Lauffen am Neckar
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Stuttgart|
|Height :||175 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||22.63 km 2|
|Residents:||11,640 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||514 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||74348|
|Area code :||07133|
|License plate :||HN|
|Community key :||08 1 25 056|
|LOCODE :||DE LFN|
City administration address :
74348 Lauffen am Neckar
|Mayor :||Klaus-Peter Waldenberger (independent)|
|Location of the city of Lauffen am Neckar in the Heilbronn district|
Lauffen am Neckar is a town in the district of Heilbronn , Baden-Württemberg . Lauffen is known as the birthplace of the poet Friedrich Hölderlin and as the second largest wine-growing community in Württemberg.
Lauffen is located in the southern district of Heilbronn, around 9 km south of the district town of Heilbronn and around 30 km north of the state capital Stuttgart , on the Neckar , into which the Zaber flows here. The Neckar, which flows in a northerly direction, was once forced by a rock ridge to form a large, almost ring-shaped loop towards the west. Due to the erosive forces of the water, the rock became in the period 400 to 100 BC. Chr. Broken through. The Neckar flowed through the created gap at high speed over many rapids and whirlpools . On this run (contained in the 20th century by channeling) of the river of the city name comes from. The former river bed in the Westschleife is now dry. In the northern part, the Zaber flows for a few kilometers in the former Neckar loop up to its confluence with the Neckar. The old river bed is bordered by a ring-shaped hill, the slope of which is partly covered by the Kaywald, partly used for viticulture .
In the center of the old Neckar loop, west of the current course of the river, there is a hill that was separated from its counterpart on today's eastern bank by the Neckar breakthrough . Lauffen was founded on the foothills of this hill directly on the Neckar (today the location of the Regiswindiskirche ), the later so-called Lauffen-Dorf district is mostly located on this hill. At the Neckar breakthrough there is an island on which the former count's castle with today's town hall is located; the rest of the island is under conservation. The Lauffen-Stadt district, founded at a later date, is located on a hill east of the Neckar, the counterpart to the hill in the west . Both parts of the city are connected with the Neckar Bridge , from Lauffen-Stadt another bridge leads to the Rathausinsel. To the west of the Neckar and north of Dorf and Zaber there was once a Dominican convent from which another settlement center, also known as the “Dörfle”, developed.
A Lauffen exclave , the approximately 153 hectare city forest Etzlensendung (near the place of the same name ), is located 13 to 15.5 kilometers further east in the Löwenstein Mountains . The forest was probably assigned to the city of Lauffen by its founders around the year 1200, as the city, unlike the village, had hardly any forest in its area, but needed construction and firewood.
Neighboring cities and communities in Lauffen are ( clockwise , starting in the west): Brackenheim , Nordheim , Heilbronn ( urban district ), Talheim , Ilsfeld , Neckarwestheim and Kirchheim am Neckar ( district of Ludwigsburg ). The exclave Stadtwald Etzlensendung lies between (from the west) Abstatt , Untergruppenbach , Löwenstein and Beilstein . With the exception of Heilbronn and Kirchheim, all neighboring towns are part of the Heilbronn district. Lauffen has entered into an agreed administrative partnership with Neckarwestheim and Nordheim .
The city of Lauffen am Neckar consisted of the two sub-communities Lauffen-Dorf (left of the Neckar) and Lauffen-Stadt (right of the Neckar) until April 1, 1914 , which were canceled on this date. The farms Landturm (which go back to the Lauffener Landturm at the Württemberg Landgraben ), Bortental, Renngrund, Rieder, Rotenberg, Siegersgrund and Wannenberg also belong to Lauffen. Places on the Lauffen markings that have been removed, i.e. no longer exist, are Auen, Hofstatt, Hohfeld, Jungeheim, Konsten (or Konstheim), Osterhofen and Raitern. The earlier places "zu Brücken" and Talhofen merged into Lauffen-Dorf.
Division of space
According to data from the State Statistical Office , as of 2014.
Prehistory and early history
With over 100 prehistoric and early historical sites, Lauffen is one of the richest places in northern Württemberg. The oldest traces of settlement found in Lauffener district date from the older Neolithic Age (around 5000–3500 BC): Shards from the younger band ceramics originate from a settlement of the loess-covered plateau north of the village. Numerous finds date from the Rössen and Michelsberg cultures as well as from the Bronze and Urnfield Ages.
The Celts settled in the Hallstatt and in the early La Tène period in various places on the Lauffener Markung. As elsewhere in the central Neckar region, the settlement density in the area around Lauffen seems to have decreased with the Celtic migration to the south in the middle and late Latène period. Around 85 AD, the area around Lauffen came under the Roman sphere of influence . The border road of the Neckar-Odenwald-Limes probably ran between the forts Walheim and Heilbronn-Böckingen over the Lauffen area, but its location has not been clarified. At the latest with the expansion of the Roman sphere of influence by the Upper German-Raetian Limes in the middle of the 2nd century, a dense Roman settlement began around Lauffen as in the entire central Neckar area. A Roman manor in Gewann Brunnenäcker dates from this time , which was discovered in 1978 during land consolidation , fully researched and preserved. In total, finds suggest at least twelve villae rusticae in the Lauffen district. At the latest with the abandonment of the Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes around 259/260, the Romans left their settlements around Lauffen.
There are numerous archaeological references to an early male settlement in the area in the 4th to 5th centuries. Outstanding are the graves of a girl from the middle of the 4th century and a woman from the second half of the same century, discovered near the Roman estate. The rich grave decorations identify them as members of a higher class. A total of six Alemannic or Franconian row graves that were found date from the 6th century , four of which are concentrated in a circle around Lauffen village. They provide the earliest evidence of the founding of the town of Lauffen.
9th to 11th century, origin of the name
The Franks built a royal estate with St. Martin's Church in Lauffen, the ownership of which changed several times between the prince and the church. A document from the year 823 mentions this "church in Neckargau, which was built in the Villa Hlauppa in honor of St. Martin".
The name Hlauppa (later: Lauffa , Laufen , Lauffen) , mentioned for the first time, is typical for places near rapids or waterfalls . The temporary Neckar rapids near Lauffen came into being when the river broke the meander neck of the great loop of the river and thus shortened its course.
After Regiswindislegende emperor gave Louis the Pious the still unpaved place 832 to his son Ernst , Margrave of Upper Palatinate Nordgau to feud , with the requirement to design the inhospitable place worthy as the Emperor thought to hunt there. The earliest cultivation of the Neckar slopes and the oldest construction of a castle go back to Ernst . However, the Count's daughter, Regiswindis, was killed by her wet nurse in childhood and the body thrown into the Neckar, whereupon Margrave Ernst withdrew to his ancestral district in the Upper Palatinate, so that Lauffen before the end of the tenure and before the death of the Count from 861 it was again directly under the control of the emperor. In the years 889, 923 and 993 various German emperors transferred control of the place to the diocese of Würzburg . In 1003, King Henry II spoke out in favor of founding a monastery in the now fortified place.
High Middle Ages
From the 11th century the Frankish Counts of Lauffen , who were connected to the diocese of Worms , appeared. This dynasty of counts built the moated castle at the beginning of the 11th century and cut off the eastern rock from the bank. In addition, they probably created the basis for the town of Lauffen on the right bank of the Neckar at the beginning of the 13th century. With the death of Boppo (V.) 1216–1219, the Counts of Lauffen died out, and the city immediately fell into the possession of the Staufer King Friedrich II.
From a document issued by Emperor Friedrich II in Apricena in 1234 , it can be deduced that Loufen was handed over to Margrave Hermann V of Baden as a pledge before 1220 and was already a town (civitas) at that time . The Margraves of Baden appointed bailiffs as administrators of the city. In 1227 a church was built, which was consecrated to the now canonized Regiswindis and replaced a chapel that already existed there. Due to the entangled kinship and pledge relationships of the aristocratic families at the time, the bailiff changed over the place several times and passed, among other things, to the Lords of Teck . In 1327 Lauffen was pledged to Württemberg . In 1346 Knight Albrecht (called Hofwarth ) von Lauffen acquired the town and the castle from the margraves of Baden for 3,000 pounds sterling. However, in 1361 he sold his property back to Count Eberhard von Württemberg and his brother Ulrich for double the sum . In view of the nearby imperial city of Heilbronn, the Württemberg lords demanded a voluntary commitment from the residents to be loyalty to Württemberg in 1383.
Late Middle Ages and Peasants' War
The 15th century in Lauffen was marked by disputes over the complicated fishing and tithe rights , which lay with a large number of owners. In 1454 the Lauffener See was laid out under Count Ulrich . In 1460 the Count's troops had to take action in a skirmish near Wüstenhausen against Palatinate troops who wanted to gain a share in the Neckar fishery and Neckarzoll. It was not until 1461 that Count Palatine Friedrich undertook to refrain from attacking various places in Württemberg. In 1469 a treaty between the Palatinate and Württemberg settled the customs disputes over the timber transported on the Murr .
In 1474, under Count Ulrich, the first Neckar bridge was built near Lauffen; the entire river tariff fell on Lauffen. The bridge remained the only Neckar bridge between Cannstatt and Heilbronn for 144 years . It was destroyed in a flood in 1529 and rebuilt in 1532. In 1480 a town hall was built and a weekly market was set up. In 1482, 1,300 residents of Lauffen fell victim to the plague .
During the Peasants' War , the field between Lauffen and Gemmrigheim became the camp of an 8,000-strong peasant army when, in mid-April 1525, the Wunnenstein farmers under Matern Feuerbacher united with the Stocksberger heap under Hans Wunderer and the heap around Jäcklein Rohrbach . In view of this overwhelming power, the council of Lauffen showed solidarity with the farmers, whereupon only the monastery was plundered.
On May 13, 1534, the almost 11,000 strong Austrian troops in the battle of Lauffen were defeated by the 25,000 men of the Hessian army, whereby the temporarily expelled Duke Ulrich regained power over Württemberg. During the Schmalkaldic War , Lauffen was occupied by Spanish troops for over a year around 1547.
In 1564 the plague raged again and claimed around 800 victims. The years 1606, 1607 and 1626 were also marked by the plague, albeit with fewer victims.
Thirty Years' War
During the Thirty Years War Lauffen was often the scene of battles and troop movements. The Neckar Bridge as well as the shallow depth of the river near the Wurmberg gave Lauffen an important strategic importance. In April 1622, large troop formations of Duke Wilhelm von Sachsen-Weimar and Margrave Georg Friedrich von Baden gathered at the Neckar Bridge to face the imperial troops they encountered at the beginning of May at the Battle of Wimpfen . After the defeat at Wimpfen , two margravial companies and numerous farmers from Neckargartach sought refuge in Lauffen. The city was spared from major fighting for several years, but then it suffered for almost 20 years.
In 1629 imperial troops marched through the city, in 1631 Lorraine troops. In September 1634 Lauffen was first sacked by Croatian troops, two days later imperial troops moved in again. In November 1634, the last 16 head of cattle in the city were confiscated by the Pistumbian regiment . At Christmas 1634 Lauffen was quartered for three weeks for five passing regiments. At Pentecost 1635 the seized Mühlheimische Cuirassier regiment the entire winter crop. The city was already so emaciated that there was a famine that killed almost 800 people.
In 1636 a colonel Lissaw and his cuirassier regiment sacked the city. In the autumn of 1637, first a Salian cavalry regiment, then the Speerreuter cavalry regiment attacked the city, so that in winter there was again famine, in which over 200 people died. In 1638 Lauffen was initially responsible for catering for a Parian company, in May the city was again ravaged by imperial troops, and also in September. In autumn two cavalry regiments plundered the harvest, at the beginning of December three cavalry regiments ravaged the city, and at Christmas 1638 the imperial general staff occupied the city. At the end of 1638 the population of the town and village of Lauffen had shrunk to only about 30 people. In 1639 Lauffen was occupied several times by troops.
The years 1640 to 1642 were comparatively calm. In 1643 French Weimar dragoons occupied the castle, in their wake two more regiments and then the entire French general staff moved into the city. The so-called Weimar occupation ended in May 1643 after a three-day battle with a Bavarian army under Colonel Count Fugger . In 1644 Lauffen was the winter quarters of the Blauveavischen Regiment for five months , in 1645 the city was again excessively looted by French and Hessian troops. The Bavarian troops who then moved back in could almost no longer be fed, as there was simply nothing left to eat in the city apart from some new wine, cabbage and beets. In 1646, Swedish troops joined the billeted Bavarians and extensive defenses (entrenchments) were built. After the armistice between France and Bavaria in 1647, the defenses were razed again. Instead of the Bavarians who had withdrawn, a Weimar cavalry company set up their winter quarters in Lauffen. When the armistice was lifted, a French occupation force moved into Lauffen and built defensive structures again, which were no longer needed due to the peace treaty of 1648 . Even after the end of the war, wandering troops took up quarters in Lauffen several times.
At the end of the Thirty Years War the population was 155 people. The upper lock was destroyed, the lower one badly damaged. The town church was badly damaged, 270 houses were destroyed, 452 acres of vineyards, 1,239 acres of fields and 50 acres of meadows were devastated.
Period of the French Wars
As the political situation in the second half of the 17th century was far from stable, drove Duke Eberhard 1672 the expansion of the fortifications of Lauffen forward to, with whipped bridge parapets to be so on guard against a French attack. Only a few years after the devastating Thirty Years War, Lauffen was again the scene of marches. In 1674 the army of the Elector of Brandenburg crossed the Neckar in the direction of Strasbourg . It was followed by the Lüneburg-Zell army. When these troops marched back, the Brandenburg headquarters was in Ilsfeld . In May 1675 the imperial army , coming from the Netherlands , crossed the Neckar near Lauffen. In 1676 the city was the winter quarters of an imperial cuirassier regiment, and in 1679 a Lorraine cavalry company. In 1688 the French were again in the city, confiscated all the horses and destroyed the Neckar Bridge. In the following ten years there were numerous battles and occupations, crops were again plundered and usable areas destroyed. The population, which had recovered in the years between the wars, fell again to 210 people in 1697.
The 18th century was also marked by military action. In 1704 the Dutch-English cavalry crossed the Neckar near Lauffen, in 1707 2000 French riders visited the place twice. In 1709 a cuirassier regiment from Kürnbach took up residence in Lauffen.
Over 100 years after the beginning of the Thirty Years' War, the city began to gradually recover from the damage. In 1721 the town hall was renovated, in 1724 the Neckar bridge, which had been poorly restored in 1693, was converted into a covered suspension bridge. In 1728 a night watch was formed to protect against the nightly thefts and murders that were frequent at the time.
In 1744 the imperial Bavarian army under Field Marshal von Seckendorff moved through Lauffen and besieged the city for two weeks, in 1745 the French followed again. Further billeting of troops from Wimpfen and Anhalt were added.
Towards the end of the 18th century, because of its strategically important location, Lauffen again became the focus of armed conflicts. In July 1796, imperial artillery arrived in Lauffen and Talheim with large quantities of ammunition . In 1799 the Austrian infantry withdrew from Heilbronn to Lauffen, where Duke Friedrich von Württemberg had already sent large units of troops to protect against the French advancing from the Rhine. The French, who visited Heilbronn three times alone in 1799, succeeded in taking Lauffen again in the course of the fighting, setting fire to houses, looting and taking hostages.
Two years after the founding of the Kingdom of Württemberg , the Oberamt Lauffen was dissolved in 1808. Lauffen came to the Oberamt Besigheim . The Neckar Bridge was renovated again in 1810, the wooden components were replaced by stone. In 1817 the community acquired the Neckarinsel and used the building on it as a town hall.
The 19th century in Lauffen was all about the cultivation of the soil. In 1820 the lake was drained. The inhabitants lost a rich source of food as a result, but also the cause of many febrile diseases. 200 acres of new farmland were created. Viticulture flourished when unprofitable varieties were abandoned and mainly the high-yielding Clevener was cultivated. The city planted more than 2000 fruit trees on community land as well as numerous willow bushes along the Neckar.
On July 25, 1848, Lauffen received a connection to the route network of the Württemberg State Railways by extending the northern line from Bietigheim to Heilbronn . After a fire on October 14, 1861, a volunteer fire brigade was founded on November 19. In 1893 the second tube of the Kirchheim tunnel was completed and opened in 1894 as part of the double-track expansion of the northern railway between Bietigheim and Heilbronn .
The world's first long-distance transmission of alternating current began in Lauffen am Neckar : Michail von Dolivo-Dobrowolsky and Oskar von Miller constructed a three-phase high-voltage transmission for the International Electrotechnical Exhibition in Frankfurt am Main in 1891 . For this purpose, a three-phase generator (manufacturer: Maschinenfabrik Oerlikon ) was installed in the Lauffen cement works and a 176-kilometer overhead line was built to Frankfurt am Main. This was put into operation on August 24, 1891, and from August 25, 1891 at 12 noon, 1000 light bulbs were operated with the electricity transmitted from Lauffen. The central part of the entrance gate to the exhibition, which was filled with incandescent lamps, was spanned by an arcade arched with the inscription “Power transmission Lauffen – Frankfurt 175 km”. At the same time an approx. Six meter high artificial waterfall was operated. After the exhibition ended, the three-phase generator continued to be transmitted to Heilbronn, which made it the first city in the world to receive a remote power supply. The name of the local energy supply company ZEAG (short for Zementwerk Lauffen - Elektrizitätswerk Heilbronn AG) still reminds of this today .
In 1914 the sub-communities Lauffen-Stadt and Lauffen-Dorf were abolished. To commemorate this step, the new municipal council planted a linden tree on the terrace garden in front of the Grafenburg, which is opposite an older specimen at the Regiswindiskirche on the other bank of the Neckar. Both linden trees are meant to symbolize unity.
189 soldiers did not return from the First World War . In their honor, a war memorial was erected at the town hall in 1922 , which was demolished again in 1949, on the one hand because it stood in the way of the canal construction, on the other hand, to unite the name plaques with the fallen of the Second World War in the walls of the old cemetery. It was not until 2004 that the central pillar of the memorial was rearranged at almost the same location. The former round building with Gothic arcades surrounding the column is now indicated by low concrete elements.
In the mid-1930s, the canalization of the Neckar near Lauffen began. The new canal made the rock on which the count's castle stands an island again. At times, the rock was connected to the Städtle via the Mühlgraben, which was artificially built up in modern times, and the Neckar flowed over a laid rapids in front of the rock and Neckar bridge (see map of the village and town of Lauffen 1832/1833) . The first commercially used three-phase power plant had to give way to the construction of canals in addition to several houses. In the immediate vicinity, Oskar-von-Miller-Straße (western access road to the cement works) is a reminder of its former location. Since then, electrical energy has been generated upstream at the weir. The original generator can be viewed in the Deutsches Museum .
Also in the mid-1930s, a field railway was built between the Lauffen cement works and the Neckarwestheim quarry on the site of today's Neckarwestheim nuclear power station along the right bank of the Neckar. The narrow-gauge line was 4.5 kilometers long and had a track width of 600 millimeters, it was initially operated with diesel locomotives and electrified in 1972. Until it was shut down in January 1984, it transported limestone several times a day to Lauffen for further processing. Today the cement works receives the clinker directly by ship, the track systems have been dismantled and converted into a hiking trail. The former diesel locomotive is now in a playground near the old Neckar bridge, right next to the former route. The former electric locomotive is preserved in a Dutch museum.
From 1935 to 1938 the Neckar-Enz position was built between Eberbach and Unterriexingen as a line of defense against a possible attack from the west. Eleven bunkers were built in the Lauffen area, but they had no influence on the end of the war in Lauffen.
During the Second World War, Lauffen experienced a total of 37 air raids, in which a total of 99 residents lost their lives - partly due to its proximity to the Brazilian mock facility , a mock-up of Stuttgart's main train station. On April 13, 1944, a bomber formation of the Allies, the result of closed cloud cover both the main objective Nuremberg as well as the alternative destination Stuttgart without having achieved anything was on the return flight, from a single warplane army attacked and so forced to jettison. The damage and losses caused by the bombs that were not aimed and, in some cases, not armed were mild for Lauffen; most of them fell on fields or in the Neckar; Sonnenstrasse, Brückenstrasse, the old cemetery, the immediate vicinity of the cement works and St. Martin's Church were hit. 59 people, including forced laborers, were killed. The mayor at the time was criticized for not setting off an air raid alarm . The next alternative destinations for the bomber association would have been North Württemberg, Hesse or the Ruhr area. The bombardment on Lauffen can thus be seen as a pawn sacrifice in favor of a metropolitan area.
Since Lauffen had become part of the American zone of occupation , the city had belonged to the newly founded state of Württemberg-Baden since 1945 , which was merged into the current state of Baden-Württemberg in 1952.
On June 20, 1959, during the Lauffen bus accident, a regular bus on behalf of the German Federal Railroad collided with the Tübingen – Stuttgart – Würzburg express train at the former level crossing at Post 47 in Lauffen am Neckar. In what was the worst bus accident to date after the war, a total of 45 people died. 27 other people were seriously injured. The cause was human error on the part of the gatekeeper . A memorial stone on site reminds of the serious accident. Today there is an underpass at this point .
After the battle of Lauffen in 1534, it was the first city in Württemberg to introduce the Reformation . The first Protestant pastor Hieronymus Hailbrunner is mentioned in 1546, but probably worked in Lauffen earlier. The Slovenian reformer Primož Trubar lived in Lauffen for a year from 1565, where he took over the parish and translated the psalms into Slovenian. Since the Reformation the city has been predominantly evangelical. A Roman Catholic parish has only existed again since 1946; she was able to inaugurate the parish church of St. Paul in 1976 .
The Protestant parish of Lauffen has around 6,000 members, the Catholic parish of Lauffen around 3,000 (including around 500 in Neckarwestheim). The New Apostolic Church also has a congregation in Lauffen, which initially had 136 members in 2007, and then 210 after merging with the New Apostolic church in Neckarwestheim in July 2007.
The last municipal council election on May 26, 2019 brought the following result:
|FWV 1||5 seats||(20.60%)|
1 FW Lauffen
Another member of the council and its chairman is the mayor.
Klaus-Peter Waldenberger has been mayor of Lauffen am Neckar since 1999 and was re-elected for a third term in April 2015.
badges and flags
Blazon : "In silver a running messenger ('runner') dressed in green with a red feather on a green hat and red shoes, holding a silver letter with a red seal in his raised right hand, shouldering a red-stocked spear with a blue tip in his left hand."
The city colors are green and white.
|Foundation of the coat of arms: The earliest known coat of arms of the city of Lauffen can be found on a seal from 1293. It was probably engraved in the last third of the 13th century and shows a halved imperial eagle as an indication of the owner at the time. After the city was completely transferred to Baden, the Baden coat of arms appeared for the first time in a Lauffen seal in 1311 . For the first time in 1464, the current talking coat of arms is documented in a seal. Drawings this coat of arms in natural colors have been preserved since 1575, the shield base sometimes golden instead of silver tinged was.|
Based on the coat of arms, the city of Lauffen uses an L with a stylized messenger as a logo.
Depiction by David Wolleber from the 16th century
Lauffen coat of arms in Johann Siebmacher's coat of arms book from 1605
Lauffen maintains partnerships with the municipality of La Ferté-Bernard in the Sarthe department in France (since 1974) and with the city of Meuselwitz in the Altenburger Land district , Thuringia (since 1990).
Culture and sights
Numerous architectural monuments have been preserved in Lauffen. The historic town of Lauffen City and the old Lauffen village stand as since 1984 overall plant conservation.
- The Lauffener Rathaus is a former castle of the Counts of Lauffen , which was built in the 11th century, destroyed in the Thirty Years War and rebuilt after 1648 as the seat of the governor, whereby the Romanesque keep was preserved. The complex has served as the town hall since 1817 and has been rebuilt several times since then. The Lauffen war memorial is located near the town hall. It was erected in 1922 for the 189 local victims of the First World War, but demolished in 1949 when the Neckar Canal was built and rebuilt in fragmentary form in 2004.
- The Regiswindis Church was built in its current form in the 16th century after a fire. Predecessor buildings go back to the year 741 (Martinskirche), there has been a building consecrated to Regiswindis since 1227 . On the outside of the choir, a fragmentary mount of olives by Hans Seyfer around 1507 has been preserved.
- Next to the Regiswindis Church is the Regiswindis Chapel, a cemetery chapel originally dedicated to Saint Anne , in which the sarcophagus of the local saints made in 1227 is located.
- In the center of Lauffen-Dorf there are numerous historical buildings, including baroque residential buildings from the 18th century and the historical complex on Kirchberg with an old bakery. On the edge of the Kirchberg runs the curious Grabengasse , the moat of the former castle, which was now covered with half-timbered buildings and around the church, through which motorized traffic once flowed.
- Also worth seeing is the largely well-preserved, traffic-calmed district of Städtle , mostly with half-timbered buildings that date back to the 15th century. The old wine press , originally planned as a castle , the oriel house , the Vogtshof , the Gasthaus Sonne and the city wall with the old Heilbronner gate from the 13th century, the new Heilbronner gate from 1772 and the old prison should be emphasized .
- The so-called Martin's Church in Lauffen-Stadt , which has been mistakenly called since the middle of the 19th century, was originally a St. Nicholas' Chapel, which was built around 1200. It was not an independent church, it was looked after by pastors from the village. After the introduction of the Reformation, the chapel fell into disrepair and served as a hay and oat shed. It was renovated in 1883/84, badly damaged in World War II, and renovated again in 1949 and 1977/78. The single-nave chapel has been used again for church services since 1978. During the renovation in 1977/78, several layers of wall paintings were exposed in the choir .
- In the monastery courtyard there is the rebuilt monastery church, a lapidarium with several old boundary stones and a Hölderlin memorial. In the vicinity of the cloister courtyard are Friedrich Hölderlin's parents' house and a half-timbered building that goes back to a historic mill.
- The Lauffener Villa rustica , which was excavated in 1978 and partially restored, is located on the road to Ilsfeld . Also on the road to Ilsfeld, remains of the Württemberg land moat have been preserved, to which the Land Tower, a former customs post, also belongs.
- The Lauffen barrage in the Neckar is located in the urban area .
The municipal museum in the cloister courtyard shows u. a. archaeological finds from Lauffen as well as an exhibition on Friedrich Hölderlin. The history of the count's castle is documented in the castle museum in the town hall.
The mobile cinema and the Lauffen film club regularly show films in the town hall and in the auditorium of the Hölderlin grammar school .
The first cinema in Lauffen opened in 1927 under the name Filmbühne at Stuttgarter Strasse 4. In 1952, the Filmbühne moved to the 7 Postplatz building. In 1969 the cinema had to give up in the wake of the general death of the cinema. In the former premises of the Filmbühne at Stuttgarter Strasse 4, there was another cinema, the Lichtburg , from 1954 to the end of the 1960s .
Guest performances by the Badische Landesbühne Bruchsal and the Württembergische Landesbühne Esslingen take place regularly in Lauffen . The Städtlesbühne in the old Vogtshof in Lauffen-Stadt has offered amateur dialect theater around 15 times per season since 1994.
Sports and sports facilities
Since 2012 there has been a "Dirtpark" course for off-road bikes in Lauffen am Forchenwald. He is looked after by the ski club of the Turnverein Lauffen.
The Lauffen Children's Festival goes back to the Lauffen May Day , which has been documented since 1652 .
Economy and Infrastructure
With 585 hectares of planted vineyards (status: 2010), of which over 90% are red grape varieties , Lauffen is now in second place among the wine-growing communities in the Württemberg wine-growing region . Measured by the proportion of vineyards in the total area of land (25.9%), Lauffen is the municipality with the most intensive viticulture in Württemberg.
The Lauffener documents belonging to the United Church location vineyard in the area Württembergisch lowlands of the wine-growing region Württemberg . The locally dominant variety with a share of 60% is the black Riesling , followed by Samtrot (9%) and Trollinger (6%).
Lauffen is one of the few wine-growing areas that has twice provided the Württemberg wine queen (Ilse Eberbach 1972 and Karoline Rembold 1984).
The Lauffener Weingärtnergenossenschaft was founded in 1935 and with sales of approx. 6 million liters and an annual turnover of approx. 22 million euros is one of the largest and also one of the best quality winegrowers' cooperatives in Württemberg . The cooperative has around 600 members and the vineyard area is around 570 hectares. The quality wines sold under the name Katzenbeißer are best known .
The Lauffener station is located at the Franconia Railway from Stuttgart to Würzburg. There are connections with regional trains to Stuttgart and Neckarsulm or Osterburken approximately every half hour . In the outskirts of the day, RE trains on the Stuttgart-Würzburg line also stop in Lauffen.
Until 1995 Lauffen was the starting point of the Zabergäubahn to Leonbronn , passenger traffic on the route was stopped in 1986. Drafted plans to reactivate the line to Zaberfeld as part of the Heilbronn light rail network by 2011 have not been pursued since 2006 due to a lack of financial resources.
Lauffen is connected to the national road network by federal highway 27 . The next motorway junction to the A 81 is in Ilsfeld, nine kilometers from Lauffen. However, those who are familiar with the area prefer the Mundelsheim junction to the south and the Untereisesheim junction to the west , as Ilsfeld means a detour in both cases and thus sections at risk of congestion can be bypassed.
The Schunk company , the world market leader in segments of clamping and gripping technology, is well-known nationwide . The company employs more than 2500 people worldwide, including around 800 in Lauffen and 470 in the neighboring town of Hausen an der Zaber . The Rensch organ building company is also well-known nationwide . The cement plant , which has existed since the 19th century, belonged to ZEAG until 2003 , and since then to the Märker Group .
Supply and disposal
For gas and water supply and the sanitation of the city Lauffen in 1973 from a local founded Eigenbetrieb out Stadtwerke Lauffen. The city of Lauffen is currently the sole shareholder of the GmbH. Heilbronnerversorgung GmbH was entrusted with the operational management .
Lauffen receives all of its drinking water from the Lake Constance water supply . The neighboring town of Brackenheim maintains a well in the Lauffener Gewann Mittelwiesen on the lower reaches of the Zaber, from which most of Brackenheim's districts are supplied.
Lauffen has been operating its own wastewater treatment plant since 1964 to purify wastewater. It lies on the Neckar below the mouth of the Zaber.
The daily newspaper Heilbronner Demokratie reported on the events in Lauffen am Neckar in its edition W, Landkreis West and the official journal Lauffener Bote .
In Lauffen there is a notary's office and a police station that is responsible for the southwestern district of Heilbronn and the Leintal west of the city of Heilbronn. Fire protection, flood control and accident assistance is provided by the Lauffen volunteer fire brigade, founded in 1861, with around 100 active fire fighters. In addition, an ambulance from the Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Heilbronn-Franken is permanently stationed in Lauffen. The modernized outdoor pool Ulrichsheide was reopened in 1995.
In addition to the municipal kindergartens ( Städtle , Herrenäcker , Brombeerweg, Herdegenstraße, Charlottenstraße and Karlstraße ), the city also offers a crèche for children from the age of 12 months in several kindergartens ( Charlottenstraße , Brombeerweg and Herdegenstraße) . There is also the Evangelical Senfkorn kindergarten with attached crèche, the Catholic St. Paulus kindergarten and the Regiswindis Waldorf kindergarten .
Lauffen has become a school center for the surrounding towns (Nordheim, Nordhausen, Hausen , Meimsheim, Neckarwestheim, Talheim and Kirchheim ). The city is home to the Duke Ulrich - elementary school , the Hölderlin Elementary School, the Hölderlin- Werkrealschule that Hölderlin secondary school , the Hölderlin-Gymnasium , the Erich Kaestner -Schule ( special school ) and the Kaywald School (county special school ). The Unterland Adult Education Center also has a branch in Lauffen.
There is a Catholic public library in Lauffen with a stock of 17,500 media.
Explanatory information boards are set up at historically relevant places in Lauffen.
Lauffen is located on the Württemberger Weinstrasse , which passes many interesting tourist spots.
The city is a member of the HeilbronnerLand tourism association and Neckar-Zaber tourism.
The city of Lauffen has granted the following people honorary citizenship:
- 1994: Gotthilf Link (born October 19, 1926 in Lauffen am Neckar; † January 30, 2009 there), farmer , winemaker , politician (CDU), member of the state parliament from 1972 to 1988
- 2012: Heinz-Dieter Schunk (born January 10, 1942 in Lauffen am Neckar), Managing Director of Schunk GmbH & Co. KG
sons and daughters of the town
- Regiswindis (around 832 – around 839), local saint
- Johann Friedrich Zeller (1769–1846), first senior magistrate in the Heilbronn district office
- Friedrich Hölderlin (1770–1843), important poet
- August Seyffer (1774–1845), engraver, draftsman and painter
- Ernst Eberhard Friedrich von Seyffer (1781–1856), head of the royal Württemberg building and gardening directorate
- Johann Christoph (von) Herdegen (1787–1861), civil servant , politician and finance minister of the Kingdom of Württemberg
- Heinrich Volz (1791–1879), agriculture teacher and director of the Hohenheim Agricultural Academy
- Johann Friedrich Mayer (1798–1863), mayor, notary and politician
- Heinrich Schneider (1801–1871), Oberamtmann of Württemberg, member of the state parliament
- Louis Link (1827–1889), councilor in Heilbronn
- Gustav Nick (1837–1904), librarian
- Friedrich Specht (1839–1909), animal painter , sculptor and lithographer
- August Specht (1849–1923), animal painter
- Otto Gittinger (1861–1939), Protestant pastor and Swabian dialect poet
- Eugen Gradmann (1863–1927), pastor and regional historian
- Theodor Christian Körner (1863–1933), businessman , entrepreneur and politician
- Robert Gradmann (1865–1950), pastor, geographer , botanist and regional historian
- Friedrich Bidlingmaier (1875–1914), geophysicist and meteorologist
- Maria Bidlingmaier (1882–1917), political scientist
- Gustav Allinger (1891–1974), landscape architect
- Fritz Köhler (1903–1962), roofer, fire brigade commander and politician (SPD)
- Adolf Mauk (1906–1983), politician of the FDP / DVP
- Max Breitenöder (1909–1967), hydraulic engineer
- Johanna ("Hanne") Schiefer (1914–2010), countrywoman
- Armin Clauss (* 1938), postal worker, trade unionist and politician (SPD)
- Gerhard Ullmann (* 1947), author of books for children and young people
- Uta Ullmann-Iseran (* 1947), children's and youth author
- Beate Ego (* 1958), theologian
- Klaus Graf (* 1964), jazz saxophonist
- Alexander Bayer (* 1964), theologian and sacred songwriter
- Udo Riglewski (* 1966), tennis player
- Uwe Wagschal (* 1966), political scientist
- Holger Walter (* 1968), sculptor
- Mehmet Yilmaz (* 1970), actor
- Markus Lang (* 1976), soccer coach and former player
Other personalities associated with Lauffen
- Emil Feucht (1910–2000), businessman, city councilor and member of the state parliament
- Ulrich Eimüllner (* 1949), organizer of the ATP Challenger Heilbronn , lives in Lauffen
- Stefan Krebs (* 1962), representative of the state government for information technology, first CIO / CDO of the state of Baden-Württemberg, has lived in Lauffen since 1995 www.cio-bw.de
- Markus Herrera Torrez (* 1988), Lord Mayor of Wertheim , grew up in Lauffen and was a member of the municipal council from 2009 to 2016
- Karl Klunzinger : History of the city of running on the Neckar . Bissinger, Magstadt 1980, ISBN 3-7644-0098-6 (1st reprint edition, reprint of the edition by Cast, Stuttgart 1846).
- Homeland book on the occasion of the city festival 1984 . City of Lauffen a. N., Lauffen a. N. 1984.
- Ulrich Böhner: City of Lauffen am Neckar, historical city guide . Revised, corrected and expanded new version by Bernhard Plieninger u. a. (2003) edition. Walter, Brackenheim-Hausen 1998 ( lauffen.de [PDF; 302 kB ]).
- Hans Walter (Ed.): Lauffen am Neckar. Color picture tape . Walter, Brackenheim.
- Norbert Hofmann, Andrea Neth, Nicolai Knauer: The village. Lauffen's small district. A contribution to the city history of Lauffen a. N. Heimatverein Gesellschaft Alt-Lauffen, Lauffen a. N. 2009.
- Lauffener Heimatblätter . Heimatverein Gesellschaft Alt-Lauffen, Lauffen a. N. (Issues 1 (December 1991) -23 (October 2008)).
- Alois Schneider, Norbert Hofmann, Andrea Neth, Uwe Gross: Archaeological city cadastre Baden-Württemberg. Vol. 38 .: Lauffen am Neckar . State Monuments Office Baden-Württemberg , Esslingen am Neckar 2015, ISBN 978-3-942227-17-9 .
- SWR: Go there - Lauffen: A city stands up (2003)
- State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
- Website of the city of Lauffen: The mayor
- Historical city guide (see literature), p. 39.
Sources: The state of Baden-Württemberg. Official description by district and municipality . Volume II. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1975, ISBN 3-17-002349-7 , p. 126
Dass. Volume IV. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1980, ISBN 3-17-005708-1 , p. 99ff.
Topographic map 1:50 000, no. L 6920 Heilbronn, 8th edition 2002
Topographic map 1:25 000, no. 6921 Großbottwar, 5th edition 2005
Topographic map 1:25 000, no. 6922 Wüstenrot, 8th edition 2001
historical City guide (see literature), p. 5 and 16
To the Lauffener Stadtwald Etzlensendung: Jürgen Hagel: The Lauffener Stadtwald. An exclave in the Löwenstein mountains . In: Lauffener Heimatblätter . Issue 14. Heimatverein Gesellschaft Alt-Lauffen e. V., Lauffen a. N. 1997, pp. 1-16
- Natural areas of Baden-Württemberg . State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart 2009
- Otfried Kies: 70 years of unification of the city and village of Lauffen . In: Heimatbuch on the occasion of the city festival in 1984 . City of Lauffen a. N., Lauffen a. N. 1984, p. 154-159 .
- The state of Baden-Württemberg. Official description by district and municipality. Volume IV: Administrative region of Stuttgart, regional associations of Franconia and East Wuerttemberg . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1980, ISBN 3-17-005708-1 , p. 99-101 .
- Location database of the Top25 Baden-Württemberg, as of 2009.
- Additional source for the urban structure section: Otfried Kies: Werden und Wachsen von Dorf und Stadt. What field names reveal. Old settlements on the Lauffen markings . In: Heimatbuch on the occasion of the city festival in 1984 . City of Lauffen a. N., Lauffen a. N. 1984, p. 101-102 .
- State Statistical Office, area since 1988 according to actual use for Lauffen am Neckar.
- Jörg Biel : Archaeological sites in the Lauffener Rebflurbereinigungsgebiet Konsten . In: Heimatbuch on the occasion of the city festival in 1984 . City of Lauffen a. N., Lauffen a. N. 1984, p. 40-44 .
- Jörg Biel: Archaeological sites in the vineyard clearing area of Lauffen am Neckar. Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg, year 1980 / issue 3 / p. 81–85 ( Memento of the original from December 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 11.5 MB)
- Kurt Wehrberger: The prehistoric settlement of the district of Lauffen a. N. and surroundings . In: Heimatbuch on the occasion of the city festival in 1984 . City of Lauffen a. N., Lauffen a. N. 1984, p. 9-39 .
- Dieter Planck : The Romans in the Neckar Valley . In: Heimatbuch on the occasion of the city festival in 1984 . City of Lauffen a. N., Lauffen a. N. 1984, p. 45-61 .
- Helga Schach-Dörges: Alemannic and Franconian traces of settlement in the district of Lauffen am Neckar . In: Heimatbuch on the occasion of the city festival in 1984 . City of Lauffen a. N., Lauffen a. N. 1984, p. 75-92 .
- Text and translation of the document of Emperor Ludwig the Pious from 822
- Hansmartin Schwarzmaier : The Reginswindis tradition of Lauffen. Royal politics and aristocratic rule on the central Neckar . In: Journal for the History of the Upper Rhine / NF Volume 131 , 1983, ISSN 0044-2607 , pp. 195 ( mgh-bibliothek.de [PDF; 2.6 MB ; accessed on February 21, 2014]).
- RI V, 1.1 n. 2060 , in: Regesta Imperii Online. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
- page on the history of the Lauffen volunteer fire department
- Modern energy for a new era - the three-phase transmission Lauffen a. N. – Frankfurt a. M. 1891 . 1st edition. ZEAG Cement Plant Lauffen - Elektrizitätswerk Heilbronn AG, Heilbronn 1991.
- Ulrich Böhner: City of Lauffen am Neckar, historical city guide (see literature), p. 19.
- "Brazil" ( Memento from October 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) on www.manung-gegen-rechts.de.
- Friedrich Blumenstock: The invasion of the Americans and French in northern Württemberg in April 1945 . In: Commission for historical regional studies in Baden-Württemberg (Hrsg.): Representations from the Württemberg history . tape 41 . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1957.
- Short chronicle of the parish of Lauffen on the website of the New Apostolic Church in Southern Germany, Heilbronn district.
- Lauffener Bote from 06.06.2019 . June 6, 2019, p. 10-13 .
- LEO-BW - Lauffen am Neckar
Sources for the section coat of arms and flag:
Heinz Bardua: The district and community coat of arms in the Stuttgart administrative region (= district and community coat of arms in Baden-Württemberg, 1). Theiss, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-8062-0801-8 , p. 91.
Eberhard Gönner: Wappenbuch des Stadt- und Landkreis Heilbronn with a territorial history of this area (= publications of the state archive administration Baden-Württemberg, 9). Archive Directorate Stuttgart, Stuttgart 1965, p. 107.
Harald Drös: The eagle of the district of Heilbronn - coat of arms of the Counts of Lauffen? In: Christhard Schrenk, Peter Wanner (eds.): Heilbronnica 5 . Sources and research on the history of the city of Heilbronn 20th Heilbronn City Archive, Heilbronn 2013 ( stadtarchiv.heilbronn.de [PDF; 960 kB ; accessed on February 21, 2014]).
- Uwe Mundt: All monuments at a glance . In: Heilbronn voice . March 22, 2008 ( from Stimme.de [accessed on February 1, 2009]).
- Lauffen am Neckar Filmbühne - Kinowiki. Retrieved August 20, 2013 .
- Lauffen am Neckar Filmbühne, Lichtburg - Kinowiki. Retrieved August 20, 2013 .
- A troop of medieval noodle faces at zaberbote.de
- Lauffen am Neckar - Dirt Park. Retrieved November 19, 2014 .
- Norbert Hoffmann: Lauffener Maientag and Maientagsstiftung 1652–1922 , in: Lauffener Kinderfest 2008 , pp. 14–33.
- Every fourth municipality in Baden-Württemberg with viticulture. (No longer available online.) Baden-Württemberg State Statistical Office, August 10, 2011, archived from the original on September 28, 2011 ; Retrieved on May 28, 2012 (press release No. 270/2011). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Data and facts on the Württemberg wine region from the Württemberg winegrowing association ( Memento from September 20, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Image brochure of the Lauffener Weingärtnergenossenschaft
- Thomas Dorn: The tram to Zabergäu is currently not payable . In: Heilbronner Voice of July 11, 2006, p. 30.
- [ Archived copy ( memento of the original from December 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ], Page last accessed: January 13, 2015
- Stadtwerke Lauffen - About us. Retrieved November 12, 2014 .
- Heilbronnerversorgung GmbH: Company tours in the region. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on November 23, 2014 ; Retrieved November 12, 2014 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Stadtwerke Lauffen - water. Retrieved November 12, 2014 .
- New construction of a water softener at the Lauffener Schlinge pumping station, Gewann Mittelwiesen Flst. No. 6463 and 6469 of the city of Brackenheim. (PDF; 80.3 kB) May 24, 2012, accessed on November 12, 2014 (City Council Lauffen am Neckar, template 2012 No. 28).
- Thomas Dorn: Softer water, higher price. In: Website of the Heilbronner Voice. November 4, 2010, accessed November 12, 2014 .
- Lauffen am Neckar - supply and disposal. Retrieved November 12, 2014 .
- Lauffen am Neckar - Events: 50 Years of the Lauffen aN sewage treatment plant. Accessed on November 12, 2014 .
- Police station Lauffen at the Heilbronn Police Department ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
Source for the section “Kindergartens”:
Klaus-Peter Waldenberger (Ed.): Information brochure “Hölderlinstadt Lauffen am Neckar” . City administration Lauffen am Neckar, Lauffen am Neckar October 2009, p. 37 .
- VHS Unterland branch offices .
- Carlotta Thumm: Heinz-Dieter Schunk is the second honorary citizen of the city of Lauffen a. N. In: Lauffener Bote . No. 12 , 2012, p. 3 ( Lauffen.de [PDF; 893 kB ] Bulletin of the city of Lauffen am Neckar).
- bor: Schunk made an honorary citizen of the city of Lauffen . In: Heilbronn voice . March 18, 2012 ( from Stimme.de [accessed on March 18, 2012]).