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Gardener at work; Painting The Autumn by Abel Grimmer , 1607
Gardener at work

Gärtner is the job title for people who work in the agricultural sector and there in horticulture .

The term encompasses several concepts:

  • On the one hand, gardener is a professional training in the horticulture sector (horticulture), with its various branches (such as vegetable, flower, medicinal plant gardening, tree nursery, garden design, etc., including sales): the horticultural profession
  • Gardener also refers to the commercial horticultural entrepreneur ( gardening company); Commercial gardener
  • An employed gardener in the sense of a service occupation is also referred to as a gardener , regardless of training
  • Gardener used to be the name for smallholders in some areas

As gardeners and private individuals are referred to as a hobby or recreation (hobby gardeners, gardeners ), from interest in nature or plant breeding or from the desire to supply your own kitchen in her garden or small garden (including allotment, then Kleingärtner or allotment gardeners ) work.

The gardener as a profession


The profession of gardener or horticultural specialist is a recognized training profession that is supported by the respective chambers of agriculture and the professional association .

Landscape gardener logo

The training to become a gardener can be completed in the following fields:

On December 31, 2006 a total of 17,750 trainees were employed in the horticultural disciplines. In relation to the individual disciplines, the situation was as follows:

  • Tree nursery: 1401 trainees
  • Cemetery nursery: 589 trainees
  • Gardening and landscaping: 10,909 trainees
  • Vegetable growing: 543 trainees
  • Fruit growing: 260 trainees
  • Perennial nursery: 295 trainees
  • Ornamental plant cultivation: 3753 trainees

Since the year 2000, in response to the increasing number of garden centers and pure sales nurseries without a production part, in North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria , trainee gardeners in the fields of ornamental plant cultivation and tree nursery have the opportunity to focus on the new focus “Advice and Sales "to be documented ( sales gardener ). In Landshut-Schönbrunn there is also the possibility to specialize in this direction. However, the term “sales gardener” does not represent a specialty in its own right, but rather emphasizes the content of the training ordinance selling and advising in the fields of tree nursery and ornamental plant cultivation. The gardener training usually lasts three years. There is after successful completion of the training option for Fachagrarwirt Golf course , Fachagrarwirt tree care and Audited nature and landscape conservationists . Further training to become a master gardener and horticultural technician is just as possible as studying horticulture or landscape architecture . The advanced technical college entrance qualification enables studying at a technical college, the general higher education entrance qualification also enables studying at a university.

See also:


Apprenticeship: skilled horticultural worker

The apprenticeship in Austria is called skilled horticultural worker and is an agricultural and forestry profession . The apprenticeship period is 3 years. Further apprenticeships are cemetery and ornamental gardeners as well as garden and green space designers .

Cemetery and ornamental gardener : The apprenticeship takes place as a dual training and has a training duration of 3 years. Cemetery and ornamental gardeners design park and green areas and the graves in cemeteries. In mostly their own cemetery nurseries, they grow cut flowers and potted plants, which they sell to cemetery visitors and with which they also plant the cemetery areas. When creating new graves, they advise the relatives about the design of the grave and then carry it out. Cemetery and ornamental gardeners work for cemetery and ornamental gardening companies and in the public service (federal and city gardens).

The schools in Austria are:

Master Exams Taking the national chambers of commerce and Federal Guild of gardeners and florists from (gardener) . As an agricultural and forestry occupation, vocational training is subject to more specific regulations. It encompasses the entirety of horticulture, deepening takes place through courses and in internal professional training.

Higher occupation: horticultural technician

In addition, one can learn the profession in agricultural and forestry technical schools (BMS) specializing in horticulture and in higher educational institutions for horticulture (training branches gardening and landscaping, commercial horticulture ) ( horticultural technician; tree nursery gardener, orcharder, ornamental plant gardener ):

Other horticultural professions

In Austria there has also been an independent profession of garden center salesman for several years , a specialization within the retail salesman training ( agricultural and horticultural business school , Grottenhof-Hardt and Großwilfersdorf). The profession of florist is part of the craft .


There are three different basic vocational training courses for gardeners in Switzerland:

  • Gardener EBA
  • Gardener EFZ
  • Vegetable gardener EFZ

The three training locations are a company, a vocational school and inter-company courses .

Gardener EBA

The EBA gardener training takes two years. The subjects offered are:

  • Gardening and landscaping
  • Plant production

The vocational school is attended one day a week.

Gardener EFZ

Gardener EFZ is a training occupation in Switzerland. The apprenticeship takes 3 years.

The subjects offered are

  • Nursery
  • Gardening and landscaping
  • Perennials
  • Ornamental plants

The vocational school is attended one day a week.

Vegetable gardener EFZ

The training to become a vegetable gardener EFZ takes three years. The vocational school takes place in block courses.

Famous gardeners

For people working as garden designers see: List of garden designers .

Botanically active people see under: List of important biologists .

For persons working as plant breeders see under: Plant breeding .

The gardener as a small farmer

A gardener (other names: Hintersättler, tenants , backgrounds settlers Kötner, cottagers Kossäten , hand farmers Handfronbauern) was up to the replacement of forced labor in the 19th century in central Germany, a homeowner whose property is usually about a quarter or eighth hooves comprised (about 3 to 8 acres ), but in exceptional cases also up to a three-quarter hoof, which was not enough for a decent farming operation, but could support a family ( garden food ). In some places, allotment gardeners and large gardeners were therefore differentiated. And there was talk of the “orchard and kitchen garden by the house”. Since around 1700 some sources also speak of garden goods or "house with garden ", the transition from gardeners to farmers on the one hand (especially the part-hunters) and the cottagers on the other hand was fluid in the rural social structure . As a rule, the gardener was not involved in land use and municipal administration and, in addition to his agriculture, which was sufficient for his own use, was dependent on another, additional activity, for example of a commercial nature.

To distinguish, commercial horticultural entrepreneurs were referred to as commercial gardeners .

In the sense of the constitutional definition, the garden food was the entire possession of the house and agriculturally usable land, which was under garden law and did not belong to the heaped community hallway.

Dreschgärtner were up from manors settled separated country and were Fronleistungen the threshing committed. The gardening profession we know today was formerly known as pleasure gardener .


sorted alphabetically by author

  • Björn Brüsch: Drafts for the establishment of a large gardening school: The establishment of the Royal Gardening School in Prussia 1818–1823 . In: Die Gartenkunst  20 (1/2008), pp. 83-104.
  • J. van der Groen: Den Nederlandtsen Hovenier. (The Dutch Gardener), Amsterdam 1670.
  • Günther Leps, Rose Leps: The gardener between beauty and utility. Ed. Leipzig, Leipzig 1994, ISBN 3-361-00417-9 . (Historical job profiles)

Web links

Commons : Gardener  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: gardener  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations



  1. a b c skilled horticultural workers. AMS vocational lexicon - there also to schools and master schools, further education, etc.
  2. Horticultural Technician. AMS vocational lexicon - there also to schools, further education etc.


Individual evidence

  1. Statistics on practical vocational training in agriculture in the Federal Republic of Germany , publisher: Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, May 2007.
  2. ^ Meyers Konversationslexikon , Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna, 4th edition, 1885–1892, p. 81 ( online ).
  3. Digital historical place directory of Saxony . Explanations for use; 4 population figures .