from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The articles Häusler , Kötter , Hinterersassen and Kleinbauer thematically overlap. Help me to better differentiate or merge the articles (→  instructions ) . To do this, take part in the relevant redundancy discussion . Please remove this module only after the redundancy has been completely processed and do not forget to include the relevant entry on the redundancy discussion page{{ Done | 1 = ~~~~}}to mark. L.Willms ( discussion ) 16:43, Apr 4, 2016 (CEST)

House (Kotten) of a Kossaten in Wuthenow

Kötter , Köter , Köthner , Kötner , Kätner or Kotsassen , especially in Prussia and Mecklenburg also Kossat (h) en , Kossater or Kossaten , were villagers who owned a Kotten (a cottage). They owned little land but did not own a full share of the hooffield . Kötter can be documented in Germany from the 14th century.

The farms of the Kötter were mostly located on the edge of the village or separated from old farms. Since the income was often insufficient for a living, they usually did additional manual work or worked as day laborers on farms and manors. Their land holdings were usually an eighth to half a hoof , they had few cattle and no more than a horse.

“In return for the lease of a house and a piece of land to the landlord for their own management, a Kossät had to provide not only interest in cash and in kind (e.g. chickens, grain ), but also hand and clamping services, i. H. help with the harvest, etc. "

As a rule, this cottage owned a small cabbage garden that was used for part-time farming. Most of the kötter had another main occupation. They were z. B. teachers, artisans, but also farmers, if the land ownership was sufficient. However, this land was then outside the field that was divided among the Hufnern , and kötter usually had no share in the common land .

In the social rural hierarchy they were below the full farmers, but above the Büdners , who only owned a house and garden and worked as craftsmen, and above the local workers and day laborers .

Around the middle of the 15th century, favored by the inheritance law and the faster population growth, the kötter divided into Erbkötter and Markkötter. The earlier Kötter, created by division, always had house and farm in the village or within a peasantry, which was seen as essential for reasons of protection and neighborly help. Now somewhere in the Mark , often miles away from the village or the nearest settlement, land suitable for cultivation, no matter how low it is, cleared and a Markkotten built in the middle, which was assigned to the Markkötter and where he had to settle. The Markkötter thus hardly received any inheritance and was ranked below the Erbkötter. In contrast to the heirs or old farmers, none of these groups inherited the parental farm. In the social hierarchy, however, both groups of the Kötter were still above the Heuerlings , who were mostly legally and economically even more dependent on the landlord of the Heuerlingskotten inhabited by the Heuerlings.

Aschkötter was the name given to the workers in a ring furnace .

See also


Web links

Wiktionary: Kötter  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Ilse Schumann: Kossät. In: Historische-berufe.de. April 22, 2002, accessed July 3, 2019 .
  2. for example August Haxthausen, Alexander Padberg: The rural constitution in the provinces of East and West Prussia. 1. Volume, Königsberg 1839, p. 337 ff. ( Books.google.de )