State Parliament of Baden-Württemberg
|Seat:||House of the state parliament in Stuttgart|
|Legislative period :||five years|
|Current legislative period|
|Last choice:||March 13, 2016|
|Next choice:||March 2021|
President of the State Parliament
Muhterem Aras ( Greens )
|Distribution of seats:||
The state parliament of Baden-Württemberg is the state parliament of the state of Baden-Württemberg with its seat in Stuttgart . The President of the State Parliament has been Muhterem Aras ( Greens ) since 2016 .
The state parliament of Baden-Württemberg stands in the tradition of democratic forerunners. At the time of the Weimar Republic , these were the Landtag of the Republic of Baden and the Landtag of the Free People's State of Württemberg . After the end of the Second World War , three states were established on the territory of the later state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Consultative State Assembly and the State Parliament of Baden met from 1946 to 1952 in the historic department store of Freiburg im Breisgau . The President of the Baden State Parliament from 1947 to 1951 was Karl Person .
The state parliament of the state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern first met in 1946 as an advisory state assembly in the Bebenhausen monastery in Tübingen . Karl Gengler was president of the state parliament of Württemberg-Hohenzollern from 1947 to 1952 .
The state constituent assembly and the state parliament of Württemberg-Baden met in Stuttgart from 1946 to 1952. Presidents of the state parliament of Württemberg-Baden were Wilhelm Simpfendörfer in 1946 and Wilhelm Keil from 1947 to 1952 . The Eduard Pfeiffer House of the Workers' Home Foundation at Heusteigstrasse 45 in Stuttgart, built in 1889, has served as the conference venue since 1947 . The state parliament of Baden-Württemberg met in the same building until 1961.
The buildings of the state parliament of Baden-Württemberg are the square house of the state parliament from 1961 in the upper castle garden (based on a design by Horst Linde ) and the house of the members of parliament, inaugurated in 1987 on the other side of Konrad-Adenauer-Straße . The two buildings are connected by a pedestrian tunnel. The original winning design by the architects Peter von Seidlein and Ulrich Schmidt von Altenstadt was realized in 1964 in Tübingen as a university building. The interior of both buildings is also characterized by works of art by well-known artists.
The building was converted and refurbished from autumn 2013 to spring 2016 by Staab Architekten from Berlin for 52.1 million euros. The goals were energetic and technical improvements as well as a redesign of the roof of the plenary hall, which so far had no daylight. Volker Staab received the Hugo Häring Prize 2018 for the general renovation. During the renovation of the state parliament building, the state parliament met from September 25, 2013 to spring 2016 in the art building . On May 11, 2016, the constituent meeting of the 16th state parliament of Baden-Württemberg took place in the converted "House of the State Parliament".
Distribution of seats in the 16th electoral term
|fraction||Seats||Direct mandates||Second mandates|
|FDP / DVP||12||0||12|
On July 5, 2016, 13 members of the AfD, among them the parliamentary group leader Jörg Meuthen , declared their exit from the parliamentary group and formed a new parliamentary group. Shortly afterwards, the controversial MP Wolfgang Gedeon also left the parliamentary group. The Alternative für Baden-Württemberg (ABW) parliamentary group, split off from the AfD parliamentary group, was recognized by the state parliament president on July 26, 2016 after obtaining legal opinions. On October 11, 2016, the ABW parliamentary group and AfD parliamentary group were reunited to form the AfD parliamentary group. On December 16, 2016, Claudia Martin announced that she was leaving the AfD parliamentary group. Martin was accepted into the CDU on November 11, 2017 by the CDU district association Rhein-Neckar. On November 28, 2017, Martin's admission to the CDU parliamentary group was confirmed. On November 24, 2017, the MP Heinrich Fiechtner announced his departure from the AfD parliamentary group and the party. After the departure of AfD politician Lars Patrick Berg on July 11, 2019, his successor Doris Senger was initially denied membership in the AfD parliamentary group, and was only accepted on September 26, 2019. Stefan Herre and Harald Pfeiffer resigned from the parliamentary group on November 29, 2019, but retained their mandates. This made the SPD the largest opposition faction in the state parliament.
|Term of office||president||Political party|
|since 2016||Muhterem Macaws||Green|
In the current legislative period there is only one deputy president after parliament abolished the office of second deputy against the votes of the AfD. This position would have gone to the AfD, which criticizes the exclusion of 15.1 percent of the voters from the leadership of the state parliament.
The order in which the parliamentary groups are named below is based on their first appearance in the sequence of legislative periods since 1952. If parliamentary groups appear for the first time within a legislative period, the order depends on their parliamentary group size.
Group chairman of the CDU
The CDU was represented as a parliamentary group in all state parliaments.
|1978-1991||Erwin the devil|
|since 2016||Wolfgang Reinhart|
Group leader of the SPD
The SPD was represented as a parliamentary group in all state parliaments.
|1961-1964||Walter Krause and Hermann Veit|
|since 2016||Andreas Stoch|
Group chairman of the FDP / DVP
The FDP / DVP was represented as a parliamentary group in all state parliaments.
|1969-1976||Johann Peter Brandenburg|
|since 2009||Hans-Ulrich Rülke|
Chairman of the GB / BHE parliamentary group
The Federation of Expellees and Disenfranchised (BHE) was represented as a parliamentary group in the first state parliament (1952–1956). The GB / BHE was represented in the second and third Landtag (1956–1964).
Group leader of the NPD
The NPD was represented as a parliamentary group in the fifth state parliament (1968–1972).
Group leaders of the Greens
Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen (or before 1993 the Greens ) have been represented in the state parliament without interruption since 1980.
|since 2016||Andreas Schwarz|
In the eighth state parliament (1980–1984) the Greens did not have a parliamentary group status and operated as a state parliament group .
Republican parliamentary group leader
Group leader of the AfD
The alternative for Germany has been represented in the state parliament since 2016, the parliamentary group chairman was initially Jörg Meuthen . After the split in the parliamentary group in July 2016 , Heiner Merz took over the chairmanship. The parliamentary group chairman of the split-off parliamentary group Alternative für Baden-Württemberg (ABW) and the group reunited on October 11, 2016, was Meuthen until he moved to the European Parliament.
|5/2016 - 7/2016||Jörg Meuthen|
|7/2016 - 10/2016||AfD: Heiner Merz||ABW: Jörg Meuthen ( ABW until 10/2016 )|
|10/2016 - 11/2017||Jörg Meuthen|
|since 12/2017||Bernd Gögel|
The electoral process for the Baden-Württemberg state parliament differs from the electoral process in many other federal states in that no state or district lists are drawn up and that each voter only has one vote.
The state parliament with a nominal 120 members is elected every five years. Whoever gets the most votes in one of the 70 constituencies receives the first mandate for this constituency and moves into the state parliament. The 120 seats will be distributed nationwide in the Sainte-Laguë / Schepers procedure to all parties that have achieved at least 5% of the valid votes. After that, the seats of each party - again in Sainte-Laguë / Schepers - are distributed among the four administrative districts. Until the state elections in 2006, the D'Hondt seat allocation procedure was used for both of the aforementioned calculation steps.
If a party is entitled to more seats in a government district than it has achieved first mandates here, the other seats of the party within the government district are allocated to unsuccessful constituency applicants. These mandates are called second mandates . In the event that a party in a government district obtains more first mandates than it is entitled to here, the procedure is as follows: The party retains its seats as overhang seats , but the number of seats in this government district is increased so that the distribution of seats is proportionate corresponds to the number of votes achieved (compensation seats for the other parties).
By compensating for the overhang mandates, there were state parliaments with 140–155 members in the 1990s. In the 13th electoral term the state parliament had 128 members, in the 14th electoral term 139, in the 15th electoral term 138 and in the 16th electoral term 143.
The Baden-Württemberg election process is repeatedly criticized as particularly complicated. In addition, there were systemic distortions up to the state elections in 2006, because the second mandates for inferior constituency applicants were allocated in the order of the absolute number of votes. Thus, especially in regions with strong population growth, there were constituencies in which each of the smaller parties had MPs because the constituency is very large overall and deviates significantly upwards from the mean. In other constituencies, however, it was almost impossible to be elected beyond the direct mandate. In the 2006 election, the smallest constituency of Heilbronn had 81,073 people eligible to vote and had one member, while the largest constituency in Tübingen, with 136,406 eligible voters, was able to send three members to the state parliament.
For the 2011 state elections, the rules for awarding second mandates were changed. Since then, it is no longer the absolute number of votes, but the proportion of votes in the constituencies that is decisive.
Government districts in which overhang and compensatory mandates are awarded are also disproportionately represented in the state parliament. Thus the distribution of the constituencies to the administrative districts does not correspond to the ratio of eligible voters. As a result, the smallest administrative district of Tübingen in particular is regularly under-represented in the state parliament, because the CDU's usually above-average performance means fewer overhang mandates and compensatory seats are incurred here than in the other government districts. Finally, the management of the list of candidates in the Baden-Württemberg election process is organized on a decentralized basis; In each of the 70 constituencies, a decision is made locally who is running. This leads to the fact that the state boards or state party conferences of the parties have little influence on the list of candidates. Among other things, quota regulations cannot be enforced. The 14th state parliament had the lowest proportion of women among the German state parliaments at 23.7 percent. In the 15th state parliament, the proportion of women fell to 18.1%. In all parliamentary groups, less than a third of the members were women (Greens 30.6%, SPD 17.1%, CDU 13.3%, FDP 0.0%). On April 1, 2018, the proportion of women was 25.9% (Greens 46.8%, CDU 23.3%, SPD 10.5%, AfD 10%, FDP 8.3%).
|Turnout in percent||63.7||70.3||59.0||67.7||70.7||80.0||75.5||72.0||71.2||71.8||70.1||67.6||62.6||53.4||66.3||70.4|
|FDP / DVP||18.0||16.6||15.8||13.1||14.4||8.9||7.8||8.3||7.2||5.9||5.9||9.6||8.1||10.7||5.3||8.3|
|BHE or GDP||6.3||6.3||6.6||1.8|
The State Statistical Office provides information on the election results and the distribution of seats in the Baden-Württemberg state parliament .
Historic distribution of seats in the state parliament of Baden-Württemberg
|FDP / DVP||23||21st||18th||14th||18th||10||9||10||8th||7th||8th||14th||10||15th||7th||12|
In 2007 a cross-party proposal for a fundamental parliamentary reform was approved. The key points are:
- The previous after-work parliament became a full-time parliament at the beginning of the 15th legislative period.
- The state pension was abolished in 2011, and since then MPs have had to pay for their own pension. In return, they receive an additional 1587 euros per month, provided they can be shown to invest this amount in a pension plan. Political state secretaries and full-time members of the state government do not receive this amount. For example, ministers cannot benefit from an additional mandate for old-age provision - unlike in other parliaments.
- Since May 2016, at the beginning of the 16th legislative period, there has been an extensive incompatibility of office and mandate. An elected to the state parliament official with salaries deposited with the acceptance of the election from his office , out. The rights and obligations arising from the employment relationship are generally suspended from the date of acceptance of the election for the duration of the membership. After the termination of membership in the state parliament, the rights and obligations are suspended until entry into or until retirement, unless the civil servant files an application for return to the previous employment relationship or the highest service authority carries this out without an application. If the officer refuses to return him in the latter case, he is dismissed. The rights and obligations from the civil servant relationship for a limited period are suspended until the end of the term of office. (§§ 27 f., 32nd AbgG BW)
- Rolf Blumer, Carola Klötzer, Karsten Preßler: Modern times too can age with dignity. The state parliament building in Stuttgart and its metal facade. In: Preservation of Monuments in Baden-Württemberg , Volume 40, 2011, Issue 1, pp. 21–28 ( PDF )
- Literature from and about the Landtag of Baden-Württemberg in the catalog of the German National Library
- Web presence of the state parliament of Baden-Württemberg
- Plenary minutes in the Württemberg State Library since 1952
- Election results and governments of Baden-Württemberg
- State election portal of the state center for political education Baden-Württemberg
- Future election dates in Germany. Federal Returning Officer , accessed on February 8, 2017 .
- Ulrike Pfeil, All laboratories on the mountain, Schwäbisches Tagblatt, July 3, 2008, page 21.
- Amber Sayah: Conversion of the state parliament in Stuttgart: The must of the decades is out, in: Stuttgarter Zeitung, May 6, 2016
- Technical and energetic renovation of the state parliament building ( Memento from February 19, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, No. 157 of July 10, 2018, p. 14
- Article in the Stuttgarter Zeitung of June 6, 2013
- Badische Zeitung , January 13, 2015, Andreas Böhme: With Landtag President Guido Wolf on the construction site of the Stuttgart Landtag
- State Parliament of Baden-Württemberg , State Statistical Office .
- Stuttgart State Parliament - 13 MPs leave the AfD parliamentary group Focus online, July 5, 2016
- President of the State Parliament Aras follows the legal opinion: After that, the formation of a further parliamentary group was permitted, State Parliament of Baden-Württemberg, July 26, 2016
- Fractional in the Stuttgart state parliament lifted - AfD and ABW are reunited
- http://www.swr.de/landesschau-aktuell/bw/bw-abordnunge-ist-enttaeuscht-und-tritt-aus-afd-frau- 18683742 / nid = 1622 / wrsjve /
- Rüdiger Soldt: Another member of parliament leaves the AfD in Baden-Württemberg. In: FAZ.net . November 24, 2017, accessed October 13, 2018 .
- Member of the state parliament: AfD parliamentary group board confirms Doris Senger's membership. Stuttgarter Zeitung, September 26, 2019, accessed on October 6, 2019 .
- Deputies Herre and Pfeiffer resign from the party. Stuttgarter Zeitung, November 29, 2019, accessed on November 29, 2019 .
- Only one more state parliament vice-president in Baden-Württemberg - AfD protest
- Gönner loses power struggle for parliamentary group chairmanship , focus.de, accessed on March 29, 2011.
- Information from the regional returning officer on the 2011 state election, section 14 p. 12 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 41 kB).
- Landtag President wants ( Memento from September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- State Parliament 2006 (page 5 of 44) ( Memento from September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Women in the state parliaments. lpb-bw.de, October 2016, accessed on February 8, 2017 .
- Landtag of Baden-Württemberg, 15th electoral period, People's Handbook - preliminary edition ( Memento from January 17, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- State Parliament of Baden-Württemberg, 16th electoral period: Age structure and gender of the MPs (as of April 1, 2018) ( Memento from April 25, 2018 in the Internet Archive )
- Over 5 percent was the KPD in Württemberg-Baden, see p. 112-113 of the essay Baden-Württemberg - "home of liberalism" and stronghold of the CDU by Reinhold Weber , in parties in the German states , Andreas Kost, Werner Rellecke , Reinhold Weber, Verlag CH Beck , 2010, pp. 103–126.
- State elections 1952–2016 (State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg).
- State Parliament of Baden-Württemberg - Application for parliamentary reform (PDF; 42 kB) ( Memento from April 2, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Section 11 (1) of the Act on the Legal Relationships of Members of the Baden-Württemberg State Parliament (PDF) ( Memento of July 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Section 11 (2) of the Act on the Legal Relationships of Members of the Baden-Württemberg State Parliament (PDF) ( Memento of July 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive )