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The Hufe , in southern Germany called Hube , in Switzerland called Hubel , denotes both the farm , the property right and the rights of use to the commons to which a member of the farming community was entitled, as well as the area cultivated by him (see also Hubengut ).

Therefore, it is also a measure of area , regionally very different in size, according to the local soil assessment (rating) , i.e. the yield of the soil. In this respect, it is also a measure of the economic performance of a farm, the hoof roughly corresponded to the basic size that is necessary to guarantee a farmer's family a livelihood. The different local and temporal definitions of the hooves are therefore also an important historical and sociological parameter.

Historical significance of the hooves

“The word hoof denotes an agricultural good which can be tilled with a plow and therefore corresponds to the labor of a family” and which nourished them. The correlative area was estimated to be around 30 acres from the beginning of the 9th to the 19th century  . Large farmers were able to cultivate 60 or even 120 acres with the help of many farmhands and several teams of draft animals. ( See also: large hooves or king hooves )

The morning itself was regional and varied in size depending on the nature of the soil. With the invention of the withers - the yoke in the Middle Ages and later through the use of a collar plow power of draft animals grew significantly. In the south and west of Germany, the morning was generally a little shorter, probably also for topographical reasons. Here it was mostly only between twenty and forty  ares . In the north German plain and the areas with sandy soils in the north and east, the morning could be between fifty and over seventy-five acres. The servant and serf farmers were not the owners of the arable land they cultivated, which is why the area corresponding to the hooves was also referred to in some places as the Lahn , i.e. a fiefdom .

In the Holy Roman Empire , the concept of hooves played an important role, especially in the German settlement in the east . The hooves met as part of this colonization largely uninhabited areas a standard area that the newly arrived farmers in fee or to be purchased possession (as hooves land was offered). Hooves were not only awarded to farmers by the sovereign, but also to locators , Schulzen (Schulzenhufe) and knightly landowners (Knight's hooves), and also intended for the upkeep of the church and pastor (church or parish hooves). Certain levies were hooves per set ( Bede , rent , interest ) in arable such. B. in the land book of Charles IV .

Smaller farm sizes were three-quarter hooves, half hooves or similar (the corresponding part of a regional hoof). Was it at the called Settled not full farmers with all the rights of Altgemeinde , but small farmers . In this way they differed from the cottagers (craftsmen), whose property was limited to the land on which their house and an associated kitchen garden were located.

In the west, too, such new village foundations had taken place in the so-called inland colonization , for example with downsizing of Meierhöfen , but especially after re- clearing of manorial forests. See also: Waldhufendörfer .

The newly created farms were initially taxed uniformly according to the original, standardized hoof size. In the east, where the resettlement lasted longer, this was the common rule for a long time. In the south, west and north, however, where the reclamation of agricultural land was as good as complete much earlier, the smaller units of acres , yokes or fields were then used almost without exception for taxation , since the actual farm sizes, even where they were originally the same , had changed considerably through acquisitions, inheritance divisions and amalgamations. Precisely for this reason, the hoof was rarely preserved here as a legal measure of area until the 19th century. The term hooves or hooves then only referred to a full-time farm with different areas.

In Latin, the term “hooves” corresponds to the Latin word mansus , and from the 12th century also the Latinized German word Huba, whereby mansus rather describes the building or buildings (cf.  Manoir , Manor ), Huba rather the area. The words Hube and Hufe are derived from Old High German hoba, huoba, huopa via Middle High German huobe , as well as Hof . Regionally one also says Hueb or Huebm instead of Hube . In many German family names, the term “Hufe” or “Hube” is still used today, such as Hufner , Hüfner , Huemer ; Huber , Hüber , Hübner , Hübener , Hubbauer and many others, with regard to settlement also Neuhuber and the like.

In other European countries there were units corresponding to the hoof. The oldest English unit of area is the oxgang , the English small hoof. This metrological reference field was the inspiration for the definition of the English area and length measures with regard to the values ​​of the Roman system of measurement . The word Oxgang itself is of Danish - Norman origin. It appears in England soon after 1066 and denotes a seasonal yoke . It therefore corresponds to the arable area that a single team of oxen can plow in spring. In the Eastern European, Slavic region, the term Lahn (to fiefdom), for example Czech Lán , Polish Łan , Ukrainian Лан , is synonymous with the area of ​​the hoof measurement, since their owners did not have the status of passed farmers .

The Franconian Hooves

The typical Hufendorf Schönbrunn in the Silesian Duchy of Sagan . Today this municipality is called Jabłonów and is located in the Lubusz Voivodeship .

The Franconian Hufe was a fixed agricultural area that was assigned to new farmers as a standard area when new villages were founded in the Franconian Empire and later in the Holy Roman Empire since the ninth century . It was considered advantageous to design the hooves as very long and relatively narrow surfaces. The newly founded villages are so-called row villages , in which right and left a central axis, z. B. a street or a river, the respective courtyard buildings are at a distance of about 50 to 100 meters together. Behind it, every farming family had their agricultural area, which was almost two and a half kilometers long, but not very wide, consisting of vegetable and fruit gardens, meadows, fields and finally also forest. See as an example the map to the right of the Hufendorf Schönbrunn. If the area of ​​the allocated stripes was slightly smaller than the full hoof for topographical reasons, this was compensated for in so-called compensation fields. However, these were possibly a little further away from the connected homestead area right behind the house.

The Franconian king hoof initially comprised 120 Franconian fields. The old Franconian field is a field of 360 × 120 Franconian feet, equal to 12 × 4 Franconian royal rods. The Franconian royal rod measures 30 feet. The Franconian foot is the same that was used in the city of Nuremberg until the 19th century and measures around 303 ⅞ millimeters. This first, original king's rod measured just under 9.12 meters. The metrologists of the first Franconian kings and emperors had of course not “invented” this measure, but it was, as always in the old metrology , in connection with other known, even older measures. The Franconian foot should not be confused with the so-called Carolingian foot. The latter was initially practiced mainly in the Rhineland , which is why it is commonly referred to simply as the Rhenish foot . The former, the Frankish foot, however, is about the agilolfingisch - Bavarian foot from the since Roman times to the 19th century in the former Roman provincial capital Augsburg preserved Roman Foot derived.

The Franconian hooves were initially defined as follows according to the Franconian tail:

Franconian hooves definition Rod² Square
rod __________
square feet
Ratio Hectares
Franconian royal hooves 120 acres 5760 idem 4th 47.873
Franconian big hooves 060 acres 2880 2 23.936
Franconian land hooves 030 acres 1440 900 (= 30 × 30) 1 11.968
Franconian small hooves 015 acres 0720 idem ½ 05.984
The Franconian acreage is a field of 360 × 120 Nuremberg feet, equal to 39.8734 ares.

In fact, over time, three king rods of different lengths were used to measure the Franconian king's hooves, although their total area always remained the same.

  • The Franconian king's rod is very old and measures around 9.12 meters. Their length is thirty Franconian feet. In connection with the king's hooves, it was soon replaced by the two following king's rods. The Franconian 15-foot rod remained in use until modern times.
  • The Saxon king's rod was used very early by the Saxon Liudolfingers to measure the Franconian king's hooves. It is also a 30-foot rod and measures just under 8.60 meters. It measures two Saxon field knife rods as they were used in Saxony until the nineteenth century. Since the time of the Saxon Ottonians , the dimensions of the Franconian royal hooves should now have a length of 270 and a width of 24 royal rods. But this could not be achieved with the old definition of 5760 square rods. The tailor-made rod had to be modified. The total area should however remain the same. This was achieved by multiplying the original Franconian foot to around 303 ⅞ mm by the factor (2√2 / 3 ≈) 0.94281. The newly acquired Saxon king foot of the surveyor's rod therefore measures around 286 ½ mm. This Ottonian Saxon foot spread throughout the empire; for example to Hamburg or to Stuttgart and officially stayed there until the metric system was adopted in the 19th century. The Saxon king's rod measures thirty old Saxon feet. The Saxon surveyor's rod measures fifteen old Saxon feet.
  • The Salic king's rod has been attested since the beginning of the 12th century. As a 30-foot rod, it measures just under 9.42 meters, and as a 15-foot rod, it measures just under 4.71 meters. An old manuscript from 1106, that is, among the last Salians , shows that an even longer and narrower king's hoof has been preferred since that time. It should now be 720 king rods long and 30 wide. However, the Salian kings, like the Saxon kings before, also made it important not to modify the original total area of ​​the king's hooves. In order to achieve this, the new Salic foot had to be in the ratio 12: (3√15) with the old Franconian foot, i.e. the Nuremberg foot . The thirtieth part of this royal rod, or the fifteenth part of the royal half-rod, is the Salic foot. The Salic foot is identical to the Prussian foot . This was still officially in force in Prussia in the 18th and 19th centuries. The Prussian foot is thus of East Franconian origin. Contrary to many claims, especially by Prussian metrologists, the Prussian foot is not identical to the old Rhenish foot. The latter is related to West Franconian dimensions and is slightly shorter than the former.

Important note: In the medieval manuscripts , as well as in the various metrological publications of the modern era, the definition of the king's rod in feet is inconsistent. Mostly it is given as a double rod of thirty feet, but sometimes only defined as a fifteen-foot (three-double-step) rod. This article here takes account of this conceptual ambiguity in so far as it regularly assumes the king's rod, hereinafter, as a 30-foot rod. Knowing full well that these “royal double rod rods” were actually only on paper. The rods are not just a theoretical measure, but above all, a very specific measuring device used by surveyors in the field. In practice, however, the latter could not work at all or only with great difficulty with such unwieldy, theoretical king rods up to nine meters long, which is why they then regularly resorted to the corresponding half rod in such cases . This ambiguity must be taken into account when studying the sources .

Overview of the three different royal rods in which the Franconian hooves were successively measured:

King's Rod N × feet
in Paris lines
in meters
(K. hooves)
(king's hooves)
rod ratio
rod ratio
Franconian royal rod = 30 x 134,67784 = 9.11662 m 5760 = 47.87295 ha 1: 1 0.0000%
Saxon royal rod = 30 × 126.98196 = 8.59523 m 6480 = 47.87295 ha 33:35 - 0.0051%
Salic King's Rod = 30 × 139.13000 = 9.41560 m 5400 = 47.87295 ha 11 4  : (3 4  × 5² × 7) - 0.0077%

The foot measurement contained in the Salic king's rod is the same as the Prussian foot, as Walter Heinrich correctly noted in his research on king's hooves. The Nuremberg foot, however, has no official, legal conversion. The Dresden surveyor's rod was recently defined as measuring exactly 182 new Saxon inches, whereby it was necessary (182 contains the prime number 91) to be rounded. In the two tables above, the Franconian or the Saxon value of the king's rod in question, based on the legal value of the Prussian foot, equal to 139.13 Parisian lines, was calculated back according to the exact ratio that precisely preserves the area. The Franconian foot measures 139.13 × (2√2 / 3) ≈ 134.67784 Parisian lines, the Saxon king's foot thus 139.13 × (12 / (3√15)) ≈ 126.98196 Parisian lines .

The Nuremberg astronomer Johann Philipp von Wurzelbauer and the French metrologist Johann Caspar Eisenschmidt (1737) both gave the Franconian foot with 134.675 Parisian lines, i.e. only about 0.002% less. In 1808 Georg Kaspar Chelius adopted this value in his metrological handbook, rounded to 134.7 Parisian lines. In 1830, Chelius increased its value to  PL 134.7 5 without giving a reason. But even the latter value is only approx. 0.0536% above the value of the Franconian foot, which is exactly calculated back based on the Salian-Prussian royal rod.

The Liudolfinger foot, i.e. the Saxon king foot of the Ottonians , is very well preserved in Hamburg with PL 127.036 and in Stuttgart with PL 127.0. Only in the Kingdom of Saxony itself does the Saxon royal foot appear shortened by around 0.0395%. This is not surprising given the modern definition of the old Saxon surveyor's rod at exactly 182 new Saxon customs. According to the above value, the old Saxon surveyor's rod would be around 182.1088 legal Saxon customs. It should also be noted that the actual Dresden foot in Electoral Saxony , at exactly 283 ⅓ mm, was about 0.05% longer than the later legal dimension, which was determined when the Kingdom of Saxony was converted to metric dimensions, at exactly 283.19 mm or 125,537 Paris lines. The Saxon surveyor's rod for 182 Dresdner Zoll results in a Saxon surveyor's rod of 15 × 126.9961 PL, i.e. only 0.011% above the value given in the table above.

However, these deviations are all in the green area, which can be set at approx. ± 0.05% with the old length dimensions. Only between approx. ± 0.05% and ± 0.10% you find yourself in a yellow area, with deviations that are somewhat alarming.

The foot values ​​of these king rods, expressed in seven or eleven smooth values:

The Roman foot measurement is known to be derived from the nippurelle : 518.616 × (16 ÷ 28) = 296.352 millimeters.

From the Roman foot you get over the Bavarian foot : 296.352 × (18 ÷ 16) × (14 ÷ 16) = 291.7215 mm
to the Franconian foot: 291.7215 × (20 ÷ 16) × (10 ÷ 12) × (10 ÷ 12) = 303.8765625 mm, (approx. 134.707 Parisian lines)
and then to the old Saxon foot: 303.8765625 × (33 ÷ 35) = 286.5121875 millimeters, (approx. 127.009 Parisian lines) .

The Salic foot stands smooth: 11³: (3 5  × 5), thus 1331: 1215, to the Saxon king foot. The eleven smooth value of the former is thus 313.8664375 mm and is therefore with approx. 139.13 574 Parisian lines, only insignificantly (0.0041%) above the established 139.13000 PL of the Prussian foot.

So the Franconian king hooves were widespread

  • either to: 270 × 12 Saxon royal rods
  • or also to: 360 × 15 salic king rods.
    • The Franconian big hoof was half of that.
    • The Frankish land hooves measured a quarter of the king hooves.
    • The Franconian small hoof was again half of the latter.

Later hoof measurements

Throughout the High Middle Ages , the traditional, Franconian dimensions of the hooves were adhered to. In the late Middle Ages, on the other hand, and here at first especially in the Baltic region , other hoof sizes came up. After the internal colonization within the empire had largely been completed, the eastern settlement of the Teutonic Order began . The Teutonic Order State, however, lay outside the boundaries of the HRR and one no longer felt bound by the old Franconian hoof measurements. Regional hoof measurements were created for mostly 30 regional acres. This development later continued within the empire, so that here too there were regional dimensions that differed from the Franconian Hufe.

Hoof measurements outside and inside the Holy Roman Empire

Country or city definition Def.-unit
__________ square rod
rod __________
square feet
Hectares Ref.
Fulda 30 acres 160 144 05.5311
Frankfurt a. M. 30 acres 160 100 06.0752
Prussia 30 acres 180 144 07.6597
Mecklenburg 25 acres 240 256 13.0070
Oletzko 30 acres 300 196 15.6484
Danzig 30 acres 300 225 16.6664
Kulm (old) 30 acres 300 225 16.7962
Brandenburg (old) 30 acres 400 144 17.0215
Kulm (new) 30 acres 300 225 17.3389
Soldin 30 acres 300 225 17.5836
Poland (old) 30 acres 300 225 17.9550
Pomerania 30 acres 300 256 19.6526
Saxony 36 acres 300 225 19.9223
Küstrin 30 acres 300 225 20.6175
Lithuania 30 acres 300 225 21.3679
Neumark 30 acres 300 225 22.6953

According to Walter Heinrich, the Saxon Hufe is thirty-six Saxon fields.
It is exactly 10:24 to the Franconian king hoof. The Saxon hoof was also divided into multiples and sub-multiples.

Hoof multiples using the example of Pomerania

Like the Franconian ones, the later hoof measurements were structured as multiples .

Hooves in Pomerania definition Tail 2 Square
rod __________
square feet
Ratio Hectares
Hager or Flemish hooves 60 acres 18,000 idem 2 39,3052
Triple hooves 45 acres 13,500 0 29.4789
Pomeranian Land Hooves 30 acres 09000 16 × 16 = 256 1 19.6526
Priest hooves 20 acres 06000 idem 13.1017
Heel or wendy hooves 15 acres 04500 09.8263
Source: Comparisons of the [...] dimensions and weights, Johann Albert Eytelwein, 2nd edition, Berlin 1810. Online

The term “Flemish hooves” only has to be understood as an indication of the order of magnitude .
(Similar to how, for example, the "Brabanter Elle" had a good half a dozen locally adapted, absolute length values.)

Regional differences in hoof use

The Leiter-Hube (first mentioned around 1470) in the Carinthian Nockberge in St. Oswald near Bad Kleinkirchheim
  • In northern Germany , the hooves also referred to a full farmer's position. The farmer in such a place was as Hufner full member of the village community and was able under the applicable law in the village autonomously operate and participate in the peasant self-government. In many areas the hoof constitution of the villages was preserved until the 18th century and was only lifted with the coupling . The Marschhufendorf represents a special form of village foundation with hooves , which was also often settled on newly built dykes.
  • In southern Germany and Austria , the Hube in modern times meant a larger homestead with sufficient agricultural land than a specific area. In a description of Carinthia its author says Count Rosenberg, late 18th century, as follows: "A Landhube to the old disclaimer 16 ⅓ surface mining, then a Maad, as exist in some pasture, wood and Ströb." In Bavaria of 17 In the 20th century and in Württemberg, the farms were taxed according to the so-called “ Hoffuß ”, but the area of ​​the farm varied.
  • In West Germany , the Hube remained a legal measure only in the Prince-Bishop 's Fulda and in the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt until the nineteenth century.
  • In southern Hesse, the Hubengut was a special form of private land ownership
  • In East Germany as well as in the Prussian eastern areas of the German Empire, however, the hooves were generally retained until the metric system was adopted .

Włóka and Łan, the Polish hooves and Lahn, respectively

Włóka , the Mazovian hoof, is derived from the word włóczyć , which means 'to drag' or 'pull'.

  • Włóka reńska ('Rhenish hooves') corresponds to 7.6597 hectares.
  • Włóka chełmińska ('Kulmer Hufe') corresponds to 17.838 hectares.

The Polish word Łan probably goes to the German word fief , Althochdeutsch Léhan , back.

The term “Lahn” is used as a unit of area in German and has been a loan word in Polish since around the 13th century .

As a result of the partitions of Poland , Austrian dimensions were used in Lesser Poland from the end of the 18th century:

Polish German Ratio
Łan Lahn 48 27.6223 ha
Morga tomorrow 1 57.5464 ar
Miara Slut 13 19.1821 ar
Pret ² Tail ² 1400 14.3866 m²
Sazen ² Fathoms ² 11600 03.5967 m²
Stopa ² Foot ² 11 / 57,600 00.0999 m²

The Austrian yoke, however, was translated as Morga .

There was also a Polish Łan for forty-eight morgas.

Oxgang or Bovata, the English small hooves

The English small hoof , the oxgang (also bovate ), measures just over six hectares. It sees itself as the arable area that can be mastered by a team of oxen while plowing in the spring.

The Oxgang is also a reference field 660 feet wide, i.e. forty English rods or one furlong .
The length of this surveyor's reference field is 990 feet, or sixty English rods, or exactly one and a half furlong.
Therefore, the English small hoof measures ((660 × 0.3048) × (990 × 0.3048)) = 60,702, 846,336  , i.e. a little more than six hectares .

English hoof multiples

Hoof name English Anglo standard. Anglo - Lat. Acres Rod² Hectares Ratio
King hooves hide, ploughland charrue, charruée Carucata 120 acres 19,200 48.5623 ha 8th
Big hooves - - - 060 acres 09600 24.2814 ha 4th
Land hooves yardland vergée Virgata 030 acres 04800 12.1406 ha 2
Small hooves oxgang bovée Bovata 015 acres 02400 06.0703 ha 1
Anthropic Farm Units.png

The Franconian King's Hoof to 120 Franconian acres equal 47.9 hectares corresponds to the English hide (also called ploughland, carucate ) to 120 English acres equal 48.6 hectares.

Fifteen acres equals twelve Heredia

Special attention must be paid to the English small hooves, the so-called oxgang, as this Norman reference field defines the English area and length dimensions directly in relation to the Roman dimensions.

However, it can be considered certain that this definition was not an original achievement of the Norman metrologists only after the conquest of England. Rather, it was only a matter of the concrete and legally binding implementation of knowledge that had been available for several centuries. As is well known, the Normans let not a few scholars and administrators come to England from both the Western Capetian Empire and the Eastern Liudolfing Empire to build up the country at the end of the eleventh and early twelfth centuries . On the continent, however, this metrological derivation must have been known for a long time, since it is the prerequisite for the development of both the actual Rhenish foot, which is also called the Carolingian foot, and the Rhenish trading foot , the Cologne foot. Both stand 36:35 and 33:35 respectively, in relation to the foot measurement that will later be called English. The fact that the English dimensions are derived from the Roman and not from the Rhenish dimensions is clear from the eleven-smooth definition of the English field width of 660 feet.

Oxgang de.svg

The choice of the furlong to exactly 660 feet, which at first seems a bit strange, turns out to be well chosen.

The reason for this deliberate introduction of the prime factor eleven is exactly the same as that for the introduction of factor seven into the 14-foot field knife rods of the HRR . Indeed, thanks to an approximation known since ancient times , both eleven smooth and seven smooth rods allow the diagonal of a square to be assigned a rational value . Certainly long before Theon von Smyrna noted this approximation √2 ≈ 99 ÷ 70 in writing, it was used very frequently in the field surveyor's practice. Their relative error is only +  0.0051%, i.e. very far below the precision required and practically achievable in land surveying .

The surveyors made use of this approximate value, which they naturally knew, in order to establish a clear, rational relationship between the new, later and still today, English measures and the old Roman ones. To this end, they determined that sixteen Roman arpent ( actus quadrati ), including eight Roman yokes (iugera) or four Roman inheritances (heredia), should in future correspond to exactly five later English fields (acres), with the Roman arpent having a square field area of ​​twelve Roman ten-foot rods (perticae) is side length.

According to this definition, the following applies: The width of the small English hooves, in red in the graphic above, is equal to the diagonal of the Roman reference field to four Heredia (sixteen arpent), in blue above .

The plow length of the furrow, i.e. the furlong, the width of the English reference field Oxgang, is (480 × 0.296 3 m ÷ 70) × 99 = 201.168 meters. The furlong is known to be 660 English feet. Therefore, the English foot is 201.168 ÷ 660 = 0.3048 meters.

Since then, the English foot and the Roman foot have maintained the ratio 36:35.

The well-known English dimensions of length and area are not attested to before the conquest of England by the Normans on the British Isles . Only after the acceptance of the Oxgang, i.e. the English small hooves, did they become binding in England.

Yard sizes by area

In addition to the Hufner / Huber , who farmed about a full hoof, there are the following names as a designation for the size, and thus the economic wealth of a homestead:

Three-quarter hooves, half hooves, quarter hooves, eighth hooves

These can also be found as designations such as half- farmer , in the sense that the farm was only barely enough to meet the needs of life, and additional work was necessary ( small farmers ). A quarter or Achtelhof was then only a part-time farming , such as by small commercial artisans or Zuarbeitern ( Frondienstler ), regional and gardener called.


Dotalhufe refers to the award of a hoof as part of a grant, especially to the church.

See also


Web links

Wiktionary: Hufe  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Georg Landau : The territories in relation to their formation and their development. Friedrich and Andreas Perthes, Hamburg / Gotha 1854, p. 4.
  2. ^ The Landbuch der Mark Brandenburg from 1375 . In: Johannes Schultze (Ed.): Brandenburg Land Books. Volume 2 (=  publications of the historical commission for the province of Brandenburg and the imperial capital Berlin ). Volume VIII, 2nd commission publisher by Gsellius, Berlin 1940, Introduction, p. XI – XXIII ( digitized version in Potsdam University Library ).
  3. ^ Franz J. Beranek : Das Lahn. On the Germanic-Slavic cultural integration. In: Gerhard Heilfurth , Hinrich Siuts (Hrsg.): European cultural entanglements in the area of ​​popular tradition. Festschrift for the 65th birthday of Bruno Schiers. Otto Schwartz, Göttingen 1967, p. 97
  4. ^ Angelo Martini: Manuals di metrologia. Edition Loescher, Turin 1883, p. 414.
  5. ^ Angelo Martini: Manuals di metrologia. Edition Loescher, Turin 1883, p. 47.
  6. ^ Angelo Martini: Manuals di metrologia . Edition Loescher, Turin 1883, p. 198.
  7. Compare the late medieval manuscript: M 34 b : "The law of lay judges in the Dresden manuscript" , SLUB Dresden , published by Hermann Wasserschleben: Collection of German legal sources. Chapter CIII. Ernst Heinemann, Giessen 1860, p. 91.
  8. ^ Angelo Martini: Manuals di metrologia. Edition Loescher, Turin 1883, p. 24.
  9. ^ Angelo Martini: Manuals di metrologia. Edition Loescher, Turin 1883, p. 749.
  10. ^ Diedrich Ehmck , Wilhelm von Bippen : Bremisches Urkundenbuch . Vol. 1. Documents up to 1300. Ed. D. Rudolf. Bremen 1873, p. 28. ( Latin: " quæ mansio in longitudine septingentas et viginti, in latitudine vero triginta habet regales virgas" ) In German: "This manse was 720 in length, but it measures 30 royal rods in width".
  11. ^ Angelo Martini: Manuals di metrologia. Edition Loescher, Turin 1883, p. 74.
  12. ^ A b Heinrich Walter: Königshufen, Waldhufen and Saxon fields. ( Memento from March 16, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) In: New Archive for Saxon History N ° 51 (1930) (PDF; 433 kB) Compare: Heinrich Walter in his short but interesting article on King's Hooves on page 5, last paragraph. Whereby he takes the (Salic) king's rod at 4.7 meters, i.e. only as a half-rod. See note above .
  13. Jo. Cas. Eisenschmidii: De ponderibus et mensuris. [...], Impensis Henr. Leon. Steinii, 1737. Quotation, p. 92: Pes Norimbergensis urbicus est [...] 1346 ¾ ex 1440. mis Paris. uti me edocuit Nobilissimus Dn. Wurtzelbauer. In German: As the excellent Mr. Wurzelbauer taught me, the foot of the city of Nuremberg measures 134.675 Parisian lines.
  14. ^ Angelo Martini: Manuals di metrologia. Edition Loescher, Turin 1883, p. 198.
  15. MARTINI, Angelo, Manuale di metrologia, ossia misure, pesi e monete in uso attualmente e anticamente presso tutti i popoli, Torino, Loescher, 1883. - 904 p .; 23 cm / 219, Guido Mura - Biblioteca Nazionale Braidense - online, p. 219. Last accessed on November 22, 2014.
  16. MARTINI, Angelo, Manuale di metrologia, ossia misure, pesi e monete in uso attualmente e anticamente presso tutti i popoli, Torino, Loescher, 1883. - 904 p .; 23 cm / 219, Guido Mura - Biblioteca Nazionale Braidense - online, p. 212. Last accessed on November 22, 2014.
  17. MARTINI, Angelo, Manuale di metrologia, ossia misure, pesi e monete in uso attualmente e anticamente presso tutti i popoli, Torino, Loescher, 1883. - 904 p .; 23 cm / 219, Guido Mura - Biblioteca Nazionale Braidense - online, p. 74. Last accessed on November 22, 2014.
  18. MARTINI, Angelo, Manuale di metrologia, ossia misure, pesi e monete in uso attualmente e anticamente presso tutti i popoli, Torino, Loescher, 1883. - 904 p .; 23 cm / 219, Guido Mura - Biblioteca Nazionale Braidense - online, p. 728. Last accessed on November 22, 2014.
  19. a b c d e f g h i j comparisons of the present and former in the k. Prussian states ... by Johann Albert Eytelwein, Berlin 1810, p.37 (online) Last accessed on November 22, 2014.
  20. MARTINI, Angelo, Manuale di metrologia, ossia misure, pesi e monete in uso attualmente e anticamente presso tutti i popoli, Torino, Loescher, 1883. - 904 p .; 23 cm / 219, Guido Mura - Biblioteca Nazionale Braidense - online, p. 74. Last accessed on November 22, 2014.
  21. Online
  22. Włóka , it is typical Mazovia, which normally only exist for Mazovia and Kresy . Lore […] [in:] "terminu włóka w znaczeniu jednostki mierniczej używano w XV w. Głównie na Mazowszu [in:] Józef Szymański. Naukiii pomocnicze histor. Naukiii. 2002; "jest miarą przyjętą na Mazowszu, ... i miarą typowo mazowiecką [in:] Kazimierz Tymieniecki . Roczniki historyczne: B. 36-40, 1970.
  23. Angelo Martini: Manuale di metrologia ossia misure, pesi e monete in uso attualmente e anticamente presso tutti i popoli . Loescher, Turin 1883, p. 827 (Edizione Digitale a cura di Guido Mura, Milano, Biblioteca Nazionale Braidense, 2003).