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Modern agricultural team
Farmer tends cattle in the stable, Germany
Agriculture in Vietnam: plowing with a water buffalo as a draft animal
Workers in a rice field, Bangladesh

Farmer or farmer (of MHG. Gebûre "roommate, neighbor, village comrade") is a profession of agriculture . A farmer produces animal or vegetable products, mostly for use as food. He mainly cultivates agricultural land for this purpose. From an economic point of view, he is concerned with an area of primary production .

On the terms farmer and farmer

Farmer plowing, as was customary until the 1960s
Baudouin d'Arras : Paysans laborant, Spanish National Library , 13th century
Spreewald, cucumber farmer on the way to the market. May 1930

Farmer is the modern name for a profession, formed from farming (with land within the meaning of " landscape " or " floor ") and host ( "Economist", " landlord ", " Economist "). The profession of farmer is learned as an apprenticeship within the dual system with subsequent master craftsman training and / or attendance at a technical college or with a university or technical college degree. A full-time farmer has agriculture as his main occupation and earns at least 50 percent of his income from agriculture. If the share of agricultural income is lower, one speaks of a part-time farmer .

From a historical point of view, the term farmer is defined as follows: “Since the end of the early Middle Ages, a farmer has been a member of the lowest class of the society, which is divided into professional classes and which has neither chivalrous duties nor civil trades, to which, after the knights and burghers have been segregated, only farming has remained . "

Even althochdeutsch is pure handed, which is related to gipûr , plural gipûrâ "roommate village comrade" or pûari , plural pûarrâ "countryman", "country people", also in close entitled to , pure BUR "Construction, home, abode," High German Bauer “Nest, cage”, but also “storeroom” or “chamber” in dialect. In this context, construction, Old High German pû, is generally the farming activity - as in field cultivation , fruit growing , viticulture , synonymous with the Latin cultura "cultivation".

Later, farmer becomes a status name ( peasant class , "member of the peasantry "). Regional still further distinctions are known: Ackermann (Ackerer) Vollbauer , half farmer , Vollspänner , Halbspänner , Kossäte or Köt (h) ner , backgrounds settlers, cottagers or Büdner . These terms were an expression of a hierarchy in the social system of the village community and mostly refer to the basic size or rank of agriculture.

The word farmer also expresses a way of life (arable farmer and cattle breeder). The resident of the big city mostly uses the term farmer for all people who somehow work in agriculture or animal husbandry. Farmer is the newer, modern term, but not commonly used.

Linguistically, neither the farmer nor the farmer differentiates between cultivating land (farming) and the execution of livestock . In Austria, however, there are colloquial expressions Hörndl farmers (focus on cattle breeding) and grain farmers (focus on arable farming).

Other forms are:

  • Bergbauer is - like "Bauer" himself - originally a sociological term and is used in this sense in ethnology . Today, the mountain farmer in the Alpine region is primarily legally protected through difficult zones, only a particularly labor-intensive situation of the reasons (in Austria, for example, according to the mountain farm cadastre ) justifies a classification for receiving a mountain farmer grant (today EU-wide compensation allowance in disadvantaged areas and national aid ).
  • Organic farmer originally referred to a method of cultivation (organic / ecological agriculture), but today in Austria it is also a job title for a professional specialization.
  • Agronomist an academic degree, the German at German agricultural colleges and agricultural universities faculties had until 1971 could be purchased.
  • LPG farmers were members of an agricultural production cooperative in the GDR .
  • New farmers are people who received new farmer jobs in the course of the land reform (Germany after 1945).
  • The administrative farmer is a person who is mostly trained in agricultural science and who acts on behalf of the state or performs advisory tasks in associations related to agriculture.
  • As wehrbauer to farmers who had been settled in border areas by appropriate government measures referred.

job profile


Dealing with the scythe was once a basic part of farming skills (Peter Henry Emerson: In The Barley Harvest , circa 1886)

The main task of a farmer is the production of agricultural products such as food of plant and animal origin, as well as the production of renewable raw materials and a supplier of energy (e.g. rapeseed oil, biogas). This activity also includes the management and management of an agricultural enterprise including rural forestry ( small forest ).

Two aspects should be mentioned in the job profile that can be seen in the position of agriculture in the overall economy of modern industrialized countries:

The modern job profile places particular value on the careful use of natural resources such as soil, water and air, as well as observing ecological relationships and animal welfare .

The job used to be very difficult physically, working hours of up to 14 hours a day in the months of the main harvest were and are still common.

Areas of activity

The farmer as an energy farmer: Agricultural energy is becoming increasingly important (fermenter in a biogas plant (left), photovoltaic system (back) and wind power plant )

Vocational training


The prerequisite for the recognition of the profession is - in Europe - attending an agricultural vocational school and / or agricultural school . Master craftsman examination and higher school education (business administrator and technician) can be the basis for studying agricultural sciences .

Prerequisites for the job are for example:

A tractor license (class T in Germany, class F in Austria, class G or F in Switzerland) and mostly for trailers is a prerequisite in modern agriculture.


Farmer is a recognized training occupation under the Vocational Training Act (BBiG). More detailed information on vocational training is regulated by an ordinance on vocational training for farmers. For tax purposes, a farmer is anyone who is involved in farming professionally who cultivates their own or leased land for the production of agricultural products.

State-certified farmers acquire their qualifications at a lower and “higher agricultural school” or “higher agricultural school”, which lasts at least two years. It ends with a state examination. The prerequisite for attending the school is the completed training as a farmer, which in Germany usually lasts three years: One year of full-time teaching at the vocational school, followed by two years of training in the dual system. In order to be allowed to use the designation "Agricultural Master", the technical college for economist for agriculture must be attended two winter semesters and then one winter semester technical school for master craftsman training. The title of "agricultural master" is obtained with the state master craftsman examination.

Duration and course of training

The profession of farmer requires three years of training and has two professional fields in which you work with plants and with animals. During these three years, the trainee must have worked in an agricultural operation with a focus on the birth and rearing of animals and plants.

The training period can be shortened to two years on request if it is expected that the training objective will be achieved within the shortened period. In general, only people with a technical college entrance qualification or high school diploma or trainees who have already successfully completed a profession receive a reduction in the apprenticeship period. While working in the company, the trainee attends vocational school and inter-company courses. After the final examination, the job title “Farmer” may be used.

Training opportunities

  • State-certified economist in agriculture,
  • Agricultural master ,
  • State-certified agricultural technician ,
  • State-certified agricultural economist,
  • Specialist agronomist in the areas of: accounting, agricultural technology, golf course maintenance , tree maintenance and tree renovation, natural food and natural goods, farm maintenance, performance and quality testing, insemination,
  • State-certified nature and landscape conservationist,
  • University of applied sciences or university studies in agriculture - degree as a diploma agricultural engineer or Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) or Master of Science (M.Sc.), in job applications also referred to as an agricultural economist, agricultural scientist, agricultural biologist, agronomist, certified farmer , Agriculture Engineer or Agricultural Engineer.


In the education system (area of vocational training ), the job belongs to the professional area “Agriculture and forestry / animals / plants / housekeeping”.

Modern farming in the Alps in the field of tension between traditional economy and modern tourism : Almabtrieb , Kufstein 2005

Job titles are “farmer” or “ agricultural technician ”; It is possible to qualify as “ engineer ” with professional experience, an additional license is required for the “ organic farmer ” profession .

The following are available for academic training:

In Austria there is an agricultural school for vocational training as a farmer, the federal government's “ Agricultural and Forestry Educational Institutions ” (LFLA), which lead to the Matura, “ Agricultural and Forestry Schools ” (LFS) for intermediate education (technical schools ), and " Vocational Schools for Agriculture".

After completing an apprenticeship ( apprenticeship ) the job title is:

In addition, the occupational area also includes the special vocational forms of special culture and livestock farming with the apprenticeships:


Vocational training

Farmer EFZ (= Federal Certificate of Competence ) is a basic vocational training in Switzerland . The training lasts three years. For learners who already have an EFZ in a related profession, the basic vocational training is shortened to 1 year. For learners who already hold a Federal Professional Certificate (EBA), basic training takes 2 years.

Related professions in the agricultural field are:

Conversely, graduates of the above-mentioned related basic vocational training courses can begin the shortened basic vocational training course to become an EFZ farmer.

Higher professional education

Professional examination :

  • Farmer with a federal certificate
  • Expert in biodynamic agriculture with a federal certificate
  • Fruit grower with a federal certificate
  • Vocational trainer

Higher professional examination :

  • Master farmer
  • Master vegetable gardener
  • Fruit grower with a master's degree

Income situation in German agriculture

In the situation report of the German farmers 'association , the following development of farmers' incomes (per worker) is shown:

Income situation in German agriculture
Fiscal year Profit per worker
1999/2000 19,900 euros
2000/2001 23,200 euros
2001/2002 21,800 euros
2002/2003 18,400 euros
2003/2004 18,700 euros
2004/2005 22,800 euros
2005/2006 23,900 euros
2006/2007 25,900 euros
2007/2008 31,500 euros
2008/2009 23,700 euros
2009/2010 28,400 euros
2010/2011 39,500 euros
2011/2012 39,991 euros
2012/2013 42,856 euros
2013/2014 45,656 euros
2014/2015 29,979 euros
according to: situation report of the German farmers' association

However, 80 percent of the income goes back to agriculture, for example to buy new or repair old machines, treat the animals, feed costs, fuel, etc.

The full-time farms are currently experiencing significant income losses again, in particular due to falling prices for pork and milk. The situation worsened for dairy farmers in the 2014/2015 marketing year after the end of the milk quota system .

In farmers' old-age insurance, farmers and spouses with low incomes (sum of positive incomes) receive subsidies for the contribution that are graded according to income class. In the case of spouses, the income of both spouses is added together and half is allocated to each. Of the total of 223,997 insured persons entitled to benefits at the end of 2014, 33,081 were entitled to a contribution subsidy up to a marginal income (all income) of EUR 15,500 per year. The data confirm the extremely poor income situation in agriculture.

The significant increases in income in arable farming due to higher prices for grain, potatoes and sugar beet contributed in particular to the improvement in earnings in 2005. The main decrease in income was the further decline in potato, piglet and milk prices:

Landwirtschaftliche Erzeugerpreise Deutschland (ohne MwSt.)
                          2013/2014  2014/2015  Veränderung
Kartoffeln (Euro/100 kg)    24,11       7,20      -70,1 %
Ferkel (28 kg)              57,61      45,12      -21,7 %
Milch (Euro/100 kg)         39,52      32,15      -18,6 %

In the individual branches of production, the main gainful agricultural holdings for the various types of farms showed deviating, sometimes opposing income developments.

Farmers from a sociological point of view

Farmers are therefore interesting from a sociological point of view, because they are often as an example of resilience are seen

Farmers are interesting from a sociological point of view because they are often seen as an example of resilience or adaptability. Although farmers around the world often earn lower incomes than the national average, the typical effects of poverty on their children do not usually occur.

Glen Elder was also concerned with value orientations among American farmers . With the Iowa Youth and Families Project , he found that poverty has surprisingly few consequences for farm children.

Social position

The social position of German farmers in history has been characterized since the Middle Ages by serfdom , famine , rebellion in peasant wars and the regionally very different agricultural structure . After the Peace of Tilsit in 1807, Karl Freiherr vom Stein and Karl August Fürst von Hardenberg were the main initiators of a new agricultural constitution , and Wilhelm von Humboldt introduced reforms in the education system. In contrast to the urban population, farmers were better protected from malnutrition or malnutrition because they could support themselves. Franziska Tollnek and Jörg Baten describe in 2017 that this had positive effects on their cognitive abilities. As a result, there was a modest social rise of the farmers, which was secured by the amalgamation of the farmers in cooperatives , associations such as the German Agricultural Society and the improvement of training by the establishment of technical schools and agricultural academies. Examples of this are the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Berlin , the Agricultural Academy Möglin or the Hohenheim Academy .

In 1882, the then "German Office for Statistics" recorded the following distribution of the agricultural area:

area surface <1 ha 1-10 ha 10-100 ha > 100 ha
German Empire 5,276,344 ha 2.4% 25.6% 47.6% 24.4%
Alsace-Lorraine 233,866 ha 5.0% 51.8% 35.9% 7.3%
Bavaria 681,521 ha 1.6% 35.6% 60.5% 2.3%
East Prussia 188,179 ha 1.0% 9.3% 51.1% 38.6%
West Prussia 134,026 ha 1.3% 9.1% 42.5% 47.1%
Pomerania 169,275 ha 1.3% 10.1% 31.2% 57.4%

German agriculture went through a special phase during the period of the Reichsnährstand as a result of the blood-and-soil ideology of the National Socialist government .

The division of Germany after the Second World War and the various political systems that arose from it led to different developments in East and West Germany, which, however, have been aligning again since reunification .

Agriculture in the GDR

Agriculture in the GDR (1945–1990) was characterized by expropriation and collectivization. The farmers lost their independence and, insofar as they did not make it into the management team, were only followers of orders and workers in the hierarchically structured agricultural cooperatives. The pay of the workers in the agricultural production cooperatives (LPG) and state- owned enterprises (VEB) corresponded to comparable activities in industry, 10.8 percent of those employed in the GDR were determined to be active in the agricultural sector in 1989. As part of the socialist agricultural reform, the farms were expanded into large-scale operations and crop production and animal husbandry were separated as independent production areas. In 1989 there were 3250 livestock farms with 5432  livestock units (LU), i.e. 1671 LU per farm. The 1243 plant cultivation companies cultivated 5.65 million hectares of agricultural area with an average size of 4740 hectares. The separation of forage production and livestock husbandry was politically decreed and required considerable administrative effort. In this context, it can also be stated that in the same period in West Germany only 4 percent of employees were employed in agriculture. In the course of the reunification of Germany, a reprivatisation of East German agriculture began. Within a few years, the arable yields were raised to the West German level and the number of workers decreased accordingly, the latter with considerable social difficulties for the former agricultural workers in East Germany.

Agriculture in West Germany

From the currency reform onwards, farmers in West Germany used all the technical advances possible at that time to produce food, which led to an annual increase in yields of 2 percent. In addition, by switching from draft animals (horses and cows) to tractors, the forage area became available for food production. The resulting increased supply led to real price reductions for agricultural products. With guaranteed prices for various products and the introduction of a farmer's pension , Konrad Adenauer and Edmund Rehwinkel tried to alleviate the increasing impoverishment of farmers. Although the structure of the farm changed significantly in favor of larger units in 40 years, incomes were still very different in 1989. The number of small farmers with 1 to 5 hectares was 31 percent, that of medium-sized farms with 5 to 50 hectares was 62 percent and that of large farms with more than 50 hectares was 7 percent of the farms. At times, up to 25 percent of farming families had a monthly net per capita household income below that of families of salaried workers.

However, farmers usually have a fortune in the form of real estate. Income poverty among farmers in Germany does not go hand in hand with an undersupply in the areas of nutrition, housing or the education of children. There are also other, less materially oriented value orientations in the agricultural milieu, which means that poverty among farmers' children sometimes has different consequences. In view of a concept of poverty that is not only tied to money but also takes into account the entire life situation of the population group concerned, it is questionable whether one can speak of “real poverty” here.

Over the past 65 years, more than 80 percent of the previous farm managers have made the decision to give up the farm, mainly for financial reasons. As a rule, neighboring farms are happy to take over the agricultural land, but the vacant buildings are increasingly becoming a problem. While there were 1.65 million farms in Germany in 1949, each supplying 10 people with food, in 2013 there were only 285,000 farms, each supplying 144 consumers with food. The fact that active farmers now have three times the number of agricultural pension recipients is the logical consequence of the enormous structural change.

Working hours in agriculture

Despite modern technology, farmers have a heavy workload. According to the Federal Statistical Office, people in employment in Germany worked an average of 1363 hours in 2013, while the number of hours in agriculture and forestry is given as 1664 hours. The reason given for this is the 49 percent high proportion of self-employed farmers who, according to these statistics, worked hours in 2003. Even though the use of modern technology has made a significant contribution to the fact that physical labor and working hours have decreased significantly in agriculture, 18 to 20 hour work is common in the now much larger farms, especially for sowing, care and Harvest time.

Farmers try to limit high mechanization costs for machines and devices with short periods of use through membership in machine rings and by commissioning contractors . In addition, landscape conservation measures and forestry work are often taken over for districts and municipalities. Numerous farmers also try to generate additional income through commitment in the areas of farm holidays , the production of renewable raw materials and the establishment of biogas plants . In addition, most farmers use the support programs of the EU to secure their income.

See also

Web links

Commons : Farmers / Farmers  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wikiquote: Bauer  - Quotes
Wiktionary: Farmer  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations


The farmer in language, linguistic history and cultural history:


  • Wilhelm Abel : Agricultural crises and the agricultural economy: A history of the agriculture and food industry in Central Europe since the high Middle Ages. 3rd edition, Paul Parey, Hamburg / Berlin 1978, ISBN 3-490-30415-2 .
  • Walter Achilles: Agriculture in the early modern period. Encyclopedia of German History No. 10, Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-486-55702-5 .
  • Agricultural Market Policy, Volume 1: Basics. 1968; Volume 2: The agricultural markets of Germany and the EEC. 1970, with the assistance of Ewald Böckenhoff , BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, 3rd revised. Ed., Munich 1984, ISBN 3-405-12831-5 .
  • Agrarspectrum, umbrella association of scientific societies in agriculture, forestry, nutrition, veterinary and environmental research e. V., Volume 10: Securing Livelihood in Agriculture. Verlagsunion Agrar, Munich / Frankfurt / Münster / Vienna / Bern 1985, ISBN 3-405-13213-4 .
  • Situation report 2014/15: trends and facts on agriculture. Ed .: German Farmers Association , December 2014, Berlin, (PDF; 5.1 MB), ISBN 978-3-9812770-6-7 .
  • Günther Franz (ed.): German agricultural history. 6 volumes, Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 1993.
  • Friedrich Golter: 35 years for the farmers, from professional work. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-8001-4190-6 .
  • Manfred Hesse: Statistical yearbook about nutrition, agriculture and forestry 1990. Ed .: Federal Ministry for nutrition, agriculture and forestry, Landwirtschaftsverlag, Münster-Hiltrup 1990, ISBN 3-7843-1357-4 .
  • Roderich Plate : The world grain market after the Second World War - location and prospects. In: Booklets for agricultural market research. Volume 4, Paul Parey, Berlin / Hamburg 1950.
  • Roderich Plate, Walter Fischer, Franz Gleissner: Agricultural market knowledge for schools and practice. Bayerischer Landwirtschaftsverlag, Munich / Bonn / Vienna 1956, 2nd edition 1964.
  • Manfred G. Raupp: Adult education in the country, illustrated using the example of 10 communities in Baden-Württemberg. Diploma thesis, University of Hohenheim, 1968.
  • Johannes Schwertfeger and Hans-Jürgen Andras: Inventory of adult education. An empirical-statistical study with the collaboration of Ulrich Planck and Manfred G. Raupp. Neckar-Verlag, Villingen 1970, XIV, (Education in a new perspective. Series A, No. 22.)
  • Eberhard Schulze : German agricultural history: 7500 years of agriculture in Germany. Shaker-Verlag, Aachen 2014, ISBN 978-3-8440-2636-8 .
  • Alois Seidl: German agricultural history. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-7690-0655-0 .

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Statistical yearbook on nutrition, agriculture and forests in the Federal Republic of Germany. (PDF; 5.8 MB) Glossary. Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection , 2012, accessed on February 3, 2017 .
  2. Otto Brunner , Werner Conze, Reinhart Koselleck (eds.): Basic historical concepts : Historical lexicon on the political-social language in Germany. Volume 1, Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1972 ff.
  3. Reinhard Wenskus, Herbert Jankuhn, Klaus Grinda (eds.): Word and term “farmer”. Summary report on the colloquia of the Commission for Classical Studies in Central and Northern Europe . Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, Philological-Historical Class - 3rd episode. No. 89 . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1975, ISBN 3-525-82362-2 , pp. 262 .
  4. Entry BAUER, m. agricola, colonus, rusticus. In: Jacob Grimm, Wilhelm Grimm: German Dictionary . Leipzig 1854–1960, online at, accessed on February 3, 2017.
  5. Entry BAUER, m. cubile, cubiculum, cavea, habitatio. In: Jacob Grimm, Wilhelm Grimm: German Dictionary . Leipzig 1854–1960, online at, accessed on February 3, 2017.
  6. Entry BAU, m. cubile, aedificium, cultura, rus 5) the altn. n. and 6) the ahd. pû, mhd. In: Jacob Grimm, Wilhelm Grimm: German Dictionary . Leipzig 1854–1960, online at, accessed on February 3, 2017.
  7. Oliver Tamme, Ludwig Bacher, Thomas Dax, Gerhard Hovorka, Josef Krammer, Matthias Wirth: The new mountain farm cadastre - a company-specific system of difficulty identification in Austria. (PDF) In: Rural Area 1/2003. Ministry of Life II / 5, 2003, archived from the original on April 17, 2015 ; Retrieved April 5, 2015 .
  8. Compensatory allowance in disadvantaged areas (AZ). In: Bergbauernpolitik / compensatory allowance. Ministry for an Austria worth living in, September 30, 2015, accessed on February 3, 2017 .
  9. Profile of a farmer. In: BerufeNET. January 1, 2017, Federal Employment Agency, online at, accessed on February 3, 2017 (PDF; 289 kB).
  10. Farmer - dual training. Federal Employment Agency, online at, accessed on February 3, 2017.
  11. Job description: Farmer. In: BerufsInformationsComputer ( Austrian Chamber of Commerce , accessed on February 3, 2017 .
  12. ^ Farmer EFZ (occupational field agriculture). In: professional directory. State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI), at, accessed on February 6, 2017.
  13. ↑ SERI Ordinance on Basic Vocational Training - Agriculture and its Professions. May 8, 2008, at, accessed on February 6, 2017 (PDF; 72 kB).
  14. German Farmers' Association: Situation report of the DBV 2015/2016. From, accessed on February 7, 2017.
  15. ^ Social insurance for agriculture, forestry and horticulture: contribution subsidy. From, accessed February 7, 2017.
  16. Bookkeeping - Agricultural producer prices in Germany (excluding VAT). In: More on the 2015/16 situation report. From, accessed on February 7, 2017.
  17. ^ A b Glen H. Elder Jr. , D. Conger Rand: Children of the land: Adversity and success in Rural America. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2002.
  18. ^ The Iowa Youth and Families Project. ( Memento from May 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  19. Tollnek, Franziska, and Joerg Baten. "Farmers at the heart of the 'human capital revolution'? Decomposing the numeracy increase in early modern Europe." The Economic History Review 70.3 (2017): 779-809.
  20. Real estate (statistical) . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 7, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 864.
  21. Manfred Hesse, Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forests: Statistical yearbook on nutrition, agriculture and forestry 1990. Landwirtschaftsverlag, Münster-Hiltrup 1990, ISBN 3-7843-1357-4 , p. 380 f.
  22. Manfred Hesse, Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forests: Statistical yearbook on nutrition, agriculture and forestry 1990. Landwirtschaftsverlag, Münster-Hiltrup 1990, ISBN 3-7843-1357-4 , p. 383 ff.
  23. Manfred Hesse, Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forests: Statistical Yearbook on Food, Agriculture and Forests 1990. Landwirtschaftsverlag, Münster-Hiltrup 1990, ISBN 3-7843-1357-4 , pp. 82 ff. And p. 384 ff.
  24. Manfred Hesse, Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forests: Statistical Yearbook on Nutrition, Agriculture and Forests 1990. Landwirtschaftsverlag, Münster-Hiltrup 1990, ISBN 3-7843-1357-4 , p. 31.
  25. ^ Rainer Geissler : The social structure of Germany . VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-531-42923-X , p. 82.
  26. Angelika Sigel: Poor despite house and farm: About poverty in agriculture. In: The Critical Agricultural Report 2008 , pp. 57–60.
  27. ^ Rainer Geissler: The social structure of Germany . VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-531-42923-X , p. 90.
  28. a b H. Gerhard Beisenherz: Child poverty in the welfare society - The Cainsmark of globalization. Leske + Budrich Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-8100-3086-4 , p. 310 f.
  29. for America, for example, this was set out in: Elder, Rand 2002.
  30. ^ German farmers' association : Situation report 2014/15, trends and facts on agriculture. Berlin, December 2014, ISBN 978-3-9812770-6-7 .