The Uckermark is a historic landscape in northeast Germany . It is the former area of the Uckermärkischer Kreis and the Stolpirischer Kreis in the Mark Brandenburg . Most of the Uckermark is now in the three districts of Uckermark , Oberhavel and Barnim in the state of Brandenburg . However, a small part belongs to the Vorpommern part of the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania . The Landin Treaty from 1250 is considered the birth document of the Uckermark . However, it only describes the transition of rule over the entire Uckerland from the Pomeranian dukes to the Margraves of Brandenburg , who had acquired the Uckerland south of the Welse from them in 1230. This united Uckerland (terra ukera) has only been known as Uckermark since the late Middle Ages .
The fertile, hilly ground and terminal moraine landscape , which was shaped by the Ice Age , is criss-crossed by the chain of lakes of the Upper and Lower Lake , and in the southern part predominantly with beech forests. In addition to the large Uckerseen there are a number of smaller lakes. Most of the lakes are the result of the ice melt at the end of the last ice age 15,000 years ago. The extraordinary abundance of lakes is a characteristic of the young moraine landscape in northeast Brandenburg . There are over 250 lakes in the Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve alone . Many leftover boulders, so-called erratic boulders , are evidence of the glaciers from Scandinavia .
The Uckermark extends between the rivers Oder , Welse, Randow , Finow and Havel without these continuously forming the border. It borders in the north on Mecklenburg and Pomerania , in the east on Pomerania and the Neumark , in the south on the Neumark and the Mittelmark ( Barnim ) and in the west on the Mittelmark ( Land Löwenberg , Ruppiner Land ) and Mecklenburg ( Fürstenberger Werder ).
The traditional capital of the Uckermark is the city of Prenzlau . Other cities in the Uckermark were Angermünde , Brüssow , Greiffenberg , Joachimsthal , Lychen , Schwedt , Strasburg , Templin , Vierraden and Zehdenick around 1800 . Stains the Uckermark were around 1800 Boitzenburg , Fredenwalde , Fürstenwerder , Gerswalde , Gramzow , Loecknitz , Niederfinow and Stolpe .
The name is derived at the country Ucker ago (terra ukera, provincia VCRA, ukerlant) that the Slavic tribe of ukrani was inhabited, whose name is derived from the river: Sclavos, qui Vucrami vocantur . The Ukranians settled today's Uckermark between the 7th and 12th centuries; this area was called terra ukera until the 13th century . The Uckermark was first mentioned as a historical unit in 1465. The spelling Ucker mark for the region, in which "Mark" is synonymous with the word "Grenzland", can be found in the late Middle Ages: 1486: vker Marckh , when the country had long since lost its status as a (militarily contested) border area ( peace to Wittstock 1442).
From the 7th century AD, the terra Ukera, named after the river Ucker, was settled by the West Slavic tribe of the Ukranians who practiced agriculture , livestock and beekeeping here . The Uckermark formed a landscape west of the Oder in the 12th and 13th. Century a transitional landscape between Brandenburg and (Vor) Pomerania . The northern part of Pomerania and the southern part of Brandenburg were only reunited into a unified (Brandenburg) ruled region with the Treaty of Landin in 1250, which corresponded to the old tribal area of the Ukranians and was first referred to as the Uckermark in 1486, as a border area to Pomerania, albeit no longer in the early and high medieval brand function .
The earliest human finds in the Uckermark in Criewen and Groß Fredenwalde were classified in the Mesolithic . On a vineyard near Groß Fredenwalde, what is probably the oldest burial ground in Germany to date was found with an age of around 7,000 years . The Uckermark was also densely populated in the subsequent epochs of the Neolithic and the Bronze and Iron Ages.
In the course of the migration of peoples , the Suebi , the Elbe-Germanic sub-tribe of the Sermons, left their homeland for the Upper Rhine and Swabia from the 5th century onwards, with the exception of a few remaining groups . In the following Slav period there were already numerous settlements in the Uckerland. These were mostly located on strategically important trade routes. In some cases, castle walls were built near the settlements or from them themselves , which served to protect the local population. Basically, a distinction is made between early and middle Slavic (7th to 8th century) and late Slavic (9th to 10th century) systems. Overall, due to the lack of excavation results, the continuity of settlement of the individual settlement sites can only be proven with difficulty. The investments Drense and United Fredenwalde a settlement from the 7th to the 10th century could be demonstrated. In Fergitz am Oberuckersee archaeologically a settlement could be detected only for the late Slavic time. Groß Fredenwalde is out of the ordinary here. Due to the geographical profile of the local area (navigable waterway up to the High Middle Ages) it can be assumed that Groß Fredenwalde could be the southernmost known Slavic rampart in the German Baltic Sea region.
Since its appearance in written sources, the Uckerland has been a disputed land, especially between the Dukes of Pomerania and the Margraves of Brandenburg. In 1147 Albrecht the Bear advanced as far as Stettin as part of the Wendenkreuzzug . Conversely, the dukes of Pomerania advanced to the Barnim and Teltow , which they did not renounce until 1230 as part of a treaty.
The terra ukera , the settlement area of the Ukranians on the Ucker, came into the possession of the (Christian) dukes of Pomerania soon after 1148 as a result of the Wende Crusade, who had committed themselves to proselytizing the land of the pagan Ukranians. The newly founded mission monasteries Stolpe on the Peene and Grobe on Usedom were active in the Uckerland, where churches in provincia Vcra 1168 can be proven.
The Uckerland finally got its own monastery in Gramzow in 1177/1178 , which is one of the oldest places in the Uckermark with the mention in 1168 next to Nieden (Nedam, mentioned 1121). "The natural wealth of the country and the continued economic prosperity as a result of the agricultural boom of the 12th century materially secured the existence of a pen the shape of the Premonstratensians ", combined with "missionary work by the canons, trade and change in the flourishing early cities of the Pomeranian and Uckerland first clearing and settlement activity of uckersch and immigrant farmers, as it has been attested for Pomerania since the last third of the 12th century ”( Lieselott Enders ). The soils of the Pomeranian Uckerland were and are more fertile than that of the rest of the Ascanian Central Mark . The Pomeranian policy of land development in the context of the high medieval land development in Germania Slavica did not differ in principle from the simultaneous activities of the Ascanians , the Wettins and the archbishops of Magdeburg : it was “up to date” (Lieselott Enders).
The long-distance trade route from Magdeburg to Stettin via Prenzlau was of particular importance . Because of its economic prosperity, the Uckerland became known nationwide , so that Wolfram von Eschenbach mentioned it in his “Parzival” as “Ukerlant” in the first decade of the 13th century, as was the “Ukersee”.
The center of the Uckerland, Prenzlau, was first mentioned in a document in 1187. In 1188 it is described in more detail as a castle town with a market and a jug ( castrum cum foro et taberna ). A church and one of the three mints in Pomerania besides Stettin and Demmin also belonged to this place . In 1188, Prenzlau was an important long-distance trading center with a central local function, which Duke Barnim I raised to a free city (civitas libera) under German law, the most modern city law at the time , in 1234 . This primacy established under the Pomeranian dukes has meant that Prenzlau never lost its membership in the top group of Brandenburg cities (with Berlin / Cölln, Brandenburg, Frankfurt and Stendal). The importance of the Uckerland for the Dukes of Pomerania is also evident in the strong military security, e.g. B. through the " Grützpott " near Stolpe, against which the Askanians built the Oderberg Castle in 1214 .
Around 1230, the Margraves of Brandenburg initially acquired the southern Uckerland up to the Welse by buying it from Duke Barnim I, and then also the remaining northern part through the Landin Treaty from 1250. The Landin treaty is considered to be the "hour of birth of the Uckermark" ( Lieselott Enders ), but only describes the transition of rule over the entire Uckerland from the dukes of Pomerania to the margraves of Brandenburg. The southern part of the Uckerland between Finow and Welse (about the Chorin - Angermünde - Oderberg line ) was still part of the Barnim in the Land Book of Emperor Charles IV from 1375 (see also administrative structure in the Land Book of Charles IV - Uckerland ). The united Uckerland has only been known as the Uckermark since the late Middle Ages (oldest written evidence 1465: vker Marckh .)
The Landin Treaty was a strategic part of the expansive high medieval German land development to the east and north under the jointly ruling Ascanian Margraves Johann I and Otto III. ; their successors tried repeatedly to obtain feudal rule over Pomerania (1198/99 and 1231). The place of the conclusion of the contract and namesake was today's municipality of Mark Landin in the district of Uckermark, where the Brandenburgers probably set up camp on the Kappenberg between Hohen- and the Netherlands. For years the Uckermark remained a bone of contention between Pomerania , Mecklenburg and the Mark Brandenburg. Only after the Peace of Wittstock (1442) did the Uckermark finally come to Brandenburg.
The Thirty Years' War reached the Uckermark in 1626. To make matters worse, there were significant crop failures in 1629 and 1630 and, from 1630, the plague; in Prenzlau about 30% of the urban pre-war population fell victim to it. At the end of the war, almost 40% of the 222 spots and villages in the Uckermark were completely destroyed and deserted. The elector's attempt to repopulate took place u. a. through the recruitment of Dutch, who, as Reformed and Mennonites, were guaranteed free religious practice. As a result of the Swedish-Polish War (1655–1660), the Uckermark suffered further setbacks from 1658: While in 1657 there were still 2219 hooves ordered by the farmers , there were only 598 in 1660. In 1674, after a short period of peace, the Uckermark was incorporated into the Brandenburg region. involved in the Swedish War (1674–1679) and severely damaged by billeting of soldiers and looting.
The 18th century was initially characterized by a phase of reconstruction and subdued economic recovery. Medical care was better (formation of a surgeons' guild in Prenzlau), the number of annual and cattle markets rose to 43 in 16 towns in the Uckermark in the 1720s, and the infrastructure was improved (e.g. the Finow Canal in the southern part of the city went into operation Uckermark in 1746). With the Seven Years' War (1756–1763) new war burdens came to the Uckermark, both from enemy and friend. Grain cultivation remained the most important source of income (Uckermark as Berlin's granary). The cultivation was expanded and intensified in the last third of the 18th century, which in some cases led to drastic changes in the landscape (e.g. the draining of numerous lakes).
The Uckermark is one of the structurally weakest and most sparsely populated regions in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the underdeveloped economy, petroleum processing , papermaking , tourism , agriculture , wind power , manufacturing of solar panels and the food industry are noteworthy. With the Uckermark power plant, the company Enertrag operates a “ wind gas ” pilot plant of its kind, a hybrid power plant that went into normal operation in March 2012 in the Uckermark north of Prenzlau (Brandenburg), which uses hydrogen as an intermediate storage facility.
Large protected areas that are worth seeing are increasingly promoting tourism in the region .
The Lower Odertal National Park is located in the east of the Uckermark . In the south lies the Schorfheide-Chorin biosphere reserve and the Grumsiner Forst / Redernswalde nature reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site . In the west is the Uckermärkische Seen nature park with an area of 897 km² and over 220 lakes.
In the federal competition for sustainable tourism regions 2012/2013, the Uckermark received the first prize on May 13, 2013. In the competition, 50 different criteria from the areas of economy, ecology and social compatibility were evaluated.
The aim of the Collegium Wartinum Foundation is to renovate the Wartin Castle mansion in Wartin ( Casekow municipality ) and to expand it into a center for art, culture and science. The Uckermärkische Bühnen Schwedt are located in Schwedt / Oder , and the village of Boitzenburg is home to the open-air theater, the Boitzenburg monastery ruin , in July and August .
Eating in the Uckermark
The Uckermark kitchen is down to earth. There is no strong culinary tradition. The farmers in the Uuckmarket attached great importance to food that was filling and also gave them the strength to do the hard work. Since the Uckermark is very watery, there was a lot of fish on the menu. Farmers and farm workers took their meals (bread and bacon) mostly in the braided potash with them to the fields.
Like other princes in the Holy Roman Empire , Frederick II of Prussia issued the Potato Order in 1756 . This measure was intended to prevent famine. The potato got its own name in the Uckermark: It became “Nudl.” There are different explanations for this.
Against this background, mostly simple and hearty dishes have developed. These included the Klopp ham (breaded boiled or smoked ham), the wruken stew (stew with swede , vegetables and meat), Klüt & Beern (potato dumplings with bacon, pears and cinnamon) and the Lilac herb (sweet and sour sauce made from elderberry) .
- Anton Friedrich Büsching : New description of the earth . Volume 9, Schaffhausen 1771, pp. 1926-1935.
- Friedrich Wilhelm August Bratring : Statistical-topographical description of the entire Mark Brandenburg. For statisticians, businessmen, especially for camera operators. Second volume. Containing the Mittelmark and Ukermark . Friedrich Maurer, Berlin 1805, Die Ukermark, p. 467 ff. ( Digitized in the Google book search).
- Gustav Kratz: The cities of the province of Pomerania . 1865.
- Lieselott Enders (adaptation): Historical local dictionary for Brandenburg. Uckermark. With an overview map in the appendix (= Friedrich Beck [Hrsg.]: Historisches Ortslexikon für Brandenburg . Part VIII; Publications of the Potsdam State Archives . Volume 21). Hermann Böhlaus successor, Weimar 1986, ISBN 3-7400-0042-2 (gives a reprint from 2012).
- Winfried Dittberner: The bird world of the Uckermark with the lower Odertal and the Schorfheide . Hoyer, Galenbeck in Mecklenburg 1996, ISBN 3-929192-14-4 .
- Eberhard Krienke: Uns Uckermark - language and dialect literature of a region . Schibri Verlag, Milow 1996, ISBN 3-928878-46-8 .
- Erwin Nippert: The Uckermark. On the history of a German landscape . Brandenburgisches Verlags-Haus, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-89488-103-8 .
- Felix Escher: Uckermark . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 8, LexMA-Verlag, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-89659-908-9 , Sp. 1172.
- Volker Austria, Hans Rudolf Uthoff: Uckermark and Schorfheide . Stürtz, Würzburg 1998, ISBN 3-8003-1431-2 .
- Kerstin Kirsch: Slavs and Germans in the Uckermark. Comparative studies on the development of settlements from the 11th to the 14th century (= research on the history and culture of Eastern Central Europe . Volume 21). Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-515-08604-8 .
- Kerrin Countess of Schwerin: The Uckermark between war and peace 1648–1949 . Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg, Berlin 2005, ISBN 978-3-86650-630-5 .
- Lieselott Enders: The Uckermark. History of a Kurmark landscape from the 12th to the 18th century (= Klaus Neitmann [Hrsg.]: Publications of the Brandenburg State Main Archives . Volume 28). 2nd, unchanged edition, Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-8305-1490-9 .
- tmu Tourismus Marketing Uckermark GmbH (Hrsg.): Ma (h) l Time for the senses - the kitchen of the Uckermark . Prenzlau no year
- Bratring: Statistical = topographical description of the entire Mark Brandenburg . 1805, p. 467, online in the Google book search.
- Bratring: Statistical = topographical description of the entire Mark Brandenburg. 1805, p. 484 ff., Online in the Google book search.
- Kerstin Kirsch: Slavs and Germans in the Uckermark. ( Research on the history and culture of Eastern Central Europe (Fgkom)). Franz Steiner, 2004, ISBN 3-515-08604-8 , p. 73.
- Kurt Bruns-Wüstefeld: The Uckermark in Slavic times, its colonization and Germanization Work of the Uckermark Museum and History Association in Prenzlau. A. Mieck, 1919.
- Adolph Friedrich Riedel: Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis, collection of documents, chronicles and other sources for the history of the Mark Brandenburg and its rulers. See Volume 3, p. 365 Uckermark Collection
- gross-fredenwalde.de ( Memento of the original from August 26, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Kirsch, pp. 43–53, determines over 40 plants in their study area (today eastern parts of the districts of Uckermark and Barnim).
- Kirsch, p. 51ff.
- Codex Diplomaticus Brandenburgensis A XXI 328.
- Lieselott Enders: The Uckermark. Pp. 314, 322, 337.
- Lieselott Enders: The Uckermark. Pp. 340, 354, 374, 379.
- Lieselott Enders: The Uckermark. P. 546 ff.
- Federal competition for sustainable tourism regions 2012 | 13
- Uckermärkische Küche accessed on January 10, 2014.