The Neumark ( Pol. Nowa Marchia ) is a largely east of the Oder located historical landscape that today most of the Polish Lubusz accounts. As a deviation, the north and north-east of Neumark with Chojna (Königsberg in der Neumark), Myślibórz (Soldin) and Choszczno (Arnswalde) today belong to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship , while in the south there are also historical parts of Lusatia , Lower Silesia with Żagań (Sagan) and Zielona Góra (Grünberg) as well as a small piece of Greater Poland with Wschowa (Fraustadt) belong to the Lebus Voivodeship. The small parts of the area, which have been west of the altered course of the Oder since the 18th century and belonged to Neumark until 1945, belong to the German state of Brandenburg .
From 1535 to 1815, the Neumark formed one of the two regions of the Mark Brandenburg, along with the Kurmark . It then belonged to the Prussian province of Brandenburg ( Frankfurt administrative district ) until 1945 .
Until the middle of the 13th century, the Piasts of Greater Poland and Silesia as well as the Gryphons of Pomerania had vied for the development of the area east of the central Oder, certainly by recruiting German settlers. Between 1249 and 1287, the Margraves of Brandenburg acquired the state of Lebus . With that they initiated the creation of the Neumark. In the course of this process, the forest region between Oder (in the west), Warthe and Netze (in the south) and Drage (in the east) (later the districts of Königsberg / Nm., Landsberg and Soldin) was expanded by further small landscapes (terrae) until it 1535 reached its greatest extent under Margrave Johann von Küstrin , including the area around Cottbus in Niederlausitz (now also west of the Oder, up to the Oberspree).
The Neumark was bordered in the west and south by the Oder , in the north it bordered on Pomerania , in the east on Greater Poland (from 1815 to 1920 on the Prussian province of Posen ) and in the south-east on Lower Silesia . In addition to the Oder, the rivers Warthe and Netze dominated the landscape with their wide swamp areas.
Margraviate Brandenburg-Küstrin 1535–1571
- original Neumark ( Nova Marchia ) with Dramburg and Schivelbein
- Duchy of Crossen with Züllichau and Sommerfeld
- Land Sternberg
- Lordship of Cottbus and Peitz
In 1747 seven original and four incorporated (incorporated) circles are named, which belonged to Neumark until 1807/15
- City of Küstrin
- Sternberg Circle
- Züllichau circle
- Cottbusscher Kreis (1807–1815 to the Kingdom of Saxony)
- Crossenscher Kreis (since 1742 as a district, until then as the Duchy of Crossen Bohemian fiefdom)
- Königsberg / Nm district.
- Soldin district
- Arnswalde district
- Friedeberg district
- Landsberg (Warthe) district
- Sternberg district
- Züllichau-Schwiebus district
- Circle cross
- Cüstrin district
- Cottbus district
On January 1, 1836, the Küstrin district was dissolved and divided into the Königsberg / Nm., Landsberg (Warthe) and Lebus districts.
In 1873 the Sternberg district was split up
When the Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia province was dissolved in 1938 , the Neumark district was expanded to include the Schwerin (Warthe) districts and parts of the Meseritz and Bomst districts , but in return the Arnswalde and Friedeberg districts went to the Pomerania province .
In 1945 the area east of the Oder became part of the Polish state and was dissolved as an administrative structure. To the west of the Oder, the following places remained near Brandenburg
the community parts
- western districts of Göritz, in Polish Górzyca , and Ötscher, in Polish Owczary
- Aurith and
- Kunitz, Polish Kunice (Kunitz-Loose)
Early history to 1248
Germanic tribes of the Burgundians settled the area of the later Neumark up to the 5th century. Archaeological traces of settlement bear witness to their culture.
Slavic settlement (7th to 13th centuries)
Since the 7th century, various Slavic tribes have settled in the deserted area.
Since the 11th century, Polish Piasts and their Pomeranian vassals met with their territorial claims east of the Oder in the lower Waiting area, namely at the strategically important crossings over the networks, which for a time formed the border, in Zehden , Zantoch and Driesen .
The Dukes of Pomerania , Greater Poland and Silesia focused on the settlement of the sparsely populated forest region between the Oder , Netze , Warthe and Drage . They gave land to the orders of the Templars , Johanniter and Cistercians and also dioceses and noble families ( Wedel , Liebenow and Uchtenhagen ) with extensive hoof ownership . The recruited new settlers came mainly from the tribal duchy of Saxony . The reasons were on the one hand religious in nature, but on the other hand there was also the intention to control the central Oder and to protect it against the threatening expansion of the Ascanians from the west.
Brandenburg Ascanians (1248-1320)
However, this was of little use, since the margrave brothers Johann I and Otto III. of Brandenburg brought the state of Lebus under their control since 1248. After the elimination of the Magdeburg competition in 1252, the "town founders" Johann I. and Otto III. build successfully. The expansion of Brandenburg power east of the Oder began on and north of the Warta : In 1257, the town of Landsberg was founded on the lower Netze , more conveniently located than the old Zantoch fort on a high bank. Then came Soldin (after 1261), Arnswalde (before 1269), Berlinchen (1278), Schivelbein (around 1292), Dramburg (1297) and the like. a. added. The religious orders of knights were ousted from the western part of this new "terra transoderana" or "marchia nova" and cheaply settled. The name Neumark (neuwe Mark obir Oder) was first used in 1397.
At the castellanias Zantoch and Driesen, which are network crossings in a controversial border location, castles were built for mutual control on both the northern, Pomeranian bank and the opposite (large) Polish bank. Around 1300 the castles of Zantoch and Driesen were in Ascanic possession, as was the city of Meseritz with the Paradies monastery .
The Soldiner Castle was acquired by the Knights Templar in 1234, who sold it to the Margraves of Brandenburg in 1261. In 1270 she was given the important Zantoch castle. In Soldin with since 1228 Terminei represented Dominicans erected in 1275 a monastery . The collegiate church SS. Peter and Paul at the Soldiner parish church (1298) also made the city a spiritual center, which made Soldin so important that it became the capital of the Neumark (within the boundaries of the time) until this function was transferred to Küstrin in 1548 lost the residence of Elector Johann von Küstrin .
In the early 14th century, the common ruling Margrave acquired Waldemar and John then the hitherto land owned by the Bishopric of Lebus BEEN area south of the Warta estuary from the east bank of the Oder to the limit Wielkopolska
From the extinction of the Ascanians to the Reformation
Wittelsbachers and Luxembourgers (1323–1401)
With the extinction of the Ascanians in 1320, the interest of the respective rulers of Brandenburg in the Neumark declined noticeably. The Wittelsbacher (1323-1373) did not care about the further development of their areas east of the Oder. Nevertheless, the Landbuch der Neumark from 1337 under Margrave Ludwig the Elder is an important document on the history of this landscape and the oldest of its kind in the Mark Brandenburg. In 1351 Ludwig, who was already in conflict with the Brandenburg nobility, then finally gave the mark to his younger half-brothers Ludwig VI in the Luckau Treaty . and Otto V. , who took it over completely after Ludwig's death.
Even the Luxembourgers did not care about this remote area. Initially under the rule of Wenceslaus the Lazy , Brandenburg was divided among his sons after the death of Emperor Charles IV in 1378. Sigismund receives the Altmark and Mittelmark, Johann receives the Neumark. After his death in 1396, the Neumark also fell to Sigismund.
German Order (1402-1455)
Sigismund pledged the Neumark in 1402 to the German Order of Knights , in 1429 it passed into its complete possession, but the order also let the country fall into disrepair. In 1433 parts of the Neumark were destroyed by the Hussites . At the beginning of June the invasion of the Hussites and Poles began, on June 4th Zantoch was conquered, from June 9th to 15th Landsberg was besieged. Meanwhile, everything was devastated in a wide area, numerous villages were burned down. On December 15, 1433, the Teutonic Order and the King of Poland concluded a peace for a period of twelve years, among other things, it provided that the Order would give the bishops of Poland the possession of all goods, villages and possessions that had belonged to them from ancient times, should admit again.
Acquisition by the Hohenzollern (1454/63)
Its own mismanagement forced the order to pledge the Neumark back to the Brandenburg Elector Friedrich II from the house of Hohenzollern as early as 1454 . In 1463, Friedrich II finally acquired Neumark for 40,000 guilders.
Independent state (1535–1571)
In 1535, Margrave Hans von Küstrin made Neumark an independent state structure (the Margraviate Brandenburg-Küstrin ) and initiated the consolidation of the state. In 1537 he was one of the first sovereigns in Germany to introduce the Reformation in his territory. The entire monastery and monastery property with its rich income was transferred to sovereign property.
In the Mark Brandenburg from 1571 to 1807
After the death of Hans von Küstrin and his brother in 1571, there were no male descendants entitled to inherit and the Neumark was reunited with the Electorate of Brandenburg . The Neumark was subsequently administered by the bailiffs Detlof von Winterfeld , Komtur zu Schivelbein, and later by his son Georg von Winterfeld, Lord Master of the Order of St. John, also Komtur zu Schivelbein.
Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
The Thirty Years War made the Neumark difficult to create. Swedish and imperial troops marched through the country, plundering and pillaging, the plague epidemics of 1626 and 1631 ravaged the population. During the Swedish occupation, the Neumark had to raise 60,000 thalers and 10,000 bison rye in stationing costs.
Consolidation under Friedrich I and II (1701–1784)
With the establishment of the Prussian state in 1701, the situation in Neumark began to improve again. A new wave of colonization began under King Friedrich I. The new immigrants also included numerous Reformed French (Huguenots) who had to leave their homeland because of their faith. Which was targeting in the Neumark clothier craft settled.
The Seven Years' War brought another setback for economic life from 1756, when high contributions had to be raised again. Considerable land gain and economic consolidation came to fruition for the Neumark from 1770 through the drainage program of Frederick the Great for the Warta and Netzebruch.
The Neumark from 1815 to 1945
The reorganization of Prussia due to the territorial changes brought about by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 also changed the political structure of Neumark.
In Poland since 1945
In the spring of 1945 the Soviet Union placed the Neumark areas to the right of the Oder and Neisse rivers under the Polish civil administration . Through the agreements of the Potsdam Conference ( Potsdam Agreement ) of July / August 1945, the area was temporarily placed under Polish administration, subject to a peace treaty settlement . However, the resident population was then expropriated by decree of March 6, 1946 and, by 1947, almost completely expelled by the local Polish administrative authorities . Only a small part of the population, mostly specialists such as technicians for waterworks, was held back and had to do forced labor . This group of people was allowed to leave East Brandenburg in the early 1950s.
In place of the German population, around two thirds were immigrants from central Poland and around one third from the areas east of the Curzon Line that had fallen to the Soviet Union as part of the “ westward displacement of Poland ” .
From 1975 to 1998 Neumark was affiliated to the Gorzów Wielkopolski (Landsberg / Warthe) and Zielona Góra (Grünberg) voivodeships ; only a small part around Chojna (Königsberg Nm.) was in the Szczecin Voivodeship (Stettin) . The international law belonging to Poland in 1990 with the conclusion of the German-Polish border treaty confirmed.
With the reorganization of Poland after democratization, most of the Neumark came to the Lubusz Voivodeship , the heart of which it now forms. A small part (e.g. Soldin ) belongs to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship .
Infrastructure of the Neumark
The Neumark area has always been shaped by agriculture and forestry. The medium-sized settlements were also mostly agricultural towns . From the 19th century on, the textile industry gained in importance. With the construction of the modern traffic routes, the Reichsstraße 1 Berlin - Königsberg and the Ostbahn crossed the Neumark, the conditions for industrial settlements were created. They were mainly geared towards the needs of agriculture and concentrated on the two large cities of Landsberg and Küstrin .
Palaces and gardens in the Neumark
The Neumark is rich in interesting castles, palaces and mansions from different style periods that are valuable in terms of architecture and art history. The state of research on these buildings and their valuable parks and gardens varies. While six of the eleven former East Brandenburg districts of the inventory volumes of art monuments in the province of Brandenburg, which were published between 1902 and 1945, are devoted to the existing castles and manor houses, a total of 29 facilities were found for the first time in 1857–1883 published popular table work by the Berlin publisher Alexander Duncker on "the rural residences, castles and residences of the knightly landowners in the Prussian monarchy together with the royal family, house, Fideicommiss and casket goods" with contemporary images and text recording and thus attention across the district boundaries out. In the book by Hans Joachim Helmigk about old-time Brandenburg mansions (1929) 25 buildings are mentioned in the Neumark and in the inventory of the old gardens and rural parks in the Mark Brandenburg by Paul Ortwin Rave (1939) there are already 64 castle and estate parks. More recent Polish inventories assume around 90 remarkable systems for the historic Neumark region.
The Friends of the Palaces and Gardens of the Mark in the German Society e. V. has been devoting its own series of monographs to the castles and gardens of Neumark since 2005, which is published in German and Polish in cooperation with the Foundation for German-Polish Cooperation and should therefore represent a novelty in German art historiography. The texts are developed by Polish and German art historians and historians. So far the booklets Sonnenburg, Tamsel, Küstrin, Wildenbruch, Lagow, Mergenthin, Charlottenhof, Gleissen, Pförten and Hanseberg have been published. More are in preparation.
- chronologically ascending
- Anton Friedrich Büsching : New description of the earth . Volume 9, Schaffhausen 1771, pp. 1935-1956 .
- Friedrich Wilhelm August Bratring : Statistical-topographical description of the entire Mark Brandenburg . Volume 3: The Neumark Brandenburg . Berlin 1809, ( e-copy ).
- Georg Wilhelm von Raumer (Hrsg.): The Neumark Brandenburg in 1337 or Margrave Ludwig's the elder Neumärkisches Landbuch from this time . Nicolaische Buchhandlung, Berlin 1837 ( e-copy ).
- Eduard Ludwig Wedekind : Sternbergische Kreis-Chronik. History of the cities, towns, villages, colonies, castles etc. of this part of the country from the earliest past to the present . Zielenzig 1855 ( e-copy ).
- Heinrich Berghaus : Land book of the Mark Brandenburg and the Margraviate Nieder-Lausitz in the middle of the 19th century . Volume 3, Brandenburg 1856, § 63: Territorial history of the Neumark (e-copy) .
- Johann Ludwig Quandt : The land on the Net and the Neumark, as they were owned and lost by Pomerania . In: Baltic Studies , Volume 15, Stettin 1857, pp. 165–204 .
- Alexander Duncker (Ed.): The rural residences, castles and residences of the knightly landowners in the Prussian monarchy together with the royal family, house, Fideicommiss and casket goods in lifelike, artistically executed, colored representations and accompanying text. Berlin 1857-1883, volumes 1-16.
- Adolph Friedrich Johann Riedel : Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis. Collection of documents, chronicles and other historical sources for the history of the Mark Brandenburg and its rulers . Volume 18, Berlin 1859 ( e-copy ).
- Johannes Voigt : The acquisition of the Neumark, goal and success of the Brandenburg politics under the Electors Friedrich I. and Friedrich II 1402-1457. According to archival sources . Berlin 1863 ( e-copy ).
- Karl Kletke : Regestae Historiae Neomarchicae. The documents on the history of Neumark and the state of Sternberg.
- Johannes Klocke: Signpost through the Neumark and the area of Gau 26 (Frankfurt a. Oder) of the German Cyclists Association , Frankfurt a. O. 1899, digitized in the Stabi Hamburg, 2017.
- Erich Blunck (Ed.): The art monuments of the Koenigsberg district (Neumark). Geographical geological overview / The city of Königsberg / The northern places / The city of Cüstrin / The southern places (The art monuments of the province of Brandenburg, 7 T. 1). Vossische Buchhandlung, Berlin 1927–1929.
- Felix Escher : Neumark . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 6, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1993, ISBN 3-7608-8906-9 , column 1101 f.
- Gerd Heinrich (Hrsg.): Handbook of the historical places. Berlin and Brandenburg. With Neumark and Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia (= manual of the historical sites of Germany . 10th volume). 3rd, revised and supplemented edition, Alfred Kröner Verlag, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-520-31103-8 (with articles by Johannes Schultze on places in Neumark).
- Peter-Michael Hahn, Hellmut Lorenz (ed.): Manor houses in Brandenburg and Niederlausitz. Commented new edition of Alexander Duncker (1857–1883), Berlin 2000, 2 volumes.
- Jörg Lüderitz: Discover the Neumark. 3. Edition. Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-89794-019-1 .
- Jörg Lüderitz (Ed.): Neumärkisches Lesebuch. Landscapes and people in eastern Brandenburg. Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-89794-043-4 .
- Fritz R. Barran: City atlas East Brandenburg with the former Brandenburg districts Arnswalde and Friedberg Nm. Rautenberg im Verlagshaus Würzburg, Würzburg 2004, ISBN 3-8003-3085-7 .
- Markus Jager: Palaces and Gardens of the Neumark. An overview of the development from the 16th to the 20th century. In: Palaces and Gardens of the Mark. Festival ceremony for Sibylle Badstübner-Gröger. Published by Markus Jager for the Friends of the Palaces and Gardens of the Mark. Berlin 2006.
- Bernd Vogenbeck, Juliane Tomann, Ziemia Lubuska: Almanach Terra Transoderana. Between Neumark and Ziemia Lubuska. Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-937233-50-5 .
- Christa Kouschil: Land development in the Neumark under Friedrich II. Peasant ownership and dependency in the lower Warthebruch (18th to mid-19th century) . 1st edition, Edition Bodoni, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-940781-29-1 .
- Paweł Rutkowski (ed.): Forays between Oder and Drage. Encounters with the Neumark . German Cultural Forum for Eastern Europe, Potsdam 2012. ISBN 978-3-936168-44-0 .
- Wolfgang Kling, Jörg Lüderitz: Neumark. Through the old cultural landscape east of the Oder and Neisse . 1st edition, Trescher Verlag, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-89794-304-9 .
- Jan von Flocken , Volker Frank Giese, Markus Jager, Christa Kouschill, Jörg Lüderitz, Edgar Meyer-Karutz: The Neumark. Brandenburg beyond the Oder (= The Mark Brandenburg. Journal for the Mark and the State of Brandenburg . Issue 105). The Mark Brandenburg - Publishing House for Regional and Contemporary History, Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-910134-79-9 .
- Publications of the Verein für Geschichte der Neumark.
- Jürgen Petersohn: The southern Baltic Sea region in the ecclesiastical-political power play of the empire, Poland and Denmark from the 10th to 13th century , Cologne 1979, with its choice of words probably not wrongly gives the impression that the power play until around 1350 was only about one Chess-like competition was about, not bloody decisive battles.
- Georg Hassel: Statistical outline of all European states . The statistical view and special statistics of Central Europe. Vieweg, Braunschweig 1805, p. 42 ( digitized version ).
- municipalities in Germany 1900 - Königsberg district (Neumark)
- cf. Table sheet from 1952 with old borders on landkartenarchiv.de and current geodata Brandenburg
- Walter Kuhn: Church settlement as border guard 1200 to 1250 (using the example of the central Oder region) . In: Walter Kuhn: Comparative studies on the medieval Ostsiedlung, Cologne / Vienna 1973, pp. 369–417.
Christian Gahlbeck's research has shown that the knightly orders did not even begin their settlement work in full and that the Cistercians rejected the settlement as long as the question of power was not resolved. This hesitant attitude of the great orders gave the noble families Wedel , Liebenow, Uchtenhagen and Behr the chance to increase their own property and influence.
Christian Gahlbeck: Zisterzienser und Zisterzienserinnen in der Neumark , 2002 (Diss.), Pp. 95–119 ( Principles of the political development in the area between Oder and Drage during the 13th and early 14th centuries. )
- The new version is based on Felix Escher : Neumark . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 6, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1993, ISBN 3-7608-8906-9 , column 1101 f .; Johannes Schultze (historian) : Art. Neumark . In: Gerd Heinrich (Hrsg.): Handbook of the historical sites of Germany . Volume 10: Berlin and Brandenburg (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 311). Kröner, Stuttgart 1973, ISBN 3-520-31101-1 , pp. 411-418; Christian Gahlbeck :. Cistercians in the Neumark , 2002 (Diss.), Pp. 95–119 ( Principles of the political development in the area between Oder and Drage during the 13th and early 14th centuries. )
- Acquisition of the “oppidum Goricz” and the adjacent area by the Margraves Waldemar (ruled from 1302) and Johannes (ruled from 1314), certificate 1317 (Christian Wilhelm Spieker: Church and Reformation History of the Mark Brandenburg, Vol. 1, Berlin 1839, p. 576 - Google Book Search)
- Christian Gahlbeck: The so-called Neumärkische Landbuch Margrave Ludwigs the Elder from 1337. Studies of the territorial structure and the tradition. In: Yearbook for the history of Central and Eastern Germany. Volume 50, 2004, pp. 1-48.
- History of Neumark and Pomerania Stephan Raabe Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, Political Education Forum Brandenburg, 1./2. September 2018
- Karl Heidenreich : The German Order in the Neumark (1402-1455). Berlin 1932.
- Andreas Stegmann: The Reformation in the Neumark Association for Berlin-Brandenburg Church History.
- Jörg Lüderitz: The Neumark: Through the old cultural landscape east of the Oder. Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-89794-122-9 .