs to the tariff area of the Heilbronn Hohenlohe Haller local transport , which also includes the district of Heilbronn as well as the Hohenlohe district and parts of neighboring districts.
With the Neckar privilege of 1333, the main arm of the Neckar was diverted along the city wall. The passage on the river was blocked by weirs and mills, so that until the 19th century shipping from the Rhine ended here and only rafts could pass the Neckar near Heilbronn. To bypass this bottleneck, which was unfavorable for Württemberg, the Wilhelm Canal was built during the Württemberg period and opened on July 17, 1821. In the course of industrialization, the port facilities along the river were expanded from the middle of the 19th century. The raft harbor had existed since 1875. There, wood delivered by rail from the Black Forest was assembled into rafts in order to be transported from here on the water towards the Rhine. The timber handling in Heilbronn established the Heilbronn sorting , a classification method for logs that is still common in Bavaria and Rhineland-Palatinate today.
From 1878 the tugboat service on the Neckar AG between Mannheim and Heilbronn on the Neckar operated chain shipping . In 1886 the salt port was built as a transshipment center for the Heilbronn mine , and in 1888 the Karlshafen. The canalization of the Neckar from Mannheim up to Heilbronn, begun in 1921 and completed in 1935, promoted the further development of Neckar shipping. The chain shipping was then stopped. The Heilbronn Canal Harbor was opened in 1935 to complete the canalization of the Neckar to Heilbronn. In 1952 the upstream expansion of the river reached Stuttgart , 1968 Plochingen .
With a throughput of 3.6 million tons, the port of Heilbronn is today (as of 2012) the eighth largest German inland port and the most important German inland port on the other side of the Rhine . In Heilbronn Neckarhafen, 50 percent of the total handling on the Neckar occurs. All Heilbronn ports together (canal port, east port, salt port, east side of the old Neckar) cover a total area of approx. 78 hectares and quay facilities with a length of approx. 7.2 kilometers. A 2.2 hectare container terminal has been located on the old Neckar at the level of the salt port since 2012. The Heilbronn industrial and port railway runs on approx. 18 kilometers of rails, 38 crane systems handle the transshipment, which consists of 80 percent salt from the mine, coal for the power station and building materials. Part of the port facilities are also a container terminal and the heavy lift quay, which was last expanded in 2003 and on which individual loads of up to 350 tons can be handled. The port of Heilbronn is the starting point and destination of heavy transports for the Augsburg aviation industry and the local ship engine manufacturer MAN Diesel .
Authorities, courts and institutions
Heilbronn is the seat of the Heilbronn-Franken regional association, the Heilbronn District Office as well as the Heilbronn-Franken Chamber of Crafts and the Heilbronn-Franken Chamber of Commerce , whose chamber district is the Heilbronn-Franken region. There is also an employment agency , a tax office and a main customs office . The Klinikum am Gesundbrunnen in Heilbronn has 850 beds and is the largest of the four hospitals of the regional hospital holding Stadt- und Landkreis Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH (SLK-Kliniken).
The police in Heilbronn have a police station and five police posts; the Heilbronn Police Department is responsible for the city of Heilbronn and the district. After the implementation of a police reform, Heilbronn has been the seat of a police headquarters since January 1, 2014 , which is responsible for the city and district of Heilbronn, the Hohenlohe district , the Main-Tauber district and the Neckar-Odenwald district . The Heilbronn fire department was founded in 1847. In 2012, it consisted of the professional fire brigade established in 1971 with 79 officers and nine active departments of the voluntary fire brigade with a total of around 300 members.
The city is the seat of the district court of Heilbronn and the district court of Heilbronn , both of which belong to the higher regional court district of Stuttgart . There is also the Heilbronn Labor Court (with chambers in Crailsheim) and the Heilbronn Social Court, whose judicial district includes the Heilbronn district, the Heilbronn , Ludwigsburg and Schwäbisch Hall districts as well as the Hohenlohe district and the Main-Tauber district . The Heilbronn penal institution , the Heilbronn prison , is located in buildings erected between 1867 and 1870 on a 3.5 hectare site on the edge of the city center. There is also a branch of the correctional facility in Talheim , the state domain Hohrainhof , where viticulture is carried out in addition to agriculture and cattle breeding. The Heilbronn prison was occupied by an average of just over 280 prisoners in 2012.
The city is also the seat of the Heilbronn prelature and the Heilbronn parish of the Evangelical Church in Württemberg and the Heilbronn-Neckarsulm deanery of the Roman Catholic diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart .
In Heilbronn there is an operating facility of the municipal information processing of Baden-Franconia (KIVBF) , which as a system house for the municipal area covers the western and northern parts of Baden-Württemberg, as well as the Heilbronn Protective Workshop .
The Heilbronn University was founded in April 1961 as a State School of Engineering and provides technical, economic and computer science courses at.
The range of courses offered by the privately funded foundation German Graduate School of Management and Law (GGS), founded in 2005, includes various business and legal courses. Since a branch of the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Mosbach (DHBW) opened in Heilbronn in October 2010 , the city has also been a location of the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University . Both the GGS and the DHBW as well as the business administration faculties of Heilbronn University and a branch of the Technical University of Munich are located on the Heilbronn educational campus , which was financed by the Dieter Schwarz Foundation . Since the winter semester 2011/12 there is also a study center of the private distance university DIPLOMA - FH Nordhessen in Heilbronn. As of 2016, a total of 7,200 students were enrolled in Heilbronn. With 4,500 students, Heilbronn University has the largest share of students.
In addition to these universities, there are also two state seminars for didactics and teacher training , at which prospective teachers at elementary schools, secondary schools and high schools complete the second phase of teacher training .
As a school authority, the city of Heilbronn maintains 35 schools at 36 locations, in which a total of 19,973 pupils were taught in 939 classes in 2013.
General education schools
In Heilbronn there are five publicly funded general education high schools : in addition to the Theodor-Heuss-Gymnasium , which goes back to the old Latin school in the city, the Elly-Heuss-Knapp-Gymnasium , the Justinus-Kerner-Gymnasium , the Mönchsee-Gymnasium and the Robert-Mayer-Gymnasium with the Robert-Mayer-Volks- und Schulsternwarte . The Catholic Free Education Center St. Kilian Heilbronn has had a gymnasium since 2004, and the Heilbronn Kolping Education Center has had an evening grammar school since 1990 .
There are also four secondary schools in the city : the Dammrealschule , the Helene-Lange-Realschule , the Heinrich-von-Kleist-Realschule in Böckingen and the Mörike-Realschule . There is also a secondary school train at the Catholic Free Education Center St. Kilian Heilbronn .
There are also six special needs education and advice centers in the city . The city is responsible for four of these schools, namely the Neckartal School, the Pestalozzi School (special focus on learning), the Paul-Meyle-School (for the mentally and physically handicapped, specialization focus on mental, physical and motor development) and the Brothers Grimm School ( for the speech-impaired, specialization language). The Hermann-Herzog School (for the visually impaired, special focus on vision) is the district of Heilbronn, and the Lindenparkschule Heilbronn (for the hearing impaired and speech impaired, special focus on hearing and language, with a boarding school and advice center) is the state of Baden-Württemberg.
Primary schools are the Damm Primary School , the German Order Primary School Kirchhausen, the Primary School Horkheim, the Primary School Klingenberg, the Grünewald School Primary School Böckingen , the Primary School Alt-Böckingen , the Silcherschule Primary School and the Uhland School Primary School Sontheim. Primary and secondary schools (some with Werkrealschule ) are the Albrecht-Dürer-Schule Neckargartach , the Elly-Heuss-Knapp-Schule Böckingen, the Fritz-Ulrich-Schule Böckingen , the Gerhart-Hauptmann-Schule , the elementary and secondary school with Werkrealschule Biberach, the primary and secondary school with Werkrealschule Frankenbach, the Ludwig-Pfau-Schule, the Rosenau school , the Staufenbergschule Sontheim , the Wartbergschule and the Wilhelm-Hauff-Schule. The Catholic Free Education Center St. Kilian Heilbronn also has elementary and secondary school classes.
vocational schools under the auspices of the city of Heilbronn, the Gustav von Schmoller School (Commercial School with commercial high school ) and the technical school center Heilbronn consisting of the Johann-Jakob Widmann-school and Wilhelm Maybach School (each with Technical high school ). The district Heilbronn has been awarded the Andreas-Schneider-Schule (Commercial School with commercial high school ) and Christiane-Herzog-Schule (Home Economics and Agricultural school with diet's Scientific School and biotechnological grammar school ). Since autumn 2005 there has been another vocational school, the Peter Bruckmann School (for the occupational fields of health, housekeeping, food and care), and in October 2009 the Kolping Education Center in Heilbronn opened a social science grammar school .
In Heilbronn there is a wide range of private schools, including a .:
- Evening secondary school Heilbronn e. V.
- Alice Salomon School for Educational Aid (sponsored by the Diakonische Jugendhilfe Region Heilbronn e.V., formerly Kleingartacher e.V.)
- Vocational college for graphics Heilbronn
- Diaconal Institute for Social Professions - Vocational school for geriatric care, advanced training, advanced training
- Free Waldorf School Heilbronn (sponsor is the Association for Waldorf Education Unterland e.V.)
- Internationaler Bund e. V. Heilbronn Education Center
- Catholic Education Center St. Kilian Heilbronn (elementary school, secondary school, secondary school and grammar school, sponsored by the Catholic Free School Foundation of the Rottenburg-Stuttgart diocese)
- Kolping Education Center Heilbronn - Vocational College for Graphic Design, Kolping Evening High School and Kolping Academy for Business Administration
- Academy for communication in the innovation factory with the vocational colleges for graphic design, fashion and design and technology and media
- Paracelsus school for alternative practitioners
- Bernd-Blindow-Schule (vocational training and further education, technical college entrance qualification, high school diploma and studies)
Heilbronn has a total of 95 kindergartens and day-care centers, 34 of which are run by the city of Heilbronn. Attending kindergarten in Heilbronn has been free of charge since January 2008. This applies to all children from their third birthday to school enrollment and in all kindergartens of all providers.
Honorary citizen of the city of Heilbronn
The right of honorary citizenship in Heilbronn was introduced by the Württemberg law on community membership of June 16, 1885 and continued by later similar laws. Before 1885 there was the term “honorary citizenship” in Heilbronn. The previous honorary citizens of the city of Heilbronn are:
- Joseph Christian von Schliz (1780–1861), senior government councilor and first senior bailiff in Heilbronn
- Christoph Friedrich Ludwig von Mugler (1793–1869), senior bailiff
- Ludwig von Schmoller (1795–1865), Finance Councilor
- Baron Karl von Gemmingen (1804–1885), chief magistrate
- Johann Christoph Stephan Reiff (1805-1884), Protestant pastor
- Wilhelm Happel (1817–1899), businessman
- Christian Jäger (1818–1896), senior teacher
- Ludwig Pfau (1821–1894), writer and revolutionary
- Georg Härle (1821–1894), businessman, member of the state parliament and the Reichstag
- Peter Bruckmann (1865–1937), manufacturer, member of the state parliament of Württemberg
- Gustav Binder (1854–1935), master bottle maker and fire brigade commander
- Max Rosengart (1855–1943), lawyer and councilor
- Theodor Heuss (1884–1963), Federal President
- Fritz Ulrich (1888–1969), Minister of the Interior of Baden-Württemberg
- Emil Beutinger (1875–1957), architect and mayor
- Paul Meyle (1900–1977), Lord Mayor
- Albert Großhans (1907–2005), shoe merchant, member of the local council
- Friedrich Niethammer (1942–1996), public prosecutor, member of the municipal council
- Paula Fuchs (1922–2013), member of the local council
- Dieter Schwarz (* 1939), entrepreneur
- Manfred Weinmann (1934–2013), Lord Mayor
- Helmut Himmelsbach (* 1946), Lord Mayor
Honorary ring bearer
The ring of honor of the city of Heilbronn has been awarded as the second highest city award since 1959/60. Among the around 30 sponsors so far are personalities who have emerged through cultural merits, including the local researcher and museum sponsor Wilhelm Mattes (1884–1960), the long-time chairman of the Heilbronn cultural ring Carl Robert Frühsorger (1915–2006) and the long-standing director of the Württemberg Chamber Orchestra Jörg Faerber (* 1929), but also several long-standing city councilors and former mayors.
Sons and Daughters of the City (selection)
- Wilhelm Waiblinger (1804–1830), poet
- Robert Mayer (1814–1878), physicist
- Adolf Cluss (1825–1905), architect
- Wilhelm Maybach (1846–1929), automobile pioneer
- Otto Kirchheimer (1905–1965), state and constitutional theorist
- Kurt Rebmann (1924-2005), lawyer and attorney general
- Wolfgang Weber (* 1935), manager
- Thomas Roth (* 1951), journalist
- Sibel Kekilli (born 1980), actress
- State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
- Heilbronn becomes a university town. In: heilbronn.de. City of Heilbronn, December 13, 2019, accessed on March 11, 2020 .
Sources for the section on geographical location:
- Topographic map 1:25 000. Sheet 6821 Heilbronn . 3. Edition. Land survey office Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-89021-059-7
- Geological map of Baden-Württemberg. 1:25,000 . 3. Edition. Geological State Office Baden-Württemberg, [Freiburg] 1986
- Horst Brunner: Geological map 1:25 000 of Baden-Württemberg. Explanations for sheet 6821 Heilbronn . Unchanged reprint of the 3rd edition from 1986. Geological State Office Baden-Württemberg, Freiburg 1995. p. 4
- Source for altitude and extent: Official city map Heilbronn . Scale 1: 15,000. 40th edition, 2007 edition. City of Heilbronn, Surveying and Cadastre Office, Heilbronn 2007. Map and supplement p. 2
- Natural areas of Baden-Württemberg . State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart 2009
Sources for the geology section:
- Otto Linck and Helmut Wild: Geological structure and geological development . In: City and District of Heilbronn . Theiss, Stuttgart and Aalen 1974, ISBN 3-8062-0121-8 . Pp. 91-117
- Geological map of Baden-Württemberg. 1:25,000 . 3. Edition. Geological State Office Baden-Württemberg, [Freiburg] 1986
- Horst Brunner: Geological map 1:25 000 of Baden-Württemberg. Explanations for sheet 6821 Heilbronn . Unchanged reprint of the 3rd edition from 1986. Geologisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg, Freiburg 1995. pp. 4-76, 188
- As of June 30, 2018. Figures from the municipal register of residents in accordance with Heilbronn in key words on heilbronn.de (accessed April 7, 2019)
- According to the address book City of Heilbronn 2009/2010 . Bleicher, Gerlingen 2009, ISBN 3-921097-84-3 , p. 30
Sources for the urban structure section:
- The state of Baden-Württemberg. Official description by district and municipality. Volume IV: Stuttgart district, Franconian and East Württemberg regional associations. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1980, ISBN 3-17-005708-1 . Pp. 1-19
- Main statutes of the city of Heilbronn from June 15, 2000 ( Memento from May 15, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; accessed December 23, 2007; 191 kB)
- Werner Heim: The devastation of the district of Heilbronn . In: Heilbronn Historical Association. 22. Publication . Heilbronn 1957. p. 72
- land according to type of actual use in 2015
- The nature reserves in the Stuttgart administrative region . Edited by Reinhard Wolf . Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Stuttgart 2002. ISBN 3-7995-5173-5
- Otto Linck: Nature and landscape in change and preservation. In: City and District of Heilbronn. Theiss, Stuttgart and Aalen 1974, ISBN 3-8062-0121-8 , pp. 118-128
- Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst, long-term mean values ( memento from January 10, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed on February 27, 2017)
- Uwe Jacobi: Heilbronn as it was. Droste, Düsseldorf 1987, ISBN 3-7700-0746-8 , p. 12 and p. 72
- Uwe Jacobi: Heilbronn as it was. Droste, Düsseldorf 1987, ISBN 3-7700-0746-8 , p. 72
- Ingrid Bauz, Sigrid Brüggemann, Roland Maier: The Secret State Police in Württemberg and Hohenzollern. Butterfly-Verlag, Stuttgart 2013, p. 84 ff.
- Memorial for the victims of National Socialism. A documentation. Volume 1 . Federal Agency for Civic Education, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-89331-208-0 . P. 47
- Population Heilbronn residents by religious affiliation as of December 31, 2019. Accessed on February 9, 2020
- Fig. 19: Religious affiliation in the Heilbronn district as of December 31, 2016, page 29
- See BSLK , p. 765; see. P. 17.
- Mosques in Heilbronn
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 445 .
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 464 .
- Heilbronn cracks 125,000 population mark . In: Heilbronner Voice , February 4, 2013.
- Heilbronn has fewer inhabitants than assumed . Stimme.de, May 31, 2013 (accessed June 1, 2013)
- Municipal population register, as of September 30, 2011: 25,338 foreigners, cited from the Heilbronn information brochure in keywords 2012/13 , City of Heilbronn 2012.
- http://www.statistik.baden-wuerttemberg.de/SRDB/Tabelle.asp?H=BevoelkGebiet&U=99&T=99025010&E=GE&K=121&R=GE121000 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was created automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Bärbel Kistner: Hardly any city is more colorful . Stimme.de, June 6, 2013
- Heilbronn records record number of residents - STIMME.de. Retrieved July 23, 2019 .
- Bärbel Kistner: The living conditions of migrants will converge . Stimme.de, June 14, 2011
- City of Heilbronn - municipal council election May 26 , 2019 (accessed on June 2, 2019)
- Pro-City Councilor Dagenbach changes to AfD - STIMME.de. Retrieved January 23, 2020 .
Sources for the section coat of arms and flag:
- Heinz Bardua: The district and community coats of arms in the Stuttgart administrative region . Theiss, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-8062-0801-8 (district and municipality coat of arms in Baden-Württemberg, 1). P. 21
- Eberhard Gönner: Book of arms of the city and the district of Heilbronn with a territorial history of this area . Archive Directorate Stuttgart, Stuttgart 1965 (Publications of the State Archive Administration Baden-Württemberg, 9). P. 45 ff.
- Heilbronn City Archives , archival materials, HEUSS database , signature B040A-97
- Heilbronn city newspaper. (pdf) Official Journal of the City of Heilbronn. City of Heilbronn, September 25, 2019, p. 1 , accessed on September 30, 2019 .
- cf / kis: No more money in the till: Port Talbot ends twinning . In: Heilbronn voice . 17th February 2016.
- State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg: Preliminary result of the state elections on March 13, 2016. Selected applicants
- visitors according to the Harmonie concert and congress center on heilbronn.de (accessed on December 28, 2015)
- Data on the Kunstverein according to www.kunstverein-heilbronn.de. Kunstverein Heilbronn, archived from the original on January 16, 2014 ; Retrieved April 1, 2016 .
- Heilbronn , in: Signals for the Musical World, vol. 35 (1877), no. 17, p. 260.
- Foreword , in: Otto Wolf: Air op. 67 for string orchestra. Score , Ascheberg (Holstein) (Edition Claus Woschenko) 2019, SI
- Info brochure Heilbronn in keywords 2012/13 , City of Heilbronn 2012
- FC Union Heilbronn: Frankenstation , accessed on May 22, 2013
- FC Union Heilbronn: Stadion am See , accessed on May 22, 2013
- Administrative City of Heilbronn 1975–78, p. 54 ff.
- Info brochure Heilbronn in keywords 2012/13 , City of Heilbronn 2012.
- Current results - VGR dL. Retrieved January 7, 2019 .
- Federal state of Baden-Württemberg. Federal Employment Agency, accessed on January 7, 2019 .
- Ernst Schmid: The commercial development in the city of Heilbronn since the beginning of industrialization. Stadtarchiv Heilbronn, Heilbronn 1993, ISBN 3-928990-39-X ( Sources and research on the history of the city of Heilbronn. Volume 3), p. 106.
- Heilbronn in keywords , City of Heilbronn 2012
- PROGNOS future atlas. Handelsblatt, accessed on December 10, 2019 .
- History of the company. Schill + Seilacher GmbH, accessed on April 1, 2016 .
- Jürgen Paul: Läpple with a strong year . In: Heilbronn voice . August 15, 2012 ( from Stimme.de [accessed November 12, 2012]).
- Manfred Stockburger: 50 years of high-tech in Theresienstraße . Companies at Telefunkenpark are celebrating an anniversary - chips, LEDs and solar power. In: Heilbronn voice . September 23, 2010.
- Manfred Stockburger: Atmel is sold, as is the Telefunkenpark . Dialog Semiconductor takes over semiconductor company - to whom the location at the Frankenstadion is still open. In: Heilbronn voice . 22nd September 2015.
- City history Heilbronn: 741 to 1803 by Christhard Schrenk, City Archives Heilbronn
- Commemorative publication for the 100th anniversary of the Chambers of Commerce and Industry in Stuttgart, Heilbronn, Reutlingen and Ulm 1855–1955
- Hans Franke: History and Fate of the Jews in Heilbronn . Heilbronn City Archives, Heilbronn 1963 (Publications of the Heilbronn City Archives, 11) ( here ( Memento from March 16, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) as PDF with 1.2 MB)
- Regional yellow pages, 2010 edition
- wet: Wüba is integrated . In: Heilbronn voice . December 2, 2009 ( from Stimme.de [accessed December 6, 2009]).
- Self-presentation of the Südsalz company ( Memento from April 14, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed on April 1, 2016)
- Hartmut Keil: Der deutsche Wein 1930 to 1945, Dienheim 2010, pp. 176-184.
- Presentation on the operator's website ( Memento from July 10, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed November 18, 2010)
- Carsten Friese: On 29 April at 9:41 of the first ICE to roll up . In: Heilbronner Voice , March 26, 2019, p. 23
- Christian Gleichauf: Heilbronn's ICE connection is cut for the time being . Stimme.de , July 11, 2019
- Christof Krämer: Regional Development Concept Transport. Regional Association Heilbronn-Franconia, Heilbronn 2004
- Police headquarters Heilbronn: About us ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (accessed on August 31, 2012)
- Ralf Reichert: Diesch: 18 police officers in Hohenlohe . In: Hohenloher Zeitung . August 22, 2012 ( from Stimme.de [accessed on August 31, 2012]).
- red: Police conversion is taking shape . In: Heilbronn voice . August 24, 2012 ( from Stimme.de [accessed on August 31, 2012]).
- Heilbronn fire brigade: About us (accessed on August 31, 2012)
- Heilbronn Fire Brigade: History (accessed on August 31, 2012)
- History and buildings on jva-heilbronn.de (accessed on July 25, 2013)
- Iris Baars-Werner: Schwarz Foundation sets 70 million euros . In: Heilbronn voice . February 4, 2009 ( from Stimme.de [accessed February 4, 2009]).
- 10 institutions on one campus - educational campus of the Dieter Schwarz Foundation in Heilbronn. Retrieved February 22, 2020 .
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- Gertrud Schubert: Behind the wall, a school paradise . In: Heilbronner Voice , September 20, 2007
- Katja Feiler: “The time of suffering is over” . In: Heilbronner Voice , September 24, 2007
- Gertrud Schubert: Successful with education . In: Heilbronner Voice , November 15, 2014
- Gertrud Schubert: Abitur in the cloister courtyard . In: Heilbronn voice . October 24, 2009 ( from Stimme.de [accessed October 25, 2009]).
- Database of the city of Heilbronn on childcare offers
- Angelika Dietrich: "What costs nothing is nothing" . In: Die Zeit of December 27, 2007
- Website of the city of Heilbronn
- Chronicle of the city of Heilbronn . Stadtarchiv Heilbronn, Heilbronn 1895–2004, volumes I – VII (741 to 1957) and X (1970 to 1974) have been published so far
- Heilbronn heads. Life pictures from four centuries. So far 7 volumes. Heilbronn City Archives, since 1998.
- Marianne Dumitrache, Simon M. Haag: Archaeological city cadastre Baden-Württemberg. Vol. 8: Heilbronn . Landesdenkmalamt Baden-Württemberg , Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-927714-51-8 .
- Julius Fekete: Art and cultural monuments in the city and district of Heilbronn . Theiss, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-8062-1662-2 .
- Helmut Schmolz , Hubert Weckbach: Heilbronn. History and life of a city . 2nd Edition. Konrad, Weißenhorn 1973, ISBN 3-87437-062-3 .
- Christhard Schrenk , Hubert Weckbach , Susanne Schlösser: From Helibrunna to Heilbronn. A city history (= publications of the archive of the city of Heilbronn . Volume 36 ). Theiss, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-8062-1333-X .
- Link catalog on Heilbronn at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Literature from and about Heilbronn in the catalog of the German National Library