Second Northern War


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Second Northern War
The Treaty of Oliva
The Treaty of Oliva
date 1655 to 1661
place Central, Northern and Eastern Europe
output
consequences End of the Swedish-Polish throne dispute
Peace treaty Peace of Roskilde (March 8, 1658)
Peace of Oliva (May 3, 1660)
Peace of Copenhagen (June 6, 1660)
Peace of Kardis (July 1, 1661)
Parties to the conflict

Sweden 1650Sweden Sweden Brandenburg-Prussia (1656–1657) Tsarism Russia (1654–1667) Principality of Transylvania
Brandenburg PrussiaBrandenburg-Prussia 
Flag of Russia.svg
Flag of Transylvania before 1918.svg

Poland-LithuaniaPoland-Lithuania Poland-Lithuania Denmark (1657–1660) Austria Brandenburg-Prussia (1657–1660) United Netherlands
DenmarkDenmark 
Habsburg MonarchyHabsburg Monarchy 
Brandenburg PrussiaBrandenburg-Prussia 
Republic of the Seven United ProvincesRepublic of the Seven United Provinces 

The Second Northern War , also known as the Little Northern War or Second Polish-Swedish War , was an armed conflict between Poland-Lithuania and Sweden and their allies for supremacy in the Baltic States that lasted from 1655 to 1660/61 . Almost all of the countries bordering Poland-Lithuania were involved in the war, including Russia , which fought its conflicts with Poland-Lithuania, which were closely related to the Second Northern War , as part of the Russian-Polish War of 1654–1667 . In Poland, the time of the war with Sweden, but often also the entirety of the military conflicts of the 1650s and 1660s, is referred to as the "(Bloody) Flood" or the "Swedish Flood" (pln. Potop Szwedzki ) because the kingdom was then experienced a deluge of invasions by foreign armies. Danes, Norwegians and Swedes occasionally use the term Karl-Gustav-Kriege, which refers to the Swedish King Karl X. Gustav .

prehistory

The Baltic crisis, which followed the dissolution of the Brothers of the Sword and the Teutonic Order in the Baltic States , opened an era of Nordic wars in which Poland-Lithuania gradually lost its position of supremacy in Eastern Europe after the Jagiellonian dynasty died out in 1572. The impetus for this renewed turn of the epoch came from Tsarist Russia . When Tsar Ivan IV invaded the politically torn Livonia in 1558 , he unleashed a 25-year conflict on the Baltic coast. This advance called counter-strategies in Sweden, Denmark and Poland, each aiming at supremacy in the Baltic Sea region . Initially, Sweden and Poland were able to jointly drive Russian troops out of Livonia by 1582/83 and keep Russia away from the Baltic Sea for a century and a half. 1587 was Sigismund III. Wasa , who united the race of the Jagiellonians and the Wasa in his person, was elected king. The choice of a Swedish prince favored the outbreak of momentous Swedish-Polish wars . Sweden and Poland were since the deposition of Sigismund III. as the Swedish king in 1599 involved in heavy armed conflict over control of the Baltic Sea . It was about the ownership of the Baltic coastal regions of Estonia and Livonia. Riga, Dorpat, large parts of Courland, Königsberg and important Prussian coastal areas fell into Swedish hands.

On the other hand, Poland used the time of turmoil in Russia to annex large areas in the west of the Russian Empire. In 1648 a Cossack uprising began in the Polish-occupied Ukraine under the leadership of their ataman Bohdan Khmelnyzkyj , through which Poland lost a large part of its territories. When the Swedish Queen Christina I abdicated on June 16, 1654, the Polish King John II Casimir , a great-grandson of King Gustav I and the last living Vasa , made claims to the Swedish throne. At the same time, the Russo-Polish War , which was initially devastating for Poland-Lithuania, began due to Chmelnyzkyj's alliance with Russia , in which Russians and Cossacks initially conquered Lithuania and were able to advance to Lublin .

Course of war

Invasion of the Swedes into Poland-Lithuania

Swedish siege of Jasna Góras 1655. Oil painting, 17th c. Malarnia Jasnogórska, Jasna Góra, Sala Rycerska
Poland in the frontiers before 1660
Poland-Lithuania was almost completely occupied by the Swedes (light blue) and Russian troops (light green) by the end of 1655.

The Swedish plan was to advance with two armies - one coming from the west and the other attacking from the north. Field Marshal Arvid Wittenberg was to advance to Poland from Pomerania with an army of 14,000 men, mainly consisting of enlisted troops, while Karl X. Gustav Arvid Wittenberg's army was to follow with an army of 15,000 men from Sweden. In the northeast, Field Marshal Gustaf Horn and Gustav Lang were to march into Lithuania with a 9,000-strong detachment from Livonia, Sweden . The target strength for the Polish campaign thus comprised around 40,000 men.

On July 1, 1655, Lewenhaupt invaded the Polish part of Livonia on the northern front of Poland-Lithuania and first conquered the town of Daugavpils . Meanwhile, Wittenberg crossed the border into Poland on the Polish western front on July 11th. The Wittenberg contingent was initially opposed by a Polish army with 13,000 men, additionally supported by 1,400 farmers. Aware of the military superiority of the well-trained Swedish army, the Polish nobles Wittenberg surrendered on July 25 in Ujście after the Battle of Ujście and swore their loyalty to the Swedish king from then on. Wittenberg then left a garrison in Poznan.

Lithuanian signed on the Polish northern front Hetman Janusz Radziwill the Treaty of Kėdainiai with Sweden on 17 August 1655, in which the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was placed under Swedish "protection." The contract contained a clause according to which the Lithuanian part did not have to fight against the Polish part of the Union. Part of the Lithuanian army opposed the treaty and founded the Wierzbołów Confederation under the leadership of the magnate Paweł Jan Sapieha .

The Union Treaty of Kėdainiai united Lithuania with Sweden

Karl Gustav gathered his troops in Swedish Pomerania by July 14th, from where they marched into Poland and overtook Wittenberg near Konin on August 14th . The next day the two armies occupied Koło , where they set up a camp. The army then continued the advance against Warsaw with 30,000 soldiers. They met only slight resistance, as Poland used almost all of its military forces against the Russians. John II Casimir was able to assemble a small army again and went against the Swedes from Warsaw. On August 23, there was the battle of Sobota , which the Swedes won. Wittenberg was ordered to follow the remaining Polish forces to Krakow , while Karl X. Gustav marched with around 3,000 men to Warsaw. The city surrendered on August 29 without a fight. The king won rich booty for the army, consisting of 120 bronze cannons, ammunition and food. For their part, a Russian army was only a few days' march from the city, but turned around and marched back east.

Charles X Gustav then turned in the direction of Krakow, which was besieged from September 16. The Polish king set out on September 20 with the last Polish forces in an attempt to relieve the city. The two armies met on September 23 at the Battle of Wojnicz , in which the Swedish army defeated the Polish division of around 8,000 men. After the battle, the Polish king fled to Silesia .

On October 20, a second treaty was ratified in Kėdainiai in northern Poland-Lithuania. The Union of Kėdainiai united Lithuania with Sweden and from then on recognized Karl X. Gustav as Grand Duke of Lithuania. In the following days, most of the Polish army surrendered to the Swedes: On October 26, Koniecpolski surrendered with 5,385 men near Krakow. A Swedish garrison of 2,500 men under the command of Paul Würtz remained in the city . Other Polish fortresses surrendered without further resistance. On October 28, the hetman Stanisław Lanckoronski and the hetman Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki with 10,000 men surrendered, and on October 31, Mazovia surrendered after the battle of Nowy Dwór .

In the north of Poland-Lithuania, in the Duchy of Prussia , which had been a Polish fiefdom since the Second Peace of Thorn , a potential threat arose for the Swedes. Because with the complete occupation of Poland, the duchy was now without a formal “patron”. The Duke of Prussia was the Brandenburg Elector, who had previously turned down a planned alliance with Sweden because its conditions seemed too unfavorable. In this threatening situation, Elector Friedrich Wilhelm had militias set up in the Duchy of Prussia and on November 12 concluded a mutual defense pact, the Treaty of Rinsk , with the estates of neighboring and equally unprotected West Prussia , which was part of Poland . The Treaty of Rinsk allowed Brandenburg garrisons for the militarily stripped cities in Polish West Prussia. However, Danzig , Thorn and Elbing were not included in the contract. However, the King of Sweden wanted to win Prussia and Warmia for himself. At the end of October 1655, King Karl Gustav of Krakow set out for the north, leaving Wittenberg with a Swedish-Polish force of around 5,000 men and other garrison troops in southern Poland. Friedrich Wilhelm moved more troops from Cleve and Brandenburg to the Duchy of Prussia. Nevertheless, Karl X. Gustav pushed the Brandenburgers back to the walls of Königsberg and enforced the Königsberg Treaty on January 17, 1656 . In this treaty, the elector accepted the Duchy of Prussia as a Swedish fiefdom and cut the recently concluded connection with the West Prussian estates. He had to open his country to the passing Swedish troops and the ports to the Swedish ships. Brandenburg also ceded half of the lucrative sea duties to the king. In return, Brandenburg received the Diocese of Warmia as a Swedish fief. The Brandenburg garrisons in West Prussia were withdrawn. With the exception of Danzig, all cities in Poland were under Swedish control. In the meantime Russian Cossacks had the east of Poland-Lithuania under their control as far as Lublin , only Lemberg was still under Polish control.

Formation of the Polish resistance

At that moment, it seemed as if the Polish state had been completely defeated. Due to the religious differences between the predominantly Protestant Swedes and the Catholic Poles, there were cases of mistreatment and murder of Catholic clergy and monks as well as the looting of Catholic churches and monasteries.

These attacks on the part of the Swedes gave rise to the formation of partisan movements in the Swedish-occupied areas of Poland. The starting point for this was the siege of Jasna Góra in the winter of 1655/56. The Swedish army under Johan Reinhard Wrzesowicz tried to seize the Jasna Góra monastery in Czestochowa . The months-long siege proved to be in vain, however, as a group of monks from the monastery in question were able to repel the numerically superior army of the Swedes. They received the support of local volunteers, mostly members of the Szlachta , so that they also managed to save their holy icon, the Black Madonna of Częstochowa . This event represented a turning point for Poland-Lithuania in the war against Sweden, which had been unsuccessful up to that point. The news of the Polish victory was spread throughout Poland and aroused patriotism among the Polish population. A manifesto decided on November 20 in Opole called for public resistance to the occupation and demanded the return of King John II Casimir, and in December a peasant army recaptured New Sandets . On December 29, the partisans constituted the Confederation of Tyszowce with the participation of Grand Hetman Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki and Field Hetman Stanisław Lanckoroński , and on January 1, 1656 John II Casimir returned from exile. Stefan Czarniecki was appointed Polish Commander in Chief. In February 1656, most of the Polish soldiers who had been forced into Swedish service since October 1655 switched to the side of the Confederation.

Battle of Gołąb

Karl X. Gustav reacted to the threatening development and pursued the army of Czarniecki with a force of 11,000 riders, which consisted of around 2,400 men. He managed to defeat them at the Battle of Gołąb in February 1656. When Karl Gustav advanced on Lviv , his advance could be stopped at the Battle of Zamość . The Swedes were surrounded by the growing Polish-Lithuanian troops under Sapieha and Czarniecki and were only able to break out and escape with difficulty on April 5 and 6 during the Battle of Sandomierz , but with the loss of all their artillery and supply lines. On April 7th, Czarniecki smashed a Swedish relief army under Friedrich von Baden at the Battle of Warka .

The Swedes were increasingly placed on the defensive and, for their part, were too few in number to be able to secure the large Polish territory militarily.

Brandenburg and Transylvania enter the war

The bitter resistance of the Polish nobles, who broke their oaths against the Swedes, the return of King John II Casimir and the national fanaticism of the Poles led to a precarious situation for the Swedish king. Karl Gustav saw his only hope for a victory over Poland in the division of the republic with the involvement of Transylvania, Brandenburg and Chmielnicki.

After Friedrich Wilhelm had committed himself to neutrality in Königsberg, but not to participate in the war against Poland, a new treaty was concluded in Marienburg on June 23, 1656 . In this treaty, the elector undertook to cede the diocese of Warmia and four large Polish voivodships with all his power as a free ally to the aid of the king.

The Battle of Warsaw 1656 (painting by Johann Philipp Lemke (1631–1711))

Despite the significant majority of Poles and the allied Tatars , the Swedes and Brandenburgers won a great victory in the Battle of Warsaw between July 28 and 30 . This was followed by the Swedish weakness: the lack of supplies of troops and material. The Poles soon attracted large numbers of new troops. At the beginning of 1657, the Principality of Transylvania , which was under Ottoman protection, took the side of the Swedes under the leadership of the Protestant Georg II Rákóczi and devastated large areas of Poland in the south and east with his Transylvanian-Cossack army.

Tsar Alexei Michailowitsch examining his troops (historical painting by
Nikolai Swertschkow 1864)

Now Russia and Poland-Lithuania, who were at war with each other, concluded an armistice in the Treaty of Niemież in order to fight against the threatened Swedish domination. This established the Russo-Swedish War of 1656–1658 , which again put Sweden on the defensive. Most of the Swedish army under Karl Gustav was tied up in the Polish theater of war, while in Livonia, Estonia and Ingermanland only an army of 2,200 infantry and 400 dragoons remained. Magnus de la Gardie still had 7,000 men in Prussia and 6,933 men were distributed in garrisons along the eastern Baltic Sea. Taking advantage of this military exposure, Tsar Alexei attacked Livonia with 35,000 men in July 1656 and took Daugavpils.

The Brandenburg general Georg Friedrich von Waldeck suffered a defeat at the Lyck in October , and King Johann II Casimir recaptured Danzig . In this emergency, Karl X. Gustav even decided to grant the elector sovereignty over all of Prussia in the Treaty of Labiau (November 20, 1656). In the Treaty of Wehlau (September 19, 1657) the elector also gained Prussia's independence from Poland.

Once again the Swedish king made a trip across Poland to meet his new ally, the Prince of Transylvania Georg II Rákóczi. But he was stopped at the gates of the city of Czestochowa . The Transylvanian-Cossack advance guard with the entourage was encircled and defeated on June 20, 1657 by the Polish army in the battle of Czarny Ostrów in Podolia. Lost his entourage and abandoned by the flight of his Cossack associations, Georg II Rákóczi was finally forced to surrender. In the subsequent peace talks with the Poles from June 21 to 23, 1657, he dissolved the alliance with Sweden, he also undertook to make war contributions to Poland and the Polish military leaders, and to leave the occupied Polish cities of Krakow and Brest . The Poles then let him return home to his principality with the rest of his army.

Entry into the war of other powers and change of sides by Brandenburg

Polish troops loyal to the king offered the Swedes bitter resistance. Meanwhile, Johann II Casimir tried to find allies. To prevent Sweden from becoming overweight in Northern Europe, Denmark, the Habsburg Monarchy and the Netherlands sided with Poland. The Turkish sultan allowed his vassal, the Crimean Khan, to form an alliance with the king. After the Danish declaration of war, Karl Gustav had left the Polish theater of war and left Brandenburg alone in the war against Poland. Brandenburg finally changed fronts after an incursion by the Crimean Tatars after Poland had granted the Elector sovereignty in the Duchy of Prussia in the Treaty of Wehlau on September 19, 1657.

In 1656/57 Lipka Tatars and Crimean Tatars invaded the Duchy of Prussia , as Poland had been allied with the Crimean Khanate since 1654 . 23,000 inhabitants of Prussia were killed and 3,400 deported into slavery; 80,000 people died of hunger and disease during the events described by Christoph Hartknoch in the devastated regions. They also brought in the plague, which resulted in more victims.

War of Denmark-Norway against Sweden

The Swedes march across the Belt

Friedrich III. declared war on Sweden on July 1, 1657. The aim was to regain the areas lost in the Torstensson War. While Swedish troops immediately advanced to the Danish fortress of Helsingborg and captured the Danish imperial admiral Ove Gjedde there , Charles X quickly left the Polish theater of war and threw himself into Jutland against his Danish opponent. On January 30, 1658, Charles X crossed the Little Belt with his Swedish troops , a week later the Swedish army moved on from Funen across the Great Belt to Zealand . The Danish Navy was unable to block the frozen Belt. Friedrich III. had felt sufficiently safe on Zealand and had no army ready to fight. So there were peace negotiations in February because the Danish leadership was paralyzed. The war was lost and in the Peace of Roskilde on February 24, 1658, Denmark-Norway lost Blekinge , Schonen , Halland and Båhuslän , which were surrendered on March 18. Then there was the loss of Trøndelag and Romsdal , which were handed over to Sweden on May 1st. Norway was now divided in two.

Sea battle in the Oresund, Jan Abrahamszoon Beerstaten , 1660

But now Karl X. Gustav overstepped the curve. On August 7, 1658 he began his next campaign against Denmark to destroy it as an independent state. The country was to be divided between Sweden, England and Holstein-Gottorf , with Karl claiming the islands and thus control over the Baltic Sea accesses for his empire. Karl X. Gustav went ashore with his army in Korsør . In August 1658 the Swedes attacked Copenhagen again. Friedrich III. appointed Hans von Schack, an experienced soldier and fortress commander, as commander-in-chief of Copenhagen.

The renewed war called the other European powers on the scene in order not to let Sweden become overwhelming. In support of Denmark, a Dutch fleet under the command of Admiral Lieutenant van Wassenaer sailed with 41 ships and 1,413 cannons into the Baltic Sea. It met the Swedish fleet with 45 ships and 1,838 cannons in the Öresund north of Copenhagen under the command of Carl Gustav Wrangel (see Battle of Öresund ). The Swedish fleet attacked, but the wind conditions were more favorable for the Dutch. Fierce fighting broke out, the Dutch got the upper hand and forced the Swedish fleet to break off the blockade of Copenhagen. The Swedes lost four ships and had 350 dead and 850 wounded, the Dutch lost two ships and 296 dead and 503 wounded. The Dutch admiral Witte de With fell while capturing his ship.

On January 21, 1659, Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg concluded a protective and defensive alliance with Denmark and advanced to Holstein with Brandenburg and Austrian troops .

After the defenders of Copenhagen had already defied the siege for six months, a major attack by the Swedes followed on February 11, 1659, but the Danes withstood it. After the victory at Copenhagen it was about the liberation of the whole country. The plan arose that Schack should lead a large part of the Copenhagen troops to Kiel in order to conquer Funen , occupied by the Swedes, from there in cooperation with Jutland units under Field Marshal Ernst Albrecht von Eberstein and Brandenburg troops . On October 1, a combined Dutch-Danish fleet set sail with Schack and his troops in Copenhagen. Twelve days later the ships arrived in Kiel . Schack and Eberstein met about a week later for a joint consultation in Eckernförde . Schack's troops from Kiel. A surprise attack on Nyborg was attempted in the Great Belt , but when it failed, it was decided to go ashore at Kerteminde . The attack at this point took place on October 31, 1659 and was led by Schack on the front line. His army was now on Funen, and after a few days of rest, during which the Swedish main unit withdrew to Nyborg, Schack advanced to Odense , where he entered on November 9, 1659. Two days later he met Eberstein's army, which had fought their way over the Little Belt. But the relationship between Schack and Eberstein was marked by deep rivalry, and they had only poorly informed each other about their respective movements. A real disagreement came to light when Schack tried to barricade himself while Eberstein tried to attack. Schack leaned in and they began to advance eastward, amid constant disagreements between the two. But these disagreements did not cost them victory: on November 14, 1659, the battle of Nyborg began , and the next day the Swedes surrendered.

The renewed Danish-Swedish war ended in 1660 with the withdrawal of the Swedish troops. The reason was the death of the Swedish king on February 13, 1660, but also the successful defense of Copenhagen, the support of Brandenburg and Poland, which drove the Swedes from Jutland and Funen, and the commitment of England and the States General to a peace based on the peace of Roskilde. Norway got Trøndelag and Romsdal back in the Peace of Copenhagen .

The political borders around 1686

After Denmark's victory, Swedish Pomerania was briefly occupied by the Brandenburgers fighting on the Polish and Danish sides in 1659, after Frederick III. in July 1659 had requested the elector to attack Swedish Pomerania immediately in order to weaken the strategic positions of Charles X. The Löcknitz border fortress served as an important starting point for this campaign . Together with the Austrians under Jean-Louis Raduit de Souches , the 14,000-strong Brandenburg army moved through the Neumark to Pomerania, first conquered Greifenhagen , on September 7th Damm and finally besieged Stettin , where General Paul Würtz , however, opposed him so sustained resistance that on November 16 the attack was abandoned.

The peace treaty and its effects

After the successful offensive of the anti- Swedish coalition , the powers that be on friendly terms with Sweden, England and France, proposed peace negotiations. With the participation of the Netherlands in the so-called "Hague Concerts", these had repeatedly tried to intervene diplomatically in favor of Karl Gustav and to force a peace that was favorable to him. That had led to nothing; but now in November 1659 the Peace of Pyrenees put an end to the long war between Spain and France; Cardinal Mazarin was determined not to tolerate the impending defeat of Swedish power, whose alliance was valuable to France in all German entanglements. He now had a free hand and immediately approached Brandenburg in a threatening manner. The war ended on May 3, 1660 with the Treaty of Oliva . The Polish king renounced all claims to the Swedish throne. Sweden kept Livonia and Estonia in accordance with the provisions of the Peace Treaty of Westphalia of October 24, 1648.

Brandenburg had to withdraw from the occupied Swedish territories in Pomerania , Holstein and Schleswig , but at the same time gained final sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia and proved to be a military and political power factor during the war. France assumed the guarantee of keeping the peace.

Meanwhile, the Russo-Polish War continued. King John II was able to liberate the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from Russian troops by 1660. Against the background of renewed battles with Cossacks and Crimean Tatars in the south of the kingdom, however, he was forced in the Treaty of Andrussowo to forego large parts of what is now western Russia with Smolensk and eastern Ukraine with Kiev up to the Dnepr in 1667. The peace between Sweden and Poland established the status quo ante bellum. The invasion and defense of the Swedes, as well as the war against Russia, resulted in a quarter of the then population of Poland-Lithuania dying as a result of epidemics, famine, looting and acts of violence. Additional population losses resulted from the territorial losses to Russia and Brandenburg-Prussia. In addition, the Polish economy was shattered.

literature

  • Sverre Bagge, Knut Mykland: Norge i dansketiden . Cappelen 5th edition 1998.
  • Robert I. Frost: After the Deluge. Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660 (= Cambridge Studies in Early Modern History). Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-521-54402-5 .
  • Robert I. Frost: The Northern Wars. War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe 1558-1721 . Longman, London 2000, ISBN 978-0-582-06429-4 .
  • Eckardt Opitz : Austria and Brandenburg in the Swedish-Polish War 1655 to 1660. Preparation and implementation of the campaigns to Denmark and Pomerania (= military research, department of military history studies . Volume 10). Boldt, Boppard 1969, ISBN 3-7646-1530-3 .
  • Gotthold Rhode : History of Poland. An overview . Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft, Darmstadt, 3rd edition 1980, ISBN 3-534-00763-8 , pp. 273-283.
  • Jan Schlürmann : The Second Northern War 1655 / 57-1660 . In: Eva Susanne Fiebig and Jan Schlürmann (eds.): Handbook on the North Elbian military history. Armies and wars in Schleswig, Holstein, Lauenburg, Eutin and Lübeck 1623-1863 / 67 . Husum, Husum 2010, ISBN 978-3-89876-317-2 , pp. 327-346.

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b Claes-Göran Isacson: Karl X Gustavs krig. Fälttågen i Poland, Tyskland, Baltic States, Danmark och Sverige, 1655–1660 . Historiska media, Lund 2002, ISBN 91-89442-57-1 .
  2. Wolfgang Froese: History of the Baltic Sea. Peoples and states on the Baltic Sea . Casimir Katz Verlag, Gernsbach, 2nd edition 2008, pp. 227–239.
  3. ^ Robert Frost: The Northern Wars. War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe 1558-1721 . Longman, 2000, p. 168.
  4. ^ Gotthold Rhode: History of Poland. An overview . Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft, Darmstadt, 3rd edition 1980, p. 277.
  5. ^ Robert Frost: The Northern Wars. War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe 1558-1721 . Longman, 2000, p. 170.
  6. Defensive Treaty of Rinsk between the western Prussia and the Duke of Prussia
  7. ^ Gotthold Rhode: History of Poland. An overview . Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft, Darmstadt, 3rd edition 1980, p. 278.
  8. Wolfgang Froese: History of the Baltic Sea. Peoples and states on the Baltic Sea . Casimir Katz Verlag, Gernsbach, 2nd edition 2008, p. 274.
  9. ^ Robert Frost: After the Deluge. Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660 , Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 171.
  10. ^ Robert Frost: After the Deluge. Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660 , Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 170.
  11. ^ Robert Frost: After the Deluge. Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660, Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 172.
  12. ^ Robert Frost: The Northern Wars. War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe 1558-1721 . Longman, 2000, p. 173.
  13. Wolfgang Froese: History of the Baltic Sea. Peoples and states on the Baltic Sea . Casimir Katz Verlag, Gernsbach, 2nd edition 2008, p. 275.
  14. ^ Gotthold Rhode: History of Poland. An overview . Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft, Darmstadt, 3rd edition 1980, p. 279.
  15. ^ Gotthold Rhode: History of Poland. An overview . Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft, Darmstadt, 3rd edition 1980, p. 280.
  16. ^ Andreas Kossert : East Prussia. History and myth. Unk. Licensed edition by RM Buch und Medien Vertrieb GmbH, Pößneck 2010, p. 87.
  17. ^ Bruno Gloger: Friedrich Wilhelm. Elector of Brandenburg . Verlag Neues Leben, Berlin, 2nd edition 1986, p. 133.
  18. Wolfgang Froese: History of the Baltic Sea. Peoples and states on the Baltic Sea . Casimir Katz Verlag, Gernsbach, 2nd edition 2008, p. 276.
  19. Friedrich to the Elector of July 18, 1659. In: Bernhard Erdmannsdörffer : Documents and acts for the history of Elector Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg , Vol. 8: Political negotiations . Reimer, Berlin 1884, p. 604 f.
  20. Werner Buchholz (Ed.): Pommern . Siedler Verlag, 1999, ISBN 3-88680-780-0 , p. 273.
  21. ^ Gotthold Rhode: History of Poland. An overview . Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft, Darmstadt, 3rd edition 1980, p. 281.
  22. On the question of the transfer of sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia to the Brandenburg line of the Hohenzollern see Dietmar Willoweit, Hans Lemberg: Reiche und Territorien in Ostmitteleuropa . Oldenbourg, Munich 2006, pp. 78-79.
  23. ^ Gotthold Rhode: History of Poland. An overview . Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft, Darmstadt, 3rd edition 1980, p. 282.
  24. ^ Gotthold Rhode: History of Poland. An overview . Wissenschaftliche Buchgemeinschaft, Darmstadt, 3rd edition 1980, p. 283.

Web links

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