from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A Hufner , even Hüfner called, is a farmer who as a real estate one, some or part of a hoof farmed land.

The names for these members of the peasant class differ from region to region. They were Hovener or Hofener in the Lower Saxony- speaking area, Hufner or Hüfner in Central Germany and Huber in Upper Germany . In some areas completely different names existed, such as Ackermann , Pferdner or in Upper Saxon also possessed man or possessed men .

The Hufner was a full member of the community of farmers, had a say in the community and allowed the common land use. In the village social hierarchy , the Hufner stood as full farmers and owners of a farm with land of - depending on the region - 30 to 100 acres in front of the gardeners and cottagers . In contrast to these, they were able to exercise the Schöppenamt in the village .

Regional name variants

A large number of surnames are derived from this professional name and its regional variants . First of all, the name Huber should be mentioned, which is one of the five to ten most common surnames in the German-speaking area and, in addition to southern Germany, is particularly widespread in Switzerland and Austria . Due to the regionally different pronunciation of the surname Huber, the surnames Huemer , Humer , Haumer, Huebmer and Hueber developed here . The forms Höf (f) ner and Hüb (e) ner are also common .

The farmer had the same social status as the single horse , the owner of a team ; both were compulsory .

However, it is also important to pay attention to the type and regionality of the hoof or farm property that the full farmer cultivated. If it was a bona censualia, i.e. a peasant inheritance or interest, then on the peasant property itself there was sometimes labor and always a fixed annual interest rate, which in the event of default did not result in the owner being driven away from the property.

These interest goods could stand in long leases , fiefs or even in the free property of the personally free full farmer. These bad interest goods were generally associated with greater property rights for the peasant . The Upper County of Katzenelnbogen, for example, only knew the bad interest goods as peasant property, which was subject to a landlord's real burden and could be indebted, inherited or freely sold by the peasant. In the Electorate and Kingdom of Saxony the peasant goods of the Vollhufner also existed in the form of bad interest goods with the dominum directum , i.e. upper ownership in the hands of the respective farmer.

All of Germany knew such farms that were in the completely free property of the peasant. In addition to the bad interest goods , there was also the hereditary interest goods , so-called bona emphyteutica, which differed in that the upper ownership remained with the landlord and the owner thus had no free disposal over the property.


The Hufnerhaus is the North German name for the main building of a residential complex. In Marschhufendörfern it stands with the residential part (e.g. the transverse residential hall, called Flett or Fleet ) facing the dike.


Web links

Wiktionary: Hufner  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Günther Herforth-Unger: Farmer & Gardener. In: Historical Professions. Accessed March 31, 2019 .
  2. J. Gorsler: Old job titles from church records. In: Accessed March 31, 2019 .
  3. ^ Johann Hieronymus Hermann: Teutsches Systema iuris civilis, in which the civil law according to the order of the pandects is presented clearly and thoroughly . Johann Rudolph Cröter, Jena and Leipzig 1735, p. 253 ( digitized version ).
  4. ^ Heinrich Zoepfl : Antiquities of the German Empire and Law . tape 2 . Winter'sche Verlagshandlung , Leipzig and Heidelberg 1860, p. 146 ( digitized version ).
  5. Brigitta Vits: Hüfner, Kötter and Beisassen - The economic and social structure of rural settlements in Northern Hesse from the 16th to the 19th century . tape 25 Hessian research on historical regional and folklore. Verlag des Verein für Hessische Geschichte und Landeskunde , Kassel 1993, ISBN 3-925333-25-8 , p. 64 .
  6. ^ Winfried Noack: Landgrave Georg I of Hesse and the Upper County of Katzenelnbogen (1567–1596) . Publishing house of the Historical Association for Hesse, Darmstadt and Mainz 1966, OCLC 251661225 , p. 199, 201 .
  7. Reiner Groß : The bourgeois agrarian reform in Saxony in the first half of the 19th century - investigation into the problem of the transition from feudalism to capitalism in agriculture . tape 8 Series of publications by the Dresden State Archives . Böhlau, Weimar 1968, OCLC 263363476 , p. 29 .
  8. Manfred Wilde : The knights and free estates in northern Saxony - their constitutional position, their settlement history and their owners . tape 12 From the German Aristocratic Archives . Starke Verlag , Limburg 1997, ISBN 3-7980-0687-3 , p. 17 .
  9. Georg Ludwig von Maurer : History of the Fronhöfe, the farms and the court constitution in Germany . tape 3 . Enke, Erlangen 1863, p. 221 f . ( Digitized version ).
  10. Georg Michael von Weber: Presentation of the entire provincial and statuary rights of the Kingdom of Bavaria, with the exclusion of common, Prussian and French law together with the general new laws that modify them . tape 2 The rights of Middle Franconia. Kollmann'sche Buchhandlung, Augsburg 1838, p. 296 f . ( Digitized version ).
  11. ^ André Winternitz: Sieghardt v. Köckritz prize money goes to Hufnerhaus. In: December 23, 2016, accessed on March 31, 2019 (illustration of a Hufner house in Hamburg-Allermöhe , partly dating back to the 16th century , Moorfleter Deich No. 483).