|State of Württemberg-Hohenzollern|
|State capital :||Tubingen|
|Form of government :||parliamentary republic , partially sovereign member state of a federal state|
|Area :||10,095 km²|
|Foundation :||May 18, 1947|
|Population :||1.184 million (September 13, 1950)|
|Population density :||133 inhabitants per km²|
|Head of Government :||- Lorenz Bock (July 8, 1947 - August 3, 1948)
- Gebhard Müller (August 1948 - April 25, 1952)
|Ruling parties:||CDU , FDP / DVP and SPD|
|Distribution of seats in the state parliament :||
|Last choice:||May 18, 1947|
|Next choice :||-|
|Votes in the Federal Council :||3|
The state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern emerged after the Second World War in the French occupation zone and was one of the founding states of the Federal Republic of Germany . It included the southern part of the former People's State of Württemberg and the former to the Free State of Prussia belonging Province of Hohenzollern . Around one million people lived on an area of 10,406 km². The capital was Tübingen , the seat of the state parliament was the former Bebenhausen monastery near Tübingen. On April 25, 1952, the states of Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Baden and Württemberg-Baden were incorporated into the newly founded state of Baden-Württemberg .
Management of government affairs
From October 1945 there was a State Secretariat for the French-occupied area of Württemberg and Hohenzollern , headed by Carlo Schmid (see also State Secretariat / Cabinet Schmid ). On July 8, 1947, Lorenz Bock was elected President of Württemberg-Hohenzollern. After his death in August 1948, Gebhard Müller was the second and last president until April 25, 1952.
Württemberg-Hohenzollern covered the southern part of the former Land Württemberg and formerly the state Prussia belonging Province of Hohenzollern . In administrative terms, the Bavarian district of Lindau was also assigned to Württemberg-Hohenzollern in the early years. In the east, Württemberg-Hohenzollern bordered Bavaria, in the west and southwest on Baden, which corresponded to the southern part of the former Republic of Baden and, like Württemberg-Hohenzollern, belonged to the French zone of occupation . The southern border was formed by the eastern part of Lake Constance ; There was a border with Vorarlberg via the Lindau district . The northern border was chosen in such a way that the Karlsruhe-Munich motorway, today's A 8 , lay within the American occupation zone and thus in Württemberg-Baden for the entire route. When the northern border was established, the district boundaries that had existed since 1934 were retained. In addition to the Lindau district already mentioned, the state also included the districts of Balingen , Biberach , Calw , Ehingen , Freudenstadt , Hechingen , Horb , Münsingen , Ravensburg , Reutlingen , Rottweil , Saulgau , Sigmaringen , Tettnang , Tübingen , Tuttlingen and Wangen . Various exclaves , enclaves and other territorial peculiarities from the times before the creation of the country continued to exist in the border with Baden .
In terms of nature, the Württemberg Allgäu , Upper Swabia , the southwestern part of the Swabian Alb , parts of the northern Black Forest and the eastern part of the Middle Black Forest belonged to the area of the state.
The former borders of Württemberg-Hohenzollern to Baden and Württemberg-Baden can no longer be found on a political map of Baden-Württemberg since they were blurred by the district reform in Baden-Württemberg on January 1, 1973. Up until this reform, the borders were still present in the district of Südwürttemberg-Hohenzollern , and the structure of the districts also coincided with these external borders.
In southwest Germany, the Kingdom of Württemberg and the Grand Duchy of Baden as well as the Hohenzollern Lands existed as a Prussian exclave until the end of the First World War . After 1918, Baden and Württemberg became republican states within the Weimar Republic . The Hohenzollern lands remained part of Prussia. The seizure of power by the National Socialists and the appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of the Reich on January 30, 1933 heralded the end of democracy and the harmonization of the administration in Württemberg as well . On May 2, 1933, Hitler appointed the Württemberg state president Wilhelm Murr ( NSDAP ), who was still elected by the state parliament , as Reich governor for Württemberg and Hohenzollern. The planned conversion of Württemberg into a Reichsgau including Hohenzollern was not carried out. During National Socialism, Württemberg and Hohenzollern were only united in the party structure of the NSDAP, which was also referred to as a Gau, but not in the state administration.
As in all of Germany, the following years brought with it the persecution of those who think differently, the discrimination, persecution and extermination of the Jews and finally the war in southern Württemberg and Hohenzollern. Due to the rural structure, however, the war damage in this part of the country was less than in the rest of Germany. Apart from the armaments center in Friedrichshafen , only Reutlingen suffered a large number of deaths from attacks by opponents of the war. In the Upper Swabian districts of Biberach, Ehingen, Ravensburg, Saulgau and Wangen, for example, less than 1 percent of the apartments were destroyed and the number of civilian deaths there remained relatively low at 27 to 149 per district.
The creation of the country in the French zone of occupation
In the final phase of World War II in Europe, the conquest of southwest Germany was strategically of secondary importance for the US Army . The main objective was to conquer the Ruhr area and to separate northern and southern Germany along the Main in order to bring about the defeat of the German Empire . France under its military and political leader Charles de Gaulle pursued the goal of actively participating in the occupation of Germany in order to be able to influence the future shape of Germany and thus Europe through the possession of conquered territories. The 1st French Army belonged to the "Southern Group of Armies" and was under US command with its Commander-in-Chief Jean de Lattre de Tassigny . It was composed of two corps. The 1st Army Corps comprised the 4th Moroccan Infantry Division, the 9th Colonial Infantry Division and the 1st Armored Division. The 2nd Army Corps consisted of the 2nd Moroccan Infantry Division, the 3rd Algerian Infantry Division, the 5th Panzer Division and the 14th Infantry Division. After the invasion of southern France , carried out jointly with the 7th US Army under General Alexander M. Patch , the 1st French Army fought its way north through the Rhone Valley and liberated Alsace . At the end of March 1945 they occupied the southern Palatinate between the Alsatian border and Speyer . The last German bridgehead on the left bank of the Rhine on the Upper Rhine was cleared on March 25, 1945 near Germersheim . The main battle line now ran from Basel to the Palatinate on the Rhine. In addition to the 1st French Army, US units had formed on the left bank of the Rhine. On March 29, 1945 de Gaulle sent a telegram to General de Lattre, whereupon he began to cross the Rhine on the evening of March 30, 1945. On April 2nd he took Bruchsal and on April 4th Karlsruhe . Thereupon the line Speyer- Michelfeld - Hilsbach and then along the Neckar to Stuttgart and on to Rottweil was defined as the border between the French and the American operational area . On April 16, the French Army crossed the Rhine near Kehl. On April 18, Freudenstadt was captured after heavy artillery fire. The military approach was designed in such a way that each place was taken individually. As a rule, every house was searched for soldiers and weapons. This resulted in looting, shootings and rape. The French advanced from the south via Tübingen and the Filder, the Americans from the northeast and along the Neckar to Stuttgart. Although both army groups reached Stuttgart almost simultaneously, the city was occupied by the French on April 21. On April 22nd and 23rd, the French area of operations was expanded according to American army orders along a line from Stuttgart via Metzingen , Dettingen , Münsingen , Ebingen , Reinstetten to Kempten (Allgäu) . In contrast, the French army was supposed to evacuate the area east of the motorway between Lauffen , Asperg , Leonberg (today's A 81 ) and Wendlingen am Neckar (today's A 8 ) and thus also Stuttgart. The French opposed this order and instead set up a military government for the city of Stuttgart based in the Villa Reitzenstein and another military government based in the Villa Weißenburg for the state of Württemberg. They not only installed Arnulf Klett as Lord Mayor of Stuttgart, but also commissioned him to form a German government for the entire state of Württemberg, which was set up on June 13th with the approval of the French and American military governments. The government consisted of nine administrative authorities, including Fritz Ulrich (SPD) for internal affairs, Josef Beyerle (CDU) for justice, Carlo Schmid (SPD) for culture, Martin Rieckert for finances, Franz Weiß (CDU) for food and agriculture, Albert Fischer ( KPD) for work, Felix Reichert for post, Richard Brändle for railways and Siegfried Wächter for economics, each with the official title of "State Director".
The demarcation between the French and American occupation zones was originally based on a paper by the American Commander-in-Chief Dwight D. Eisenhower on May 3, 1945. In it Eisenhower recommended that the districts of Karlsruhe and Mannheim in Baden be left in the American occupation zone because of the continuous traffic connections. For Württemberg, he recommended that the region north of the Karlsruhe-Stuttgart-Ulm autobahn (today's A 8), including the autobahn itself and the districts it encompasses, be assigned to the territory of the United States. The area south of it was therefore part of the French occupation zone. This paper already provided for the Lindau district to be included in the French territory as the only Bavarian district. This created a land bridge to the French occupation zone in Austria . France claimed all of Baden. After the unauthorized action of the French in Stuttgart and in other areas such as the Upper Italian Aosta Valley or in Syria, the Americans were no longer willing to make concessions to the French in the division of the occupation zones in southwest Germany. Although the division of Württemberg and Baden was also controversial within American diplomacy, Eisenhower's original plan was implemented. On June 29th, the French government accepted the demarcation of the border, whereupon the French military governments left Stuttgart on July 8th. The final agreement of the four victorious powers on the division of the zones of occupation was signed on July 26, 1945. Even before the French withdrew from Stuttgart, it was determined that the administrative authorities based in Stuttgart would continue to be responsible for the whole of Württemberg. The Stuttgart regional directors appointed “permanent delegates” for southern Württemberg at the highest French occupation authority, which was initially based in Freudenstadt and later in Tübingen under the direction of Governor Guillaume Widmer . The delegates were initially Gustav Kilpper (independent) for food, agriculture and economy, Lothar Rossmann (SPD) for internal affairs, Paul Binder (CDU) for cult and Gebhard Müller (CDU) for justice. Even during the occupation, the French military put district administrators and mayors at the head of the municipal administrations. Soon afterwards, the city and rural districts were “the bearers of the highest level of state power and the largest political units”. At first they had little contact with one another. Each district was completely "on its own and a small, economically independent economic republic" that operated on their own account and at risk and were dependent on exchange with one another. After the American military administration had united North Baden and North Württemberg administratively and a government was appointed under the leadership of Reinhold Maier , the French military government had Carlo Schmid explain to the delegates in Württemberg-Hohenzollern on October 13, 1945 that they would be dismissed. On October 16, 1945, the French occupying power established a provisional government called the "State Secretariat for the French-occupied territory of Württemberg and Hohenzollern". The government was divided into six provincial directorates, each headed by a provincial director. The state directors formed the board of directors, which Carlo Schmid (SPD) elected "President of the State Secretariat". He also took over the State Directorate for Justice and the State Directorate for Culture, Education and Art. Other state directors were Lothar Rossmann (SPD) for the home affairs area, Paul Binder (CDU) for the finance area, Gustav Kilpper (independent) for the economy and Clemens Moser (CDU), who also acted as Hohenzollern's representative, for the labor area . Carlo Schmid was also State Councilor in the government in Württemberg-Baden and had the right to take part in cabinet meetings there. At Schmid's request, Gebhard Müller remained his permanent representative in the Ministry of Justice. In Art. 1 of the Statute of the State Secretariat it was determined that “while the state authority of the Württemberg state government is inactive in the French-occupied area of Württemberg, it will exercise state power for the state government.” Carlo Schmid, who was a constitutional and administrative lawyer by training, described this function as that of a "caretaker in absence".
The State Secretariat initially exercised both the legislative and executive branches, but was strictly bound by the instructions of the military administration. The establishment of the administration was initially carried out with great difficulty. Any recruitment of personnel required the approval of the French military government, which examined behavior during the time of National Socialism and personal suitability. Instructions to subordinate bodies required the approval of the occupying power. Despite uniform regulations of the Allied Control Council , denazification was more differentiated in Württemberg-Hohenzollern than in the American zone. The focus was not on formal membership in the NSDAP, party branches and associations, but on the verifiable burden of National Socialist activities. This also led to civil servants from northern Württemberg relocating, which made it easier to establish a functional civil service .
On November 3, 1945, a conference of district administrators and mayors came together for the first time in Tübingen. This conference was followed by other meetings at regular intervals, which developed into an advisory body for the State Secretariat. On September 15, 1946, elections were held for the local councils and on October 13, 1946 for the district assemblies. As early as March 18, 1946, individual parties at the state level were permitted again. On November 17, 1946, 38 members were elected from the representatives of the districts and 27 members from the representatives of the communities with more than 7,000 inhabitants of the “ Advisory State Assembly for Württemberg-Hohenzollern and the Lindau District ”. Three members also came from the Lindau district. The election took place according to the proportional representation system via the lists of approved parties. Only mayors, members of the municipal councils and members of the district assemblies were eligible. The CDU received 42, the SPD 14, the DVP 8 and the KPD 4 seats. The first meeting of the newly elected regional assembly took place on November 22, 1946 in the Bebenhausen monastery near Tübingen. She elected Karl Gengler (CDU) as her president. Carlo Schmid reorganized the State Secretariat on December 9, 1946. The new members of his cabinet were given the title "State Secretary". The State Secretariat still had the right to enact laws in coordination with the military administration. However, the Consultative State Assembly commented on questions of legislation when it was referred to by the State Secretariat.
The main task of the Consultative State Assembly was the drafting of a state constitution, which was passed on April 22, 1947 with the votes of the CDU and SPD. In the final deliberations on April 21st and 22nd, the CDU and SPD agreed that the formation of Württemberg-Hohenzollern was a transitional solution. The identification of Württemberg-Hohenzollern in the constitution as part of Württemberg or the inclusion of the restoration of Württemberg as a national goal were prevented by the French military government. The constitution was passed in a referendum on May 18, 1947 with 69.8%. At the same time as this referendum, the first and only state elections were held in which the CDU achieved an absolute majority with 32 out of 60 seats, but nevertheless formed a coalition with the SPD (12 seats) and the DVP (11 seats). The KPD sent five representatives to the state parliament. In addition, two members of the CDU from the Lindau district, who had already belonged to the advisory state assembly, were represented in the state parliament until the transition of the Lindau district to Bavaria on December 19, 1950. At its constituent meeting on June 3, 1947 in the Bebenhausen monastery, Karl Gengler (CDU) was elected President of the Landtag, Fritz Fleck (SPD) as first deputy and Karl Kübler (DVP) as second .
On July 8, 1947, Lorenz Bock (CDU) was elected head of government known as the “President”. In addition to him, his cabinet included six other ministers. He himself also headed the Ministry of Finance. Carlo Schmid was Bock's deputy and also headed the Ministry of Justice. He mainly represented the government in "foreign policy", for example at the Conference of Prime Ministers, in the negotiations on the formation of the Parliamentary Council and in cooperation with the Stuttgart government. Other ministers were Viktor Renner (SPD) for the interior, Albert Sauer (CDU) for culture, education and art, Eberhard Wildermuth (DVP) for economy, Franz Weiß (CDU) for agriculture and nutrition and Eugen Wirsching (CDU) for work.
The crisis in relations with the French military government
The Potsdam Agreement of August 2, 1945 provided that every occupying power should satisfy its reparation claims by dismantling and delivering goods from its own occupation zone . This was the basis on which the French occupied their zone of occupation as a means of reparation payments for their war damage. However, since Württemberg-Hohenzollern had little industry and no raw materials, they were left with timber and agricultural products as reparations. In the three fiscal years from 1945/46 to 1947/48 (on April 1 each), budget receipts of 708 million Reichsmarks were offset by occupation burdens of 448 million Reichsmarks, which corresponded to 62 percent of the income. In contrast to the two other western occupation zones, the French military government also demanded cash payments in Reichsmarks, also known as lump-sum payments. Furthermore, the so-called requisitions and the ensuing crew costs had an impact on the budget. This included covering the entire needs of the occupying forces. For example, a total of 350 hotels, 700 residential buildings and around 4,000 apartments with a total of 22,000 rooms were confiscated from the occupying forces. Furthermore, in the French zone there was the peculiarity that the military procurement offices, in addition to the requisitions, issued delivery conditions that were paid for, but were no longer available to supply the population. In 1946, only 27.4 percent of meat production was actually available to supply the population of Württemberg-Hohenzollern. In addition, reparations payments in the narrower sense were the delivery of raw materials and finished goods, the removal of machines, repatriation of goods brought from France during the Second World War, the dismantling of factories and deforestation . Between 1946 and 1949 a total of 4.15 million cubic meters of wood was felled and transported to France or exported to other countries for the benefit of France.
On October 30, 1947, the dismantling list for the entire French occupation zone was published. Despite the machine withdrawals that had already been carried out, the list for Württemberg-Hohenzollern still provided for the full dismantling of 60 companies and the partial dismantling of ten other companies. This led to great outrage among entrepreneurs, workers and the entire population. For example, on November 11, 1947, a special page appeared in the Schwäbisches Tagblatt in Tübingen that only dealt with the question of dismantling, which prompted the military government to take censorship measures. On December 2, 1947, in Baden-Baden, President Bock paid his respects to General Marie-Pierre Kœnig , the military governor for the entire French occupation zone, but was unable to reduce the planned dismantling. The majority parliamentary group of the CDU in the state parliament under their parliamentary group leader Gebhard Müller then decided that their state parliament members should resign their mandates and the CDU ministers should resign if a reduction in the dismantling list could not be achieved. The government drafted a memorandum that was sent to the military government on December 30, 1947, and received no response from there for months. During this time, the parliamentary groups of the SPD and the DVP, under their chairmen Oskar Kalbfell and Eduard Leuze, supported the demands of the CDU. On April 29, 1948, there was an affront to the military government in the state parliament when a major request from MP Wilhelm Baessler (CDU) about the deforestation of the forests by the French reparations policy was read out despite the non-approval by the military government. The state parliament then ceased its work until June 11, 1948. In the following weeks, in light of the London Conference of Foreign Ministers of the three Western Powers in June 1948 , the military government announced that the powers of the government and the state parliament would be expanded and that reparations would be eased. On June 20, the D-Mark was introduced in the three western zones. On July 1, 1948, the three Western Allies announced the Frankfurt documents , which formed the legal basis for the formation of a West German state. This made an independent French occupation policy increasingly difficult. It was therefore all the more surprising that the revised dismantling list announced on July 30, 1948, despite the alleviations announced, did not bring any significant changes to the list from November. On the same day, President Bock negotiated these dismantling demands. After he had informed the parliamentary groups of the state parliament about the status of the negotiations and the intransigence of the French, he died on the night of August 4, 1948 after returning to his home town of Rottweil of the consequences of intestinal paralysis. The government then resigned in the state parliament session on August 6, 1948. Carlo Schmid, who read out the declaration of resignation, described it as unconstitutional if the government were to participate in measures "which must bring the people's standard of living below any tolerable level." The resignation was unreservedly supported by all four parliamentary groups. On August 13th, Gebhard Müller was elected as the new president. The French military government then suspended Württemberg-Hohenzollern's participation in the deliberations on the formation of the Federal Republic of Germany and a south-western state. Müller, who reinstated the resigned government, used the following period to launch an awareness campaign in the German and foreign press about the reparations policy of the French in Württemberg-Hohenzollern. Shortly before the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany, the dismantling list was re-transmitted on April 21, 1949. Compared to the list of 1947, 27 dismantling operations have been deleted and six full disassembly operations have been converted into partial disassembly operations.
Württemberg-Hohenzollern during the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany
At the conference of the four victorious powers in London from November 25 to December 15, 1947, the creation of an all-German administration was discussed for the last time. However, this failed both because of the preconditions of the Soviet Union and because of the differing ideas of France. At the follow-up conferences of the Western powers, which were also held in London, the future lines of a common occupation policy in West Germany were then determined. As a result, on July 1, 1948, the eleven heads of government of the states in the western zones, who had met regularly since June 1947 for prime ministerial conferences, were handed the Frankfurt documents . The Frankfurt documents and the Koblenz resolutions made by the eleven heads of government on July 10, 1948 at the Knight Fall Conference in Koblenz , created the framework for the development of a West German state, later the Federal Republic of Germany . At the constitutional convention on Herrenchiemsee from August 10th to 25th, 1948, the foundations for the Basic Law were laid down, which was drawn up by the Parliamentary Council from September 1st, 1948 to May 8th, 1949 .
Württemberg-Hohenzollern played an outstanding and in many places formative role in the process of the constitution of the Basic Law by its representative Carlo Schmid . From 1930 Schmid was a private lecturer in public law at the Eberhard Karls University in Tübingen . Shortly after the end of the war, he was heavily involved in the reopening of the university. His role as President of the State Secretariat for Württemberg-Hohenzollern and his simultaneous membership as State Council in the government of Württemberg-Baden gave him a transnational role in building democracy in Germany after the Second World War. The first draft of the constitution of Württemberg-Baden was drawn up by him. When it was already clear that Carlo Schmid would not remain head of government in Württemberg-Hohenzollern due to the election results of May 18, 1947 , he was the focus of the first conference of prime ministers on June 6 with his speech demanding an occupation statute from the occupying powers 1947 in Munich. The essence and aim of this occupation statute was to put the powers of the occupying powers on a legal and comprehensible basis. Instead of the “power over the whole of Germany”, which the occupying powers had claimed for themselves in the Potsdam Agreement of August 2, 1945, in the sense of omnipotence, legal principles or provisions would now have to come into play. The CDU presidents Lorenz Bock and Gebhard Müller, whom Schmid held in the provisional government in October 1945 without a ministerial office, subsequently left Schmid in a key position in drafting the Basic Law. He took part in the constitutional convention on Herrenchiemsee as a representative of Württemberg-Hohenzollern. The state parliament also elected him to the parliamentary council alongside Paul Binder , although the CDU would have granted the right to both of the state's delegates. Even if Konrad Adenauer blamed Gebhard Müller for this as a mistake, it once again reflected the interaction between constitutional lawyer Schmid and the later President of the Federal Constitutional Court Müller. As compensation was Hamburg the CDU deputy Paul de Chapeau Rouge also elected with the votes of the SPD in the Council. In the Parliamentary Council, Schmid was appointed chairman of the main committee. Several essential contents of the Basic Law can be traced back to him. This includes the formulation and placement of fundamental rights, the constructive vote of no confidence , the abolition of the death penalty and the right to conscientious objection to military service. Schmid and Müller were able to base their work on the Institute for Occupation Issues at the University of Tübingen. The later founder and head of the institute Gustav von Schmoller was an employee of the State Secretariat in 1947 and developed the basis for Carlo Schmid's speech on the occupation statute at the Munich Conference of Prime Ministers in June 1947. Schmoller then took over the newly created department for constitutional matters in October 1947. and administrative issues in the State Chancellery of Württemberg-Hohenzollern, from which the Institute for Occupation Issues developed. The institute itself was founded in 1948 and financed largely by the states of Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Württemberg-Baden in 1948 and 1949. It existed until 1960 and was replaced by Dr. Hedwig Maier and Dr. Achim Tobler is in charge.
The state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern
When it was founded on May 23, 1949, Württemberg-Hohenzollern became part of the Federal Republic of Germany. After the relationship with the occupying power had improved significantly, Gebhard Müller reappointed the members of the government, who had only been managing directors since his resignation on August 6, 1948, to their respective offices on June 24, 1949. With the election to the first German Bundestag on August 14, 1949, a number of state politicians in Württemberg-Hohenzollern entered federal politics. Carlo Schmid became Vice President of the German Bundestag and Chairman of the Committee on Occupation Statutes and Foreign Affairs . Karl Gengler , who did not give up his office as president of the state parliament, became deputy chairman of the organizing committee in the Bundestag. Eberhard Wildermuth was a member of the Adenauer cabinet until his death on March 9, 1952, as Minister of Housing .
The emergence of Baden-Württemberg
In Document No. 2 of the Frankfurt Documents , the Western Allies called on the Prime Ministers to make proposals for changing the national borders in West Germany. Except for south-west Germany, however, they had no interest in restructuring the future federal states. At the Rittersturz conference , the question of the borders for south-west Germany was postponed because the representatives of the three countries could not come to an agreement, mainly because of the uncompromising attitude of Baden's President Leo Wohleb .
From the beginning, Württemberg-Hohenzollern campaigned for the unification of the three states into a south-western state. However, no amicable solution could be found in the conferences and negotiations of the following months either. The state of Baden and its President Leo Wohleb categorically ruled out the unification of the three states and instead sought to restore the old state of Baden. However, the division of Württemberg-Baden was not wanted by the American military government. North Baden politicians also rejected this solution because they feared an expansion of the French occupation zone with its extensive reparations policy to include northern Baden in this context. The Basic Law does contain the mandate to reorganize federal states via Paragraph 1 , “to ensure that the federal states can effectively fulfill the tasks incumbent upon them according to their size and efficiency.” The reorganization was subject to high requirements. It was only possible if the population in all affected areas voted for the reorganization with a majority of the votes cast. In the event of a rejection, a vote in the entire federal territory was necessary. Shortly before the end of the deliberations of the Parliamentary Council, Article 118 was inserted into the Basic Law on the initiative of Württemberg-Hohenzollern with the support of Theodor Eschenburg . This read as follows: The reorganization in the areas comprising the states of Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern can, in deviation from the provisions of Art. 29 GG, take place by agreement of the states involved. If an agreement is not reached, the reorganization is regulated by federal law, which must provide for a referendum.
The commanders-in-chief of the western occupying powers introduced a reservation to Articles 29 and 118 of the Basic Law, which suspended the restructuring of the federal territory according to Article 29 of the Basic Law until a peace treaty was reached. The wording was unclear to the extent that it neither clearly referred only to Article 29 of the Basic Law nor clearly to both articles. On the basis of this ambiguity, the French representatives in Germany questioned the legality of the merger of the three countries with Governor Guillaume Widmer, Commander-in-Chief Marie-Pierre Kœnig and High Commissioner André François-Poncet . However, during a visit by Gebhard Müller on February 19, 1949 , the French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman had already made it clear that France would not prevent a merger. On August 24, 1949, Leo Wohleb submitted a first draft of an agreement for the state of Baden under Article 118 of the Basic Law to the states of Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Württemberg-Baden. In it he stood up for three voting districts in the referendum on the merger: total Baden, total Württemberg and Hohenzollern. In addition to the question of the amalgamation of the three countries, the alternative question of the restoration of the old countries should be asked. Those eligible to vote in Hohenzollern should still be able to decide whether to join Baden or Württemberg. The restoration of the old countries should also take place if it received a majority in one country and was rejected in the other. In the negotiations of the following months, Württemberg-Hohenzollern followed suit. On October 22nd, the state boards of the CDU and thus the majority party in all three countries met in the Freudenstadt Hotel Waldeck. They agreed on the voting procedure proposed by Wohleb. The government of Württemberg-Baden, where the CDU did not have an absolute majority, continued to reject this proposal. Instead, she called for a vote in four voting districts (North Württemberg, North Baden, South Württemberg-Hohenzollern, South Baden). The southwest state should come about with a majority in three of the four electoral districts. This proposal in turn was rejected by Wohleb. When the opposing parties could not agree on a further conference in Freudenstadt on April 15, 1950, President Gebhard Müller submitted a proposal from Theodor Eschenburg. This provided for a referendum of a purely informative nature. The aim of the trial vote should be to give governments a secure basis for their policies on this issue. Point 3 of this Württemberg-Hohenzollern proposal provided that if no agreement was reached two months after the vote, the state governments would consider the attempt at unification to have failed. Eschenburg thus made a direct reference to the clause in Article 118 of the Basic Law, which he had also introduced into the Basic Law, and thus showed a way out of the situation between Württemberg-Baden and Baden, in which the further procedure could be shifted jointly to the federal legislature . On the basis of this proposal, the trial vote took place on September 24, 1950 after a bitter campaign. The result of the vote was as follows:
|Voting area||Yes votes||Vote no|
|South Württemberg including Hohenzollern||92.5%||7.5%|
|Württemberg and Hohenzollern as a whole||93.0%||7.0%|
|Bathing as a whole||48.9%||51.1%|
Participation in the vote was 65.2% in South Baden, 60.4% in North Baden, 42.9% in North Württemberg and 48.8% in Württemberg-Hohenzollern.
Wohleb saw himself confirmed by the result, as a majority in both southern Baden and Baden as a whole voted in favor of restoring the old states. The government in Stuttgart also saw itself confirmed by the North Baden result not to give up the unity of Württemberg-Baden. For Gebhard Müller and his government, the result was a clear vote in favor of the formation of a south-western state. At a meeting of the three Southwest German heads of government on October 12, 1950 in the Quellenhof Hotel in Wildbad , no joint proposal for action on the outcome of the vote could be reached, as was a conference on November 7, 1950 in Baden-Baden . On November 28, 1950, Gebhard Müller informed the Bundestag, based on the Freudenstadt resolutions of April 15, 1950, that the negotiations on the reorganization had failed. This cleared the way for a regulation by the federal legislature on the basis of Article 118 of the Basic Law. On December 18, 1950, Gebhard Müller suggested to his cabinet that the formation of the south-western state should take place if a majority in three out of four electoral districts was achieved. With that he joined the line from Württemberg-Baden and thus gave up his mediating role between Baden and Württemberg-Baden.
In January 1951, two bills regulating the south-west state question were introduced in the Bundestag: The Hilbert draft was presented on January 9, 1951 by the member of the Bundestag from Baden and deputy chairman of the committee for internal reorganization, Anton Hilbert (CDU). The Gengler-Kiesinger draft, which had been drawn up in the Württemberg-Hohenzollern State Chancellery, was presented on January 26, 1951. It was named after the President of the Württemberg-Hohenzollern state parliament, Karl Gengler, and the later Federal Chancellor, Kurt Georg Kiesinger . While the Hilbert draft provided for two voting districts with all of Baden and all of Württemberg including Hohenzollern, the Gengler-Kiesinger draft was based on the four voting districts of the trial vote of September 24, 1950. In the vote, the Hilbert draft provided for the alternative question of restoring the old countries versus forming the south-western state. The restoration should also take place if only one voting district had voted for it. In the Gengler-Kiesinger draft, the question was: “I want the three states of Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern to be united into one federal state (south-western state). Yes - No. ”The country was to be formed if the vote in the entire voting area and in at least three out of four voting districts resulted in a majority in favor of the unification. The drafts corresponded exactly to the positions of Baden or Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern.
While the draft bills were being discussed in the Bundestag, the dispute in Baden became increasingly emotional. The population in Württemberg-Hohenzollern was, as the low participation in the trial vote had indicated, rather dispassionately concerned with the topic. In the Bundestag the members of the parliamentary groups of the SPD and the FDP spoke almost unanimously in favor of the formation of the south-western state. In contrast, the large majority of the CDU / CSU parliamentary group was on the Baden side. The seven CDU members of the Bundestag from Württemberg-Hohenzollern, along with their colleagues from Württemberg-Baden, were largely isolated as supporters of the merger in their parliamentary group. Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer was also against the unification in principle. A weighty argument was the reference to the endangerment of the majority of the CDU in the Federal Council . The southwest German federal states had a total of ten votes in the Bundesrat, six of which were certainly attributable to the CDU. The united state had only five votes; Given the majority, it was by no means certain that these would fall to the CDU in the future. To implement his policy of integration with the West , however, Adenauer was dependent on the ratification of the foreign policy treaties and thus on the majority of the Federal Council. In the committee for internal reorganization, the question of the formation of the south-western state was discussed on the basis of the Gengler-Kiesinger draft. In the final vote of the committee on March 16, 1951, a draft law was passed with nine to five votes, which largely corresponded to the Gengler-Kiesinger draft. The day before, the Bundestag had passed the so-called First Reorganization Act, which extended the legislative periods of the state parliaments in Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern by around a year until March 31, 1952, in a fast-track procedure and almost unanimously. On April 25, 1951, the second law based on the Gengler-Kiesinger draft on the reorganization of the states of Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern was passed by the Bundestag with a majority of around 60 votes. In the previous debate of Baden president concluded his speech with the pathetic words: "It is not yet lost Baden" The Federal Council decided the law on April 27, 1951. With the signing by the Federal President Theodor Heuss on May 4, 1951 it entered into Force. Baden then sued the Federal Constitutional Court against the restructuring laws on May 25, 1951 . The judgment of October 23, 1951 declared the extension of the state parliament election period and thus the First Reorganization Act null and void. The second reorganization law was declared valid on the basis of Art. 118 GG. The extension of the legislative period of the state parliament was then decided by an amendment to the constitution, which was approved at the same time as the vote on the formation of the south-western state in a referendum on December 9, 1951. The result of the referendum on the formation of the Southwest State largely corresponded to the result of the trial vote:
|Voting area||Yes votes||Vote no|
|South Württemberg including Hohenzollern||91.4%||8.6%|
|Württemberg and Hohenzollern as a whole||92.8%||7.2%|
|Bathing as a whole||47.8%||52.2%|
The total turnout was 58.8%. In southern Baden it was 70.7%, in northern Baden 67.2%, in northern Württemberg 50.7% and in southern Württemberg-Hohenzollern 52.3%.
With the formation of a provisional government by the Prime Minister Reinhold Maier, elected by the constituent state assembly, on April 25, 1952, Württemberg-Hohenzollern was dissolved in the new federal state of Baden-Württemberg according to Section 11 of the Second Restructuring Act .
Within the unified federal state, the area of the former state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern formed the new administrative district of Südwürttemberg-Hohenzollern , which was transferred to the administrative district of Tübingen after the administrative reform of 1973 .
In a further judgment of May 30, 1956, the Federal Constitutional Court approved a new referendum after a lengthy process. When this was finally carried out on the basis of an amendment to Art. 29 GG of August 19, 1969 on June 7, 1970 in the Baden parts of Baden-Württemberg, a majority of 81.9% of the population confirmed the new federal state.
State building and administration
The constitution of Württemberg-Hohenzollern was drawn up from November 1946 to April 1947 on the basis of a draft by Emil Niethammer (CDU) by the Provincial Advisory Assembly . It was adopted on May 18, 1947 in a referendum with 268,701 votes in favor (69.8%) and 116,045 votes against (30.2%). It was only changed once on December 11, 1951 by a law of the state parliament and repealed by Art. 94 of the constitution of the state of Baden-Württemberg of November 11, 1953.
It contained a total of 125 articles in 14 chapters called sections. Section I regulated the form of government and state borders. Württemberg-Hohenzollern has already been designated as a member state of the "German Federal Republic", which does not yet exist. Self-government was granted to the Hohenzollern districts to the same extent as was given on January 1, 1933. Art. 3 adopted the black and red of the People's State of Württemberg as the state colors . The state coat of arms was determined by a law. Here, too, it was decided to continue the coat of arms from the people's state. In Sections II and III, which were headed The Nature and Tasks of the State and The Duties and Rights of Nationals , the fundamental rights were listed. Section IV contained in Art. 20 the principle of popular sovereignty and regulated the conditions of the state parliament, the government and the courts independent of the executive. Section V defined the State Court as a constitutional court. According to Art. 64, the President of the then still existing Higher Regional Court in Tübingen was also the chairman of the State Court of Justice. Section VI regulated legislation, Section VII governed the relationships between authorities and civil servants, and Section VIII governed finance and budget law. In Section IX, local self-government was guaranteed and regulated according to the principle of subsidiarity . The one with economic and community life overridden Section X describes Württemberg-Hohenzollern as a welfare state . Art. 93 defined the right of agriculture to state subsidies, Art. 94 made subsidizing small and medium-sized enterprises a state task. Art. 96 granted workers and salaried employees the right to co-determination , Art. 97 recognized the right to strike . Marriage and family, upbringing and the school system as well as the relationships between religious communities were regulated in Sections XI to XIII.
By law of December 11, 1951, Art. 125a was added to Section XIV (transitional and final provisions) , which extended the legislative period of the first state parliament until the union of Württemberg-Hohenzollern with Württemberg-Baden and Baden. This change was approved by the population together with the referendum on the unification of the three countries on December 9, 1951. It became necessary after the Federal Constitutional Court declared the First Federal Restructuring Act, which provided for an extension of the electoral term to March 31, 1952, to be invalid.
The state consisted of a total of 15 former Württemberg and two former Hohenzollern districts . These goods:
- District of Balingen with 45 communities and 82,320 inhabitants
- District of Biberach with 87 communities and 89,397 inhabitants
- District of Calw with 104 municipalities and 100,484 inhabitants
- District of Ehingen with 62 communities and 39,469 inhabitants
- Freudenstadt district with 50 communities and 50,759 inhabitants
- District of Hechingen with 47 communities and 43,271 inhabitants
- District of Horb with 49 municipalities and 38,838 inhabitants
- Münsingen district with 58 communities and 37,091 inhabitants
- Ravensburg district with 37 communities and 91,083 inhabitants
- District of Reutlingen with 37 communities and 121,261 inhabitants
- Rottweil district with 53 communities and 104,212 inhabitants
- Saulgau district with 89 communities and 61,393 inhabitants
- Sigmaringen district with 74 communities and 41,295 inhabitants
- Tettnang district with 13 communities and 52,368 inhabitants
- District of Tübingen with 54 communities and 100,583 inhabitants
- Tuttlingen district with 37 communities and 64,479 inhabitants
- District of Wangen with 41 municipalities and 65,631 inhabitants
All municipalities and cities were circular belonging, urban districts or county-level cities failed. An intermediate level of government districts or "Sprengeln" as in the regional churches was not provided for in the state administration. However, the regional association of the Hohenzollern Lands , which was founded in 1873, continued to exist due to the partial self-government right for Hohenzollern residents guaranteed under Art. 2 of the constitution.
The district of Lindau sent members to the consultative state assembly and until 1950 to the state parliament, but the state constitution only extended to the districts of Württemberg and Hohenzollern.
The archive files of the state parliament, the state secretariat and the Tübingen ministries are now kept in the Sigmaringen State Archives .
- Max Gögler, Gregor Richter (ed.): The state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1945–1952. Representations and memories. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen 1982, ISBN 3-7995-4045-8 .
- Frank Raberg : The protocols of the government of Württemberg-Hohenzollern. First volume. The First and Second State Secretariat Schmid 1945–1947. Edited by the Commission for historical regional studies in Baden-Württemberg, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 978-3-17-018278-3 .
- Frank Raberg: The protocols of the government of Württemberg-Hohenzollern. Second volume. The Bock cabinet 1947-1948. Edited by the Commission for historical regional studies in Baden-Württemberg, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-17-019758-9 .
- Josef Weik (edit), Landtag of Baden-Württemberg (ed.): Member of the Bundestag, the members of the Landtag in Baden-Württemberg 1946–1978 . Stuttgart 1978, ISBN 3-12-911930-2 , pp. 35-44.
- Constitutional and administrative laws (selection) of the State of Württemberg-Hohenzollern at www.verfassungen.de
- Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany 1952
- Eberhard Gönner, Günther Haselier: Baden-Württemberg. History of its countries and territories . 2nd Edition. Verlag Ploetz, Freiburg 1980, ISBN 3-87640-052-X , p. 105.
- Thomas Schnabel: Württemberg between Weimar and Bonn 1928–1945 / 46. Writings on the political geography of Baden-Württemberg. Volume 13 . Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 3-17-009155-7 , p. 587.
- Charles de Gaulle: Mémoires de la Guerre. Le salut 1944-1946. Paris 1959, p. 152.
- Hans-Joachim Harder: Military History Handbook Baden-Württemberg . Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1987, p. 135.
- Gerd Friedrich Nüske: Invasion and occupation of the Allies in 1945. In: Max Gögler, Gregor Richter (ed.): The state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1945–1952. Representations and memories. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen 1982, ISBN 3-7995-4045-8 , p. 32. There without reference to the source.
- Gerhard Hertel: The destruction of Freudenstadt. The inferno on 16./17. April 1945. Geiger-Verlag, 1984, ISBN 3-924932-02-6 .
- Volker Koop: occupied. French occupation policy in Germany. be.bra-Verlag Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-89809-064-7 .
- "Détachement Français de Gouvernement Militaire de Stuttgart"
- "Détachement Français de Gouvernement Militaire de la Région du Wurttemberg"
- Alfred D. Chandler Jr .: The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower. The War Years: IV. Baltimore / London 1970, No. 2475
- Alfred Dehlinger: Württemberg's state . Volume 1. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1951, p. 217.
- Walter Grube: Bailiffs, offices, districts in Baden-Württemberg. Volume 1. 1975, ISBN 3-17-002445-0 , p. 117.
- Alfred Dehlinger: Württemberg's state . Volume 1. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1951, p. 234.
- He used this term, for example, in his speech at the constituent meeting of the Advisory State Assembly for Württemberg-Hohenzollern .
- Gebhard Müller: Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1945 to 1952. In: Max Gögler and Gregor Richter (eds.): Das Land Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1945–1952. Representations and memories. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen 1982, ISBN 3-7995-4045-8 , pp. 13-29.
- general, denazification in Württemberg-Hohenzollern is described in: Klaus-Dietmar Henke: Political cleansing under French occupation. Denazification in Württemberg-Hohenzollern. Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-421-01999-1 .
- Theodor Eschenburg: From the beginnings of the state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern . In: Festgabe for Carlo Schmid on his 65th birthday . Tübingen 1962, p. 62.
- The basis was Ordinance No. 53 of the French High Command in Germany on the municipal elections in Württemberg, Hohenzollern and the district of Lindau - accessed on August 17, 2008
- The basis was Ordinance No. 61 of the French High Command in Germany on the elections to the district assemblies in Württemberg - accessed on August 17, 2008
- Art. 3 of Ordinance No. 66 of the French Commander-in-Chief in Germany on the formation of an advisory assembly for Württemberg - accessed on August 17, 2008
- Art. 4 of Ordinance No. 66 of the French Commander-in-Chief in Germany on the formation of an advisory assembly for Württemberg - accessed on August 17, 2008
- Articles 2 and 9 of Regulation No. 66 of the French Commander-in-Chief in Germany on the formation of a consultative assembly for Württemberg - accessed on August 17, 2008
- Art. 6 of Ordinance No. 66 of the French Commander-in-Chief in Germany on the formation of an advisory assembly for Württemberg - accessed on August 17, 2008
- Art. 8 of Ordinance No. 66 of the French Commander-in-Chief in Germany on the formation of an advisory assembly for Württemberg - accessed on August 17, 2008
- Art. 27 of Ordinance No. 66 of the French Commander-in-Chief in Germany on the formation of an advisory assembly for Württemberg - accessed on August 17, 2008
- Constitution for Württemberg-Hohenzollern - accessed on August 17, 2008
- Negotiations of the Advisory State Assembly of Württemberg-Hohenzollern 10th and 11th meeting on April 21st and 22nd, 1947
- Ordinance No. 87 - accessed on August 17, 2008 of the French High Command in Germany on referendum on the constitution and election of the members of the Landtag in the individual countries
- Result see also the results of the state elections in the Federal Republic of Germany # Landtag in Württemberg-Hohenzollern and - accessed on August 17, 2008 ( Memento from April 18, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Thomas Schnabel: Württemberg between Weimar and Bonn 1928–1945 / 46. Writings on the political geography of Baden-Württemberg. Volume 13 . Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 3-17-009155-7 , p. 599.
- Gustav von Schmoller: Württemberg-Hohenzollern under the weight of the French occupation. In: Max Gögler, Gregor Richter (ed.): The state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1945–1952. Representations and memories. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen 1982, ISBN 3-7995-4045-8 , pp. 217-232.
- Schwäbisches Tagblatt No. 90/1947 of November 11, 1947
- This is how Economics Minister Eberhard Wildermuth described it. Plenary minutes of the Landtag for Württemberg-Hohenzollern, August 6, 1948, p. 561.
- Negotiations of the Landtag of Württemberg-Hohenzollern 37th meeting on August 6, 1948, p. 564.
- The cheerful trees of freedom . In: The mirror . No. 34 , 1948, pp. 4 ( online - August 21, 1948 ).
- firstname.lastname@example.org: (Frankfurter) documents regarding the convening of a constituent national assembly, the changes to the internal German national borders and the guiding principles for an occupation statute (1948). Retrieved November 10, 2017 .
- Wording of the Koblenz resolutions - accessed on August 17, 2008 ( Memento from May 30, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Gustav von Schmoller: Württemberg-Hohenzollern under the weight of the French occupation . In: Max Gögler, Gregor Richter (ed.): The state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1945–1952. Representations and memories . Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen 1982, ISBN 3-7995-4045-8 , p. 217.
- Hans-Otto Binder : Carlo Schmid (1896–1979) . In: Reinhold Weber and Ines Mayer (eds.): Political heads from Southwest Germany. Writings on the political geography of Baden-Württemberg . Vol. 33. Published by the State Center for Political Education, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-17-018700-7 , p. 250.
- Gustav von Schmoller: The Institute for Occupation Issues in Tübingen . In: Max Gögler, Gregor Richter (ed.): The state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1945–1952. Representations and memories . Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen 1982, ISBN 3-7995-4045-8 , pp. 447-470.
- Negotiations of the Landtag of Württemberg-Hohenzollern, 62nd meeting of June 24, 1949, p. 1189.
- Wording of the Frankfurt documents - accessed on August 17, 2008 ( Memento from May 30, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Negotiation of the state parliament of Württemberg-Hohenzollern, 30th session on July 13, 1948, declaration by President Lorenz Bock.
- Wording of the Basic Law as amended on May 23, 1949. Accessed on November 10, 2017.
- Gebhard Müller: Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1945 to 1952. In: Max Gögler, Gregor Richter (ed.): Das Land Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1945-1952. Representations and memories . Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen 1982, ISBN 3-7995-4045-8 , p. 26.
- Paul Sauer: The emergence of the state of Baden-Württemberg. 1977, ISBN 3-920921-96-8 , p. 63.
- Gebhard Müller: Address on the occasion of the opening of the exhibition of the Landtag. Printed in: 25 Years of Baden-Württemberg . 1977, p. 15.
- Theodor Eschenburg: Problem der Neugliederung 1950 , p. 48 ff.
- Source: State Handbook Württemberg-Baden , published by the State Statistical Offices in Stuttgart and Karlsruhe; with the assistance of the regional statistical offices in Tübingen and Freiburg, 1950, p. 350. Illustrated in: Statistical monthly magazine Baden-Württemberg 9/2006. ( Memento of July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) p. 54, accessed on August 17, 2008 (PDF; 194 kB).
- Negotiations of the Landtag of Württemberg-Hohenzollern, 91st session on October 3, 1950, p. 1771.
- Minutes of the conference in Wildbad in the Hotel Quellenhof on October 12, 1950. State archive Sigmaringen Wü 2/223/12/13.
- Minutes of the Baden-Baden conference on November 7, 1950. State Archives Sigmaringen Wü 2/223/13/11.
- the cabinet meeting of December 18, 1950.
- Kurt Georg Kiesinger: The struggle in the Bundestag for the south-western state . In: Max Gögler, Gregor Richter (ed.): The state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1945–1952. Representations and memories . Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen 1982, ISBN 3-7995-4045-8 , pp. 405-424.
- Bundestag I / 1752.
- Bundestag I / 1849.
- Kurt Georg Kiesinger: The struggle in the Bundestag for the south-western state . In: Max Gögler, Gregor Richter (ed.): The state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1945–1952. Representations and memories . Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen 1982, ISBN 3-7995-4045-8 , p. 411.
- First law on the reorganization in the area comprising the states of Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern according to Art. 118 sentence 2 GG. Retrieved August 17, 2008.
- It was a paraphrase of the first words of the Polish national anthem “ Poland is not lost yet ”.
- Paul Feuchte: The decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court on the Southwest State Question . In: Max Gögler, Gregor Richter (ed.): The state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1945–1952. Representations and memories . Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen 1982, ISBN 3-7995-4045-8 , pp. 425-437.
- Decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court BVerfGE 1.14. Retrieved August 17, 2008.
- Map with the election results in the individual districts. Retrieved August 17, 2008.
- Decisions of the Federal Constitutional Court BVerfGE 5.34. Retrieved August 17, 2008.
- 25. Law amending the Basic Law of August 19, 1969, Federal Law Gazette I, p. 1241.
- The design was regulated in the law on the self-government of the Hohenzollerische Lande of September 7, 1950, accessed on August 17, 2008 .
- Another basis of the State Court was the law on the State Court of January 11, 1948 - accessed on August 17, 2008 .
- First law on reorganization in the areas comprising the states of Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern according to Art. 118 sentence 2 GG in full - accessed on August 17, 2008
- September 13, 1950
- without the Münsingen manor district
- including Achberg
- without Achberg
- For more information, see the law on the self-government of the Hohenzollerische Lande - accessed on August 17, 2008
- Ordinance No. 88 of the French Commander-in-Chief in Germany concerning the representation of the Lindau district in the state parliament of Württemberg - accessed on October 22, 2010
- Annex to the constitution of Württemberg-Hohenzollern
- Ute Korn-Amann: Württemberg-Hohenzollern. Protocols tell of the beginnings. In: Schwäbische Zeitung from April 16, 2009