|Voivodeship :||Lesser Poland|
|Powiat :||District-free city|
|Area :||326.85 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||188-393 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||30-001 to 32-020|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 12|
|License plate :||
(no longer: KK )
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||A4 motorway|
|Rail route :||Dąbrowa – Krakow|
|Warsaw – Krakow|
|Next international airport :||Krakow-Balice|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||2371 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||1261011|
|Administration (as of 2015)|
|City President :||Jacek Majchrowski|
|Address:||Plac Wszystkich Świętych 3/4
Kraków ( Polish: Kraków [ ˈkrakuf ] ), the capital of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship , is located in the south of Poland around 250 km southwest of Warsaw and is the country's second largest city with around 775,000 inhabitants .
The county-level city on the upper Vistula was until 1596 the capital of the Kingdom of Poland , the seat is the - after Prague - second oldest Central European University and developed into an industrial, scientific and cultural center. Numerous buildings from the Gothic , Renaissance , Baroque and later epochs of art history shape the cityscape. Even in the 21st century Krakow is known as the “secret capital of Poland” and is considered to be the “centuries-old center of the Polish state”. This can also be seen in the former residence on Wawel Hill with the castle and cathedral , where most of the kings of Poland and numerous personalities of outstanding historical importance are buried.
Today Krakow is a lively technology and life science location for Central and Eastern Europe and the second largest office market in Poland after Warsaw . Krakow is also a major cultural, artistic and scientific hub, e.g. B. with the headquarters of the National Center for Science (Polish: Narodowe Centrum Nauki ), the center of the knowledge and innovation community and the EIT . One of the most important film studios in Central Europe is located near Kraków. According to the 2011 World Investment Report of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development ( UNCTAD ), Krakow is the world's most up-and-coming location for investing in innovation. Around eight million people live within a 100 km radius.
In 2000 Krakow was the European Capital of Culture . Krakow was one of the venues for the 2014 Men's Volleyball World Championship and the 2016 European Handball Championship . In addition, Krakow was a European sports city in 2014. In 2016 the World Youth Day of the Catholic Church took place in Krakow .
Krakow has been divided into 18 districts since 1990:
The administrative districts are not to be confused with the former places of the same name, because they can include several former places (districts). District I, for example, includes the originally independent cities of Kazimierz and Kleparz .
Climate and Weather
Krakow is on the threshold of the Atlantic maritime to the continental climate. The weather is influenced depending on the prevailing wind direction. Westerly winds (~ 40 percent) bring wet weather with rain, especially in summer, while easterly winds (~ 22 percent) cause dry and very cold weather, especially in winter. The wind blows at an average of 11 km / h.
The mean temperature in January is around −2 ° C, with lows of less than −20 ° C not uncommon. The mean temperature in July is around +19 ° C, but the thermometer can also reach +35 ° C and more. In general, the weather is very calm with little daily fluctuations.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Krakow
Prehistory and the Early Middle Ages
According to the founding myth of the city, first described by Wincenty Kadłubek , "the tribal prince Krak built the city on Wawel Hill above a dragon's cave after he had killed the dragon that lived there". Two burial mounds date from this time , in which, according to tradition, Krak and his daughter Wanda are said to have found their final resting place.
In the 9th century, the Slavic Wislanes are described by Method von Saloniki in the area around Krakow. In the 9th century in the area around the later city, chrobats are also mentioned - the relationship between wislanes and chrobats is disputed by researchers. Both have been described as hypothetically belonging to the Great Moravian Empire at times . Great Moravian chronicles report that Cyril and Methodius recommended Christian baptism to the (unnamed but powerful ) ruler of the Wislanes. It is not known whether he accepted the offer. However, the first church in Krakow is said to have been built on the site of a pagan cult site (location of the later St. Andrew's Church) at this time. In 965 Krakow was first mentioned in a document by the Arab-Jewish merchant Ibrahim ibn Yaqub - the area of the Wislanes or White Chrobats most likely belonged to Bohemia at that time . Around 990, at the latest in the year of the death of Boleslav II of Bohemia (999), Krakow was conquered by Bolesław I Chrobry , Duke of the Polans , and thus came under the rule of the future Polish Piasts .
At the end of the 10th century Kraków was already an important trading center and was raised to the seat of the diocese of Kraków in 1000 by Bolesław I the Brave ( Bolesław I. Chrobry ) . The first stone buildings were erected (a castle on the Wawel hill and various Romanesque sacred buildings).
High Middle Ages
Under Casimir I the Renewer , Krakow became the capital of Poland in 1038. Casimir left Gniezno , which was destroyed by the Czech ruler Břetislav I , and which had previously been the capital of Poland, and chose Krakow, which was more conveniently located, as the royal seat. Nonetheless, Gniezno remained the seat of the most important Polish archbishopric and thus the Polish primate . Because of its new role as the Polish capital, Krakow developed very quickly in the 11th century. Numerous buildings in the Romanesque style, u. a. the Wawel rotunda , the churches of St. Adalbert and St. Andreas , the monastery Tyniec and Norbertanki and the Okół district northeast of the Wawel around today's Maria Magdalena Square were built. During this time, however, there was also a conflict between secular and ecclesiastical power in Poland, which resulted in King Bolesław II the Bold , the son of Casimir I, killing Archbishop Stanislaus in St. Michael's Church in 1079. Stanislaus became one of Poland's first patron saints. Bolesław II had to flee Poland and was later poisoned in Hungary. His brother Władysław I. Herman , who succeeded him to the throne in 1079, moved the capital to Płock for a short time . Władysław Herman and his son Bolesław III are in the Płock Cathedral . Crooked mouth buried.
But already at the beginning of the 12th century Krakow secured the position of the Polish capital again. After the death of Boleslaw III. Krakow was the capital of the Seniorate of Poland from 1138 to 1320 . The Krakow princes were superordinate to the other Polish princes under the seniority constitution and tried to reunite the Kingdom of Poland. During this time, many Jews and Germans immigrated to Krakow and acquired citizenship. In 1228 Petrus scultetus Cracoviensis - the Schulz of Krakow was mentioned, which was the first indication of German law. In the 13th century Krakow was besieged several times by the Tatars . The first onslaught of the Mongols ( Golden Horde ) in 1241, which only the Wawelburg and the Okół district survived, was particularly devastating in the course of the Battle of Wahlstatt . The citizens could find shelter in the St. Andrew's Church and in the castle. After this destruction, Krakow was rebuilt in the Gothic style according to a plan according to a checkerboard pattern.
In 1257, Cracow was re-founded and rebuilt by Boleslaus the Shameful under Magdeburg law . During this time, the marketplaces and the checkerboard network of streets in the old town were formed, into which older fragments such as St. Mary's Church or Grodzka Street were embedded. Bolesław the Shy and his wife, St. Kinga , mined salt underground in Bochnia and Wieliczka . In doing so, they laid the foundation for the city's wealth in the late Middle Ages. The last great Tatar attack on Krakow took place in 1281, but the citizens warned by the tower blower were able to repel it. The Hejnał signal reminds according to a modern legend in mind, as well as the figure of Lajkonik (a warrior with hobbyhorse).
In 1311 the German citizenship rose against the Polish senior duke Ladislaus I. Ellenlang under the leadership of Vogtes Albert . After putting down the uprising, Ladislaus had most of the Germans banished from the city and had some executed. The nationality of the citizens was checked by a shibboleth : A German was considered to be someone who could not repeat soczewica, koło, miele, młyn correctly. According to the British historian Norman Davies , the first signs of Polish chauvinism emerged during the dispute . Around 1480, 36 percent of the residents with town charter were again German-speaking and in the most splendid parish church, the Marienkirche , German was preached - until the German sermons were moved to the Barbarakirche by royal decree .
Further repression against the city was the withdrawal of the council elections and the establishment of neighboring rival cities such as Kazimierz and Kleparz. The political aspirations of the cities, especially Krakow, were thereby permanently broken. In 1320, for the first time since the division in 1138, a Polish king, Ladislaus Ellenlang, was crowned in Wawel Cathedral. Krakow remained the coronation and burial site of the Polish kings until 1734, but Warsaw became the capital in the 16th century .
Since 1150 there was a Latin school of the Krakow Archdiocese and Casimir III. the great - the son of Władysław Ellenlangs - founded the Cracow Academy (later Jagiellonian University ) in 1364 , which is the second oldest in Central Europe after the University of Prague . Casimir the Great founded the suburbs of Kazimierz (1335) and Kleparz (1366) and had the Wawel Cathedral and many other churches rebuilt or rebuilt in the Gothic style. In his time, after the plague pogroms of 1348/49, a particularly large number of Jews came to Poland and Cracow. Casimir III. extensive privileges and in the expansion of the Kalischer Tolerance Edict of 1265 secured religious freedom . Contrary to a widespread mistake, the Jews did not initially settle in Kazimierz, but in what is now the university district around St. Anna Street.
For centuries, the city government of Krakow was under the archbishop of Krakow as a prince-bishopric . During the reign of Ladislaus II Jagiello at the end of the 14th century, Krakow became a member of the Hanseatic League , but left it again in 1478.
Late Middle Ages
After the death of Kasimir III. the Great In 1370 his nephew Ludwig von Anjou , who was also King of Hungary , came to power. After his death, 12-year-old Hedwig ascended the Polish throne as king (not queen) in 1384. She married the Lithuanian Grand Duke Ladislaus II Jagiello and thus laid the foundation for the union between the two states. She died very young in 1399 and bequeathed her entire fortune to the University of Cracow. Her husband Władysław II. Jagiełło defeated the Teutonic Order near Tannenberg militarily in 1410 and legally at the Council of Constance in 1416 . After the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Krewo in 1385, Krakow developed economically, culturally, scientifically and urbanly as the capital of one of the largest European continental powers. Władysław II. Jagiełło is considered to be the progenitor of the Jagiellonian dynasty , who ruled Poland-Lithuania , the Kingdom of Bohemia and Hungary and had strong family ties with Habsburg , Wittelsbach and Vasa . Krakow continued to grow under their rule and joined the Hanseatic League . The prince-bishop ruled very skillfully from 1434 for the underage sons of Władysław II Jagiełłos, Władysław III. of Varna and Casimir IV Jagiello . Krakow flourished under the latter in the late Gothic period. Of the couple's numerous children - his wife Elisabeth von Habsburg was called the mother of the Jagiellonians - four became kings; seven others held important church offices or married into mostly German aristocratic families. As a result, almost all current European monarchs are related to Casimir IV and Elizabeth. The Italian humanist Kallimachus , who had fled Rome to Krakow for political and religious reasons, raised the children.
In 1475 the Bavarian Duke George the Rich , heir to the Duchy of Bavaria-Landshut , campaigned for the hand of Hedwig Jagiellonica (Jadwiga Jagiellonka) . After a two-month trip, the Landshut Prince Wedding took place in Landshut .
Many scholars and artists from German-speaking countries, mostly from Franconia , went to Krakow, as did book printers. Kasper Straube was the first in 1473, but only Johann Haller was able to run a printing press in Krakow for a long time. In 1488 the humanist Conrad Celtis founded the Sodalitas Litterarum Vistulana , a learned society based on the model of the Roman Academy . In 1489 Veit Stoss (Polish: Wit Stwosz ) from Nuremberg finished work on the high altar of the Krakow Marienkirche and then made the marble sarcophagus for Casimir IV Jagiellonicus, Kallimachus and for the bishops of Krakow and Posen. Numerous other artists from Italy, Holland and southern Germany also came to Krakow during the time of Kasimir IV and worked in the late Gothic and Renaissance styles. Three of his sons were successively Polish kings, but the eldest was king of Bohemia and Hungary. The kings Alexander and Jan I. Olbracht had the city fortifications expanded against a feared attack by the Turks and supplemented by the barbican in 1499 and laid the foundation stone for the new Jewish quarter in Kazimierz, which housed the Old Synagogue during the Renaissance (the oldest preserved in Central Europe is, of course the Prague Old New Synagogue from the 13th century) was built. Her younger brother Sigismund I the Old (Zygmunt I Stary) and his son Sigismund II August (Zygmunt II August) built Krakow into the center of power for the Jagiellonian countries in Poland-Lithuania and the Czech Republic-Hungary. At that time Kraków had about 30,000 inhabitants. A large number of architectural monuments and art treasures of the Gothic and Renaissance periods have been preserved from this cultural heyday of the city . In particular the castle complex on Wawel Hill and the fortified old town - barbican, cloth halls, town houses, etc. The university also flourished during this period. At the end of the 15th century, Nicolaus Copernicus studied here together with numerous German-speaking scholars.
Early modern age
Sigismund I the Old had the Gothic royal castle, which was burned down in 1499 and built by Casimir the Great, rebuilt in the Renaissance style by the Florentine masters Francesco Fiorentino and Bartolomeo Berrecci . The Sigismund Chapel on the Wawel by Berrecci is considered to be the most beautiful building of the Italian Renaissance outside of Italy. Berrecci's work was so outstanding that one of his compatriots, who had also come to the Krakow court as an artist, stabbed him in 1534 out of envy on the Krakow market square. Berrecci was buried with great honors in the Corpus Christi Church in Kazimierz. Sigismund I married Bona Sforza from Milan, who brought many Italian artists to the Krakow court. But Germans, Dutch and Poles were also artistically active under Sigismund I in Krakow. In 1505 the statutes of the German-speaking citizens - guilds are described in the Balthasar Behem Codex . In 1520 Johann Beheim initiated the production of the largest Polish church bell to date (as of 2015), the Sigismund bell . Peter Vischer from Nuremberg opened a bronze foundry in Krakow. Stanislaus Samostrzelnik created many Renaissance frescoes in Kraków's churches. During the same period, Hans Dürer , Albrecht Dürer's younger brother , was court painter to Sigismund I the Elder. Hans von Kulmbach painted the Johannes Altar in St. Mary's Church.
1525 Albrecht, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order homage, the Polish king on Krakow's main square and walked on the advice of Martin Luther and with the approval of the Polish king the Teutonic Knights in a Polish fief to. With this duchy of Prussia as a Polish fief, Albrecht created the first area to adopt the Lutheran faith. The conflicts over the Reformation and Counter-Reformation soon affected Krakow. The first Protestant devotions were preached in 1545 and 1547. In the second half of the 16th century there was also a Reformed congregation, and after the split in it, the first congregation of the Polish Brethren from October 16, 1562 . Following royal permission, the Protestant St. John's Church was opened in 1572. On May 23, 1591 it was destroyed by the Catholic plebs. Then the seat of the municipality was moved to Aleksandrowice . The event is considered to be the turning point in the Polish Counter-Reformation.
Sigismund II August became King of Poland in 1530 while his father was alive and ruled with him until his death in 1548. On the advice of Queen Bona Sforza, he also brought many Italian artists to Krakow, among whom the brothers Santi and Monti Gucci were the most important. The former rebuilt the Cloth Hall in the Renaissance style and created many marble sculptures in the Wawel Cathedral, the latter rebuilt the old synagogue in Kazimierz. In the middle of the 16th century, the German-speaking city government was replaced by a Polish or Italian one. In 1572 the last Jagiellonian king , Sigismund II August, died. His successor from France, Heinrich von Valois, ruled the Wawel for only one year. He was followed by the Hungarian Stephan Báthory , under whom Cracow continued to develop in the Mannerist style. However, in 1596 the Polish and temporarily Swedish King and temporary Tsar of Russia Sigismund III. Wasa (Zygmunt III Waza) was the residence of Warsaw , which was the capital of the Duchy of Mazovia until 1526 (the year when the Mazovian Piast House was extinguished) , which fell back to the Polish crown. Sigismund preferred the proximity of Warsaw to his Swedish hereditary kingdom and to his Russian ambitions. At the same time, ambitious baroque projects such as the Peter and Paul Church, St. Anne's Church, the Benedictine Church, the Camaldolese Abbey, etc. continued to emerge in the formal capital of Krakow . The importance of Krakow declined, accelerated by the looting during the Swedish invasions in 1655 and 1702 and the plague that killed 20,000 people. At the end of the 17th and 18th centuries, Krakow was separate from Polish politics, which were now centered in Warsaw. In 1778 Kraków, excluding the suburbs, had 8,894 inhabitants and in 1782 a total of 9,193 inhabitants. The suburbs (including Kazimierz, Stradom, Kleparz, Garbary ) were incorporated into Krakow in 1792 by the four-year-old Sejm .
Austrian time and Republic of Krakow
|Jews in Krakow|
|1921||183,706||45,229 (nationality: 27,056)||24.6 (14.7)%|
During the third partition of Poland , Krakow was in the 1795 Habsburg monarchy the crown land of Galicia associated with the Habsburg share from the first partition of Poland in 1772. 1809 to 1815 it belonged to by Napoleon Bonaparte established Duchy of Warsaw and was after the Congress of Vienna as Republic Krakow to 1846 a condominium under the common protectorate of its neighbors Russia , Prussia and Austria . The Republic of Krakow became a liberal, prosperous trading enclave in Central Europe. After the Cracow uprising in 1846, which failed because of the Galician peasant uprising , Austria annexed Cracow with the consent of Russia and Prussia. The now in imperial Austria provincial and following impoverished city lost its importance. The companies dependent on Russia went bankrupt. This was followed by a period characterized by the Germanization tendencies of the Viennese leadership, but after Austria's defeat in the war against the emerging Italy and the weakening of the centralists in Vienna by the Austro-Hungarian compromise of 1867, Galicia was given far-reaching autonomy.
In 1847 the city reached the Kraków-Upper Silesian Railway . Shortly afterwards the construction of numerous fortifications began, the beginning of the "Krakow Fortress", which gave new impetus to industrialization (brickworks, quarries). With Vienna as the then capital of Krakow was by the since 1856 kk Northern Railway connected the main railway line of the monarchy. From 1855 Krakow was the seat of a district .
In Cisleithanian part of the now as a Dual Monarchy called Real Union , which was ruled liberal and all nationalities conceded equality to Krakow developed again to the center of Polish culture and art. During this time Jan Matejko , Stanisław Wyspiański , Jan Kasprowicz , Stanisław Przybyszewski , Juliusz Kossak , Józef Mehoffer and Wojciech Kossak , Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz and Leon Chwistek worked . Krakow became the center of the neo-romantic movement Young Poland , Art Nouveau and Polish Modernism . Cracow became one of the most important centers of the Polish independence movement alongside Warsaw. In the last two decades before the First World War , Krakow experienced a rapid modernization, which was not least supported by the Jewish bourgeoisie. In 1900 Krakow was sixth in Cisleithanien with 91,323 inhabitants, but with only 6.88 km² (5.77 km² excluding Błonia meadows ) the most densely populated city (15,851 inhabitants per square kilometer). In the years 1910 to 1915, numerous parishes were incorporated into Krakow by the Galician state parliament according to the city-president Juliusz Leo’s zoning plan . On April 1, 1910, these were Zakrzówek, Dębniki, Półwsie Zwierzynieckie, Zwierzyniec , Czarna Wieś , Nowa Wieś Narodowa , Krowodrza , Grzegórzki and parts of the municipalities of Prądnik Biały and Prądnik Czer²wony with Olsza, on a total of 6.74 km²wony with Olsza, on a total of 22 29.62 km²). In 1915 this process was completed with the incorporation of the town of Podgórze. "Greater Krakow" then had 46.9 km² and around 180,000 inhabitants.
The Wawel was used by the Austro-Hungarian army as a barracks , with essential historical building elements being removed or damaged. On the occasion of a stay of Emperor Franz Joseph I in Krakow in 1880 (he was a guest in the town house of Count Potocki , the governor on the main market), the monarch was presented with a petition to declare the Wawel an imperial residence. Franz Joseph promised this; The negotiations between the city administration and the Austro-Hungarian War Ministry did not lead to the evacuation of the royal castle by the military until 1905, after which restoration work began immediately, which could only be completed in the interwar period.
The Russian border was only a few kilometers from Krakow. The Austro-Hungarian army therefore had numerous outer forts built around the walled city in the last third of the 19th century in order to be able to defend it as a fortress against Russia if necessary. Some of these forts have been preserved.
On April 16, 1918, unrest broke out in Cracow due to the poor supply situation, which resulted in anti-Semitic riots. Jewish shops were looted, Jews were beaten with sticks, and one man was beaten to death. The funeral procession to the cemetery the following day was also ambushed.
Second Polish Republic
At the end of the First World War , Krakow saw itself from October 28, 1918, like all of Galicia, as part of the re-emerging Polish state . This was confirmed in the Treaty of Saint-Germain in September 1919 . In 1921 Kraków had 183,706 inhabitants, the majority of whom were Polish (154,873) and Roman Catholic (136,241). Krakow developed very quickly in the interwar period and was one of the most important cultural centers in Poland alongside Warsaw and Lviv . Krakow became the seat of a voivodeship . Many large buildings were built, especially to the northwest of Kraków's Old Town (Czarna Wieś, Nowa Wieś).
German occupation 1939–1945
At the beginning of World War II when picked invasion of Poland , the German Wehrmacht Krakow on 6 September 1939, a fight. Western Galicia became part of the General Government for the occupied Polish territories with its seat in Krakow as the district of Krakow. After Jacek Purchla, Krakow, not Warsaw, became the capital because it was smaller, closer to the border and easier to Germanize. Under Governor General Hans Frank , the notorious Plaszow , Auschwitz and Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camps were built near the city .
The German occupiers arrived with incorporations in 1941, more than doubling the size of the city. Hans Frank wanted to build a representative government district around the Błonia Park , but the architect Hubert Ritter had designed an “East Nuremberg” project in Dębniki that was more destructive to the cityscape through expropriations and demolition . The largest settlement of the several dozen multi-storey buildings, on the other hand, was founded on Reichstrasse, in Nowa Wieś. In the Podgórze district on the right bank of the Vistula, the occupiers built the Krakow ghetto for Jewish city citizens , in which 20,000 people were temporarily held as work slaves. In the autumn of 1941, 2,000 people were "selected" from the ghetto for killing , taken away or murdered there. The ghetto area was initially cordoned off with walls. After further deportations (June 1-8 and October 27-28, 1942) the whole area was divided into residential district A and residential district B in December. That was the preparation for the final liquidation, which began on March 13, 1943.
The occupiers destroyed a large part of the Wawel's art treasures, especially those of Polish artists. Most of the buildings in Krakow were preserved, as the Nazi regime regarded Krakow as an originally German city. Krakow was largely spared from bombings and major destruction. However, it lost almost half of its population, almost the entire Jewish community and, in particular , the university elite in the “ Special Krakow campaign ” of November 1939.
When the Red Army unexpectedly advanced on Krakow in the course of the Vistula-Oder operation in January 1945 , Governor General Frank had all Germans evacuated and left the city while the German troops withdrew to the Oder. So the Red Army was able to move into the almost undestroyed Krakow on January 19th. The allegedly prevented demolition of the city probably belongs to the realm of legends. The Soviet Union and the Polish communist regime suppressed the bourgeois and aristocratic currents of Kraków. On August 11, 1945, there was a pogrom in Kraków on Jewish survivors of Nazi terror.
For ideological reasons, the world's largest steelworks and the socialist satellite town of Nowa Huta (New Hut) were built in the immediate vicinity of the city (incorporated in 1951). The regime hoped to eliminate the influence of the “capitalist intellectuals” by increasing the number of “socialist workers”. Nowa Huta later, during the Solidarność movement, became a focal point of the will to reform social and political reforms against communism . Until the 1990s, the emissions from the steelworks damaged the historic building fabric of Krakow.
In 1978 the Archbishop of Cracow, Karol Wojtyła, was elected Pope and as such took the name of John Paul II . He visited Krakow several times during his pontificate . This election had a significant impact on the Polish opposition movement and, indirectly, on all international politics. That same year, the Old Town of Krakow, the Wawel became the UNESCO - World Heritage declared. The Wieliczka Salt Mine outside the city gates of Krakow also became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1978 and was expanded to include the Salzgrafenschloss and Bochnia in 2013 . The monasteries in the districts of Tyniec, Bielany and Salwator were on the list of nominations for World Heritage for some years.
After the round table talks in 1988/89 and the first free elections in 1989, Krakow was able to develop freely again. The neglect of earlier restoration work could be made up for in the 1990s. Motorway connections to Katowice and Wroclaw were built and the airport in Balice expanded. The A4 motorway is now being expanded towards Tarnów and the “ Zakopianka ” expressway to the High Tatras is being modernized.
The 2018 city presidential election led to the following result:
- Jacek Majchrowski ( Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej ) 45.8% of the vote
- Małgorzata Wassermann ( Prawo i Sprawiedliwość ) 31.9% of the vote
- Łukasz Gibała (Cracow Election Committee for Residents) 17.1% of the vote
- Konrad Berkowicz ( KORWiN ) 2.5% of the votes
- Remaining 2.7% of the vote
Since none of the candidates achieved an absolute majority in the first ballot, a runoff election was necessary, in which Majchrowski, who was also supported by Koalicja Obywatelska in both ballots, was 61.9% against Wassermann, which rose to 38.1% of the Voices came, prevailed.
The Cracow City Council consists of 43 MPs. The 2018 election led to the following result:
- Election Committee Jacek Majchrowski - Cracow citizens 43.7% of the vote, 23 seats
- Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (PiS) 29.8% of the vote, 16 seats
- Krakow electoral committee for residents 12.7% of the vote, 4 seats
- Kukiz'15 4.0% of the vote, no seat
- Election Committee Together for Krakow 3.1% of the vote, no seat
- KORWiN 3.0% of the votes, no seat
- Election Committee for Independent Local Governments 2.9% of the vote, no seat
- Remaining 0.8% of the votes, no seat
Since after the Tatar storm in the 13th century there was no more significant destruction and the industrialization took place outside, Krakow is rich in examples from all epochs from the High Middle Ages ( Romanesque and Gothic ), especially the Renaissance , but also Baroque , Art Nouveau and Neo-Gothic are closed find (Collegium Novum) . There were comparatively few building sins committed, but there is one remarkable investment ruin, the unfinished high-rise Unity Tower . Since 2002, many vacant lots in the urban area have been closed by adapted new buildings.
Theater and operas (selection)
- Old Theater (Stary Teatr)
- Juliusz Słowacki Theater (Teatr im. Juliusza Słowackiego)
- Teatr Bagatela ( Theater Trifle )
- Teatr Ludowy ( Folk Theater )
- Teatr Groteska ( Grotesque Theater )
The Krakowska Opera was housed in the Słowacki Theater until the completion of the new opera house.
Krakow is known for its old tradition of literary cabaret , which is constantly maintained. The most famous cabaret theaters are Piwnica pod Baranami and Jama Michalika . A new young cabaret is Loch Camelot . The legendary Polish chanson singer Ewa Demarczyk made her first appearances at Piwnica pod baranami ; it was closely connected to the cabaret cellar. The annual cabaret competition PAKA has a long tradition . a. helped the most famous German "non-politician" in Poland, Steffen Möller , to achieve a breakthrough.
Movie theater (selection)
Located directly in the old town are the Ars and the Pod Baranami , two arthouse cinemas that are particularly popular among students with their original furnishings and different activities and events. Mainstream films are shown in the same way. In contrast, the jointly operated Kijów and Mikro cinemas are purely articulated cinemas that specialize in alternative independent films (especially the Mikro ). The pure blockbuster cinemas in turn include the three cinemas of the Cinema City chain and the Multikino , which is known for its film marathons. The Orange IMAX shows three-dimensional films.
- Hourly trumpet chime ( Hejnał Mariacki , ) from the tower of St. Mary's Church
- International Festival of Shanties ; February
- International Festival of Alternative and Experimental Theater Krakowskie Reminiscencje Teatralne ; March
- Cabaret competition PAKA ; March
- Krakowskie Reminiscencje Teatralne International Theater Festival ; April
- Days of organ music; April
- Off Camera - International Film Festival; April May
- Juwenalia - student festival; May
- Krakowski Festiwal Filmowy ; May June
- Jewish Culture Festival in Krakow ; June / July, one of the highlights of the Kraków Cultural Year
- Jazz Festival in Pod Baranami; July
- Festival of classical music in historical locations ; August
- Jazz Trumpeter Festival - Miles Davis Memorial Night; September
- Festival Genius Loci in Kazimierz - (October)
- Krakow Nativity Scene Competition ; December
Parks and environmental protection
There are around 40 parks in Krakow, which cover a total of 318.5 hectares (as of 2002). They represent almost one percent of the total area of the city.
There are many valuable animal and plant species in the urban area. There are five nature reserves in Krakow with a total area of 48.6 ha (0.14% of the urban area). There are also small green spaces in the area, which are part of the Jurajskie Parki Krajobrazowe landscape protection complex . It serves to protect the following areas: Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska u. a. Fragments of the Bielańsko-Tyniecki , Tenczyński and Dolinki Krakowskie parks with their wrapping. The flora of the Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska belongs to the Corine biotopes program in terms of its flora and fauna, geomorphology and landscape.
The western part of Krakow is the so-called Obszar Krakowski area and is subject to the Polish ecological network. Part of the city lies in the area of the Vistula biotope network. Rivers, their valleys and bodies of water are the most interesting places in Krakow in terms of natural treasures.
The Jagiellonian University has a botanical garden .
Krakow was the city with the highest levels of air pollution among Polish municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. According to the World Health Organization, at least 1,400 Krakow people died prematurely every year as a result. It is recommended to wear a fine dust filter in front of your mouth in the open air, especially on foggy winter days. If the fine dust pollution exceeds the norm by four times, the city administration allows the free use of public transport for car owners (upon presentation of the vehicle registration). Due to the relatively low air speed of an average of 2.78 m / s annual mean, the polluted air is only removed very slowly. In the lowlands in which the city is located, a cooler layer of air often forms overnight, which is covered by a warmer layer. Exhaust gases from traffic and furnace heaters collect under this bell. In 2011 this inversion effect occurred 2575 hours per year (30% of the total time).
In addition, the exhaust gases from the heavily industrialized region of Silesia blow into the city via Lesser Poland. The daily and hourly pollution values can be found on the portal of the Provincial Inspectorate for Environmental Protection Krakow. There is also an app for mobile devices. As the environmental agency reports to the voivodship administration, the fine dust pollution of PM10 and PM2.5 in the heating period is three times as high as from April to September, plus the pollution with benzo (a) pyrene from coal combustion. According to the Collegium Medicum of the Kraków Jagiellonian University, the IQ of Kraków children is 3.8% below the level of students from clean communities due to air pollution.
In 2012, a citizens' initiative organized protests and a poster campaign. After this impetus from civil society, the city government reacted and from 2013 financed the replacement of coal stoves, which could be reduced from 25,000 at the time to 4,000 in 2018. Coal stoves have not been allowed to be installed in new buildings since the beginning of 2014. The number of days in the year in which the fine dust limit values were exceeded fell below a hundred by 2017. The Parliament of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship ( Sejmik ) decided to completely ban heating with solid fuels from September 2019. In addition, with higher parking fees, Park & Ride, damp-sweeping street sweepers, new buses (electric, liquid gas, Euro 6), more consistently carried out ASU tests for vehicles and more stringent controls of energy-intensive industrial companies, emissions are being reduced, bypasses, bicycle paths and new tram lines are being built, railway tracks modernized, buildings thermally insulated and connected to the district heating network, and penalties for households that burn garbage increased. The Deputy Marshal of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Wojciech Kozak, said in 2016 that 200,000 coal stoves would need to be replaced across the voivodeship. 5th generation coal stoves could also reduce emissions by 90 percent. The idea of only allowing citizens to burn high-quality coal has been given up because it cannot be controlled.
Krakow has been one of the most important educational centers in Poland for centuries. The city has eleven universities with around 10,000 employees and 51,000 students, as well as a number of other higher education institutions. There are a total of 210,000 students in the city.
- Jagiellonian University (Uniwersytet Jagielloński) , founded in 1364
- Cracow University of Technology (Politechnika Krakowska) , founded in 1945
- AGH Scientific and Technical University (Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza) , founded in 1919
- Academy of Fine Arts Cracow (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych im. Jana Matejki) , founded in 1818
- Krakow Music Academy (Akademia Muzyczna)
- Agricultural University of Krakow (Uniwersytet Rolniczy w Krakowie)
- Cracow University of Economics and Business (Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny) , founded in 1882
- Sports Academy Krakow (Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego w Krakowie)
- Krakow University of Education (Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie) , founded in 1946
- Cracow State Theater School (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Teatralna)
- Pontifical University of John Paul II (Uniwersytet Papieski Jana Pawła II)
- The Ignatianum - School of Philosophy and Education (Wyższa Szkoła Filozoficzno-Pedagogiczna "Ignatianum")
- Bogdan Jański University (Szkoła Wyższa im. Bogdana Jańskiego)
- School of Management and Banking (Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania i Bankowości )
- Krakow Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Academy (Krakowska Akademia im. Andrzej 'Frycza' Modrzewskiego)
- University of Economics and Computer Science (Wyższa Szkoła Ekonomii i Informatyki)
- School of Management (Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania)
- Józef Tischner European University (Wyższa Szkoła Europejska im. Ks. Józefa Tischnera)
- Cracow Lesser Poland University of Applied Sciences (Małopolska Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Krakowie)
Krakow is one of the most economically successful cities in Poland. This can be attributed both to the central geographical location with eight million people within a radius of 100 km and to the young and well-educated population. Sixty percent of the city's residents are under 45 years of age, compared with 46 percent in the rest of Poland. In 2005 the unemployment rate was 6.9 percent, more than ten percentage points lower than the national average.
Several foreign companies have invested in Krakow, such as HVB , Deutsche Bank , Allianz SE , Volvo , Phillip Morris , Tishman Speyer Properties and Motorola . Foreign retail chains such as Metro , Tesco , Carrefour and Ikea have also settled in the city. At the end of 2006, the German company ECE Projektmanagement built a shopping gallery including a hotel with almost 250 shops on 60,000 m² on the station forecourt. The bus station was relocated behind the main train station.
The city is promoting the settlement of high-tech companies with a technology park spread over four areas in Krakow and Tarnow. The park offers modern infrastructure as well as tax incentives. IT / electronics companies such as Motorola (USA), RR Donnelley (USA) and Comarch (PL) have invested there since 1998 , as have some research institutions at Kraków's universities.
Tourism is also an important factor in Kraków's economy. The city had ten million visitors in 2015, and with the low-cost flight connections to Western Europe, the number of guests, especially from Great Britain and Ireland, is increasing sharply.
Since Krakow was the capital of Poland in the Middle Ages and its buildings were largely spared from war damage in modern times, it has a historically shaped cityscape and numerous original monuments. This is also the reason why its historical center, the Old Town of Krakow , was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1978 .
UNESCO World Heritage ensemble
The historic old town of Krakow is a World Heritage site and consists of the urban ensembles:
- the medieval core city of Krakow,
- the Wawel Hill complex with castle and cathedral and
- the city of Kazimierz (with the suburb of Stradom).
In the list entry from 1978 the ensemble is assessed as follows: “It is one of the most remarkable examples of European urban planning, which is characterized by harmonious development and a collection of elements that represent all architectural styles from the early Romanesque style to the modern.” (…) “It is an architectural ensemble of outstanding quality, both in terms of the urban landscape and the individual cultural monuments. The historical center of Krakow is a wonderful illustration of the process of undisturbed urban development from the Middle Ages to the present. "
- on the Wawel (castle) the royal palace in the style of the Renaissance and the cathedral (Katedra św. Stanisława i Wacława)
- On the Rynek Główny (ring, main market) surrounded by numerous town houses , the town's largest medieval town hall, the Cloth Hall (Gewandhaus, Polish: Sukiennice) and the town hall tower (Wieża Ratuszowa) of the town hall, which was demolished in 1832
- more than 100 churches and monasteries, including the Rynek Główny, the St. Mary's Church and the St. Barbara's Church
- 28 museums with important exhibits from all over Poland
- Kazimierz , Jewish quarter and formerly its own town, adjacent to the old town on the left bank of the Vistula
- the Błonia Park , whose history goes back (as urban pasture) to the Middle Ages
- over 200 cellar bars
- the high-rise Unity Tower
Churches and monasteries
- Marienkirche (Kościół Mariacki) , Gothic basilica on the ring, built from 1287 to 1320 on Romanesque foundations
- St. Barbara Church ( Kościół św. Barbary ), next to St. Mary's Church, built around the same time
- St. Adalbert's Church ( Kościół św. Wojciecha ) on the Ring, the oldest church in Krakow
- Dominican Church (Kościół św. Trójcy) and Dominican Monastery
- Franciscan Church (Kościół Franciszkanów) and Franciscan Monastery, basilica from the 13th century with stained glass windows by Stanisław Wyspiański
- St. Joseph Church (Kościół św. Józefa) and Bernardine Monastery
- St. Peter and Paul Church (Kościół św. Piotra i Pawła) , Jesuit Church, built 1605–1619, Kraków's first baroque church
- St. Andrew's Church (Kościół św. Andrzeja) and Poor Clare Monastery, Romanesque church (construction started in 1080)
- St. Martin Church (Kościół św. Marcina) , Protestant church
- St. Aegidius Church (Kościół św. Idziego)
- St. Anne's Church (Kościół św. Anny) , built in 1689 as a university church
- St. Norbert Church (Kościół św. Norberta)
- Reformate Church or St. Casimir Church (Kościół św. Kazimierza) and Reformate Monastery, built in 1673
- St. Mark's Church (Kościół św. Marka)
- St. John's Church (Kościół św. Jana) and St. John's Monastery
- Piarist Church (Kościół Pijarów) and Piarist Monastery , Baroque church built between 1718 and 1728 on the city wall
- Holy Cross Church (Kościół św. Krzyża) , Gothic church from the 14th century.
- Church of the Assumption of Our Lady
- Church of Our Lady of the Snow (Kościół Matki Boskiej Śnieżnej)
- Cathedral of St. Stanislaus and Wenceslas or Waweldom (Katedra Wawelska)
- St. Bernard Church (Kościół Bernardynów) , Baroque church, built between 1659 and 1680, with the St. Bernard Monastery
- Pauline Church or St. Michael and Stanislaus Church "On the Rock" (Kościół św. Michała Archanioła i św. Stanisława Biskupa) , originally Gothic basilica, rebuilt in Baroque style in 1733–1751
- St. Catherine's Church (Kościół św. Katarzyny) and Augustinian Monastery, built for the Augustinians in 1463
- St. Agnes Church (Kościół św. Agnieszki)
- Corpus Christi Church (Bazylika Bożego Ciała)
- Brothers of Mercy Church and Hospital
Tyniec, Bielany and Salwator
The monasteries and churches of the three districts in the western districts of Krakow were nominated as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO from 1993 to 1996. In addition to its impressive location on or above the Vistula, the surrounding landscape is also protected; B. the protected areas Bielańsko-Tyniecki and Rezerwat Skałki Bielańskie . The monastery complex of Tyniec was declared a historical monument (Pomnik historii) on March 30, 2017 by decree of President Andrzej Duda .
- Benedictine Abbey in Tyniec (Opactwo Benedyktynów Tyniec)
- Camaldolese monastery in Bielany (Klasztor Kamedułów)
- Premonstratensian monastery and church (Klasztorny Norbertanek) in Salwator
- Church of the Savior (Kościół Najświętszego Salwatora) in Salwator
- Margaret's Chapel (Kaplica św. Małgorzaty i św. Judyty) in Salwator
- Church of Mercy
- St. Florian Church (Kościół św. Floriana)
- Missionary monastery and church
- Visiting convent and church
- Joseph Protection Church and the Discalced Carmelite Monastery
- Carmelite Monastery and Church (Kościół Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Maryi Panny)
- Capuchin Church (Kościół Kapucynów)
- St. Nicholas Church (Kościół św. Mikołaja) , originally a Romanesque church from the 12th century, rebuilt in 1655 in Baroque style
- Sacred Heart Church (Kościół Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusa) , built between 1909 and 1912 in Art Nouveau style
- Vincent Church
- Corpus Christi Church
- St. Benedict Church
- Church of Our Lady of Czestochowa (Kościół Matki Boskiej Częstochowskiej)
- Church of the Lord's Ark (Kościół Arka Pana)
- Church of St. John the Baptist (Kościół św. Jana Chrzciciela)
- St. Bartholomew's Church (Kościół św. Bartłomieja)
The Königsweg is a touristic tour through the old town. It begins north of the old town at the monument to the Battle of Tannenberg , which commemorates the victory of the Poles over the Teutonic Order . You cross the inner ring road around the old town and stand in front of the barbican , which is considered the largest Gothic defense tower in Europe. Next you come to the remains of the city wall with the Kraków Florian Gate . You enter the old town through this last preserved city gate. Along ul. Floriańska you will pass the Pharmaceutical Museum and arrive at Rynek Główny , the largest European marketplace in the Middle Ages.
Here the path meets a second tour, the university route through the historic student town, which is dedicated to the history of the Jagiellonian University . If one follows the Royal Route, one comes along ul Grodzka to other churches over -. The Dominican church , the Peter and Paul Church , the Romanesque Andreas church and the Protestant church of St. Martin. At the end of the path you can see the overwhelming royal castle on the Wawel hill on the bank of the Vistula with the fire-breathing monument of the legendary Wawel dragon.
Via Jagiellonica and Via Regia
The Via Jagiellonica is a new European cultural route and tourist offerings, which was opened in 2010 to mark the 600th anniversary of the Battle of Tannenberg. The road connects Krakow (as the southern end point) on two routes with Lublin , Białystok , the Belarusian border town of Brest and ends in the Lithuanian capital Vilnius . The road is based on the former military road of the Polish Jagiellonian kings and the grand dukes from Lithuania to Mazovia , who appeared in battle as brothers in arms and inflicted a crushing defeat on the Teutonic Knight Order . The focus is on the cultural sights and natural beauties, because the road should contribute to the development of the European Union .
The Via Regia has been developed as the most famous European cultural route since 2005 . Since the Middle Ages, Krakow has been an important stop on this most important west-east trade route , which ran from Spain ( Santiago de Compostela ) through France ( Bordeaux , Paris ) via Frankfurt am Main , Leipzig , Görlitz , Breslau to Kiev . In the opposite direction, the Via Regia was also a pilgrimage route ( Way of St. James ) that led to the pilgrimage site of Santiago de Compostela.
Jewish quarter and ghetto
The Kazimierz district (named after King Casimir the Great ) was once an independent city. In Kazimierz there used to be a high proportion of Jews . The nightlife district, popular with locals and tourists, is currently being renovated and impresses with its alternative charm and artist scene, as well as its Jewish tradition. However, it is hardly inhabited by Jews anymore. Only about 150 practicing Jews, mostly older Jews, are currently still resident.
Former synagogues in Kazimierz :
- Old synagogue
- High synagogue
- Isaac Synagogue
- Kupa Synagogue
- Popper Synagogue
- Remuh Synagogue (next to the old Jewish cemetery)
- Temple synagogue
Remnants of the former Krakow ghetto , such as parts of the wall and the ghetto pharmacy, are located in the adjacent Podgórze district south of the Vistula . There is also the former factory of Oskar Schindler . Radio and television sets have been manufactured there since the end of the war. After extensive renovation, the Fabryka Emalia Oskara Schindlera Museum was opened in the building on June 10, 2010 . It houses an exhibition on the life of Poles and Jews during the German occupation. Most of the ghetto shots in the movie Schindler's List were shot in Kazimierz due to the existing historical building fabric.
Of the total of 28 museums, the following are mentioned here:
- National Museum (Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie) with branches:
- City History Museum (Muzeum Miasta Krakowa Historyczne) , which also includes the Museum Fabryka Schindlera belongs
- Museum of Contemporary Art Krakow (Muzeum Sztuki Współczesnej w Krakowie)
- Art Bunker ( Bunkier Sztuki ), a modern art museum
- Jan Matejko's birthplace
- Archaeological Museum (Muzeum Archeologiczne) with the permanent exhibitions: 1000 years of Krakow and Egypt
- Pharmaceutical Museum (Muzeum Farmacji)
- Galicia Jewish Museum (Muzeum Galicja)
- Ethnographic Museum (Muzeum Etnograficzne)
- Archbishop's Museum (Muzeum Archidiecezjalne)
- Center for Japanese Art and Technology Manggha (Centrum Sztuki i Techniki Japońskiej Manggha)
- Municipal Technical Museum ( Muzeum Inżynierii Miejskiej , Museum of Municipal Engineering): mainly trams and cars
- Polish Aviation Museum (Muzeum Lotnictwa Polskiego)
In the neighboring municipality of Wieliczka there is a salt mine that is famous for its spectacularly designed interiors.
The city is connected to the Upper Silesian industrial area and Western Europe via the A4 motorway . By 2014 the highway was completed up to the Ukrainian border. The S7 expressway and the 7th national road lead south to the winter sports resort of Zakopane .
The John Paul II Airport Kraków-Balice in Balice is the second largest airport in Poland with scheduled connections a. a. to Chicago , Frankfurt am Main , Vienna and Berlin as well as Basel , Cologne-Bonn, Düsseldorf, Dortmund, Munich, Hamburg and Stuttgart.
The tram connects the outskirts in particular with the center. In December 2008 the first express tram went into operation in Krakow. The entire route of the Kraków light rail has a length of 14 km and runs partly in an underground tunnel. There is also a regular bus service to the surrounding area, but also international connections.
The tram system was originally set up in the rare gauge of 900 mm, from around 1910 sections were put into operation in normal gauge.
In autumn 2016 the oldest bike rental system in Poland was modernized and now has over 1500 bikes at 150 rental stations under the name Wavelo.
- Wieliczka (approx. 20 km away) with Wieliczka Salt Mine and Salzgrafenschloss and Bochnia (approx. 40 km away) with Bochnia Salt Mine (together UNESCO World Heritage Royal Salt Mines Wieliczka and Bochnia )
- Niepołomice (approx. 25 km away) with the Royal Castle and Niepołomice Forest
- Ojców National Park (approx. 25 km away) with the Pieskowa Skała Castle
- Kalwaria Zebrzydowska with Kalvarienberg and Bernhardin monastery (approx. 30 km away; UNESCO World Heritage) and Lanckorona
- Babia Góra National Park (approx. 60 km away)
- Gorce National Park (approx. 60 km away)
- Reservoirs Jezioro Rożnowskie (approx. 65 km away) and Jezioro Czorsztyńskie (approx. 75 km away) with water sports (sailing)
- Pieninen National Park (approx. 80 km away)
- Oświęcim with the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum (approx. 80 km away, UNESCO World Heritage)
- Zakopane and Tatra National Park (approx. 90 km away)
- Upper Silesian industrial area with numerous important monuments of industrial culture and visitor mines
- Wooden churches in southern Lesser Poland (UNESCO World Heritage)
- Kraków-Czestochowa Jura with Kraków Jura valleys, sport climbing areas and the Eagle's Nest long-distance hiking trail from Kraków to the pilgrimage site of Czestochowa with the Pauline monastery of Jasna Góra
- Vistula Cycle Path (runs through the center of Kraków, largely completed on the Wisła - Szczucin route )
Krakow has partnerships with the following cities:
- Bordeaux ( France )
- Bratislava ( Slovakia )
- Curitiba ( Brazil )
- Cusco ( Peru )
- Edinburgh ( Scotland )
- Florence ( Italy )
- Milan (Italy)
- Frankfurt am Main ( Germany ), since 1991
- Leipzig (Germany)
- Nuremberg (Germany), since 1979
- Innsbruck ( Austria )
- Gothenburg ( Sweden )
- Lviv ( Ukraine )
- Leuven ( Belgium ), since 1991
- Orléans (France)
- Fes ( Morocco )
- Rochester ( USA )
- Seville ( Spain )
- Solothurn ( Switzerland ), since 1990
- Vilnius ( Lithuania )
- Zagreb ( Croatia ), since 1975
- Adam Bujak: Royal Krakow . Biały Kruk, Krakow 2005, ISBN 83-88918-77-X .
- August Essenwein : The medieval art monuments of the city of Krakow . Nuremberg 1867 ( digitized )
- Marta Kijowska : Krakow. Walk through a poet's town . DTV, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-423-24483-6 .
- Peter Lehmann: Another home, Kraków . Brockhaus, Leipzig 1988, ISBN 3-325-00163-7 .
- Jacek Purchla: Krakow under Austrian rule 1846–1918. Factors of its development . Böhlau, Vienna a. a. 1993, ISBN 3-205-05489-X .
- Jehuda L. Stein: Jews in Krakow. A historical overview 1173–1939 . Hartung-Gorre, Konstanz 1997, ISBN 3-89649-201-2 .
- Piotr Szalsza : Krakow. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 3, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-7001-3045-7 .
- Constantin von Wurzbach : The churches of the city of Krakow. A monograph on the history and ecclesiastical history of the former Kingdom of Poland . Vienna 1853 ( digitized version )
- http://www.krakow.travel/de/ - very comprehensive and informative online travel guide from the Krakow Festival Office
- Magiczny Kraków - official website of the city (in several languages)
- SWR: Treasures of the World - Krakow (TV movie)
- German-language publications about Krakow at LitDok East Central Europe / Herder Institute (Marburg)
- City view in the travel album of Count Palatine Ottheinrich 1536/37
- Illustration of the city in 1617 in Civitates orbis terrarum by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed on December 24, 2019 .
- Travel information about Poland Krakow (Krakow) ( Memento from March 23, 2012 in the Internet Archive ).
- Information on the Life Science Park  (English)
- Kraków - A Technology Hub for Central and Eastern Europe.
- Krakow - the cultural capital of Poland. ( Memento from March 14, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Website of the National Science Center  (English)
- Alvernia Studios
- 10 Production Facilities That Are Giving Hollywood a Run for Its Money
- UNCATD's World Investment Report 2011.
- Cracow.welcome.com. ( Memento from March 6, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Krakow, European Sports 2014
- Norman Davies : God's Playground. P. 77
- Henryk Samsonowicz: Social plurality and interaction in Krakow. Pp. 121–122 In: Marina Dmitrieva, Karen Lambrecht (Eds.): Krakow, Prague and Vienna: Functions of Metropolises in the Early Modern State. Franz Steiner Verlag, 2000, ISBN 3-515-07792-8 .
- Slawomir Gawlas: The problems of feudalism and feudalism from a Polish perspective , p. 120 , In: Michael Borgolte, Ralf Lusiardi: The European Middle Ages in the arc of tension of comparison. Akademie Verlag , 2001, ISBN 3-05-003663-X .
- "The greatest number of foreign students was registered in the closing years of the fifteenth and the very early years of the sixteenth centuries. Thus, for example, the number of German scholars at Cracow was as follows: 1400-1460, ninety-eight; 1461-1470 fifty-eight; 1471-1480, sixty-one; 1481-1490, one hundred eighty-one; 1491–1500, three hundred forty-one. 31 In the decade 1501–1510, no less than 3215 students registered at Cracow University, of whom 1,501 came from Poland-Lithuania and 1,714 from other countries. The most influential of all early Polish humanists was Gregory of Sanok. He was born around 1407. As a child of twelve unable to accept without protest the strict discipline imposed by his father, he escaped from home, first to Cracow and then to Germany, visiting many cities and towns as a scholar and a tutor. After his return to Cracow, he registered with the University in 1428 and obtained his BA in 1433. Subsequently, he became tutor to the sons of John Tarnowski. "- Ludwik Krzyzanowski: The Polish review , Published by the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences in America, 1971 p. 36
- Jaroslav Miller: Urban societies in East-Central Europe: 1500–1700. Ashgate Publishing, 2008, ISBN 978-0-7546-5739-2 , p. 73 .
- Anton Friedrich Büsching : Magazine for the new history and geography . Volume 16, Hall 1782, pp. 12 and 17 ( online )
- Results of the censuses of the KK Statistische Central -ommission u. a., in: Anson Rabinbach : The Migration of Galician Jews to Vienna. Austrian History Yearbook, Volume XI, Berghahn Books / Rice University Press, Houston 1975, pp. 46/47 (Table III)
- Główny Urząd Statystyczny: Skorowidz miejscowości Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. Województwo krakowskie i Śląsk Cieszyński . Warszawa 1925, p. 17 [PDF: 27] (Polish, Woj.krakowskie i Sląsk Cieszynski miejscowości.pdf ).
- Nathanial Wood: Becoming Metropolitan - Urban Selfhood and the Making of Modern Cracow , 2010 Northern Illinois University Press.
- Władysław Kwiecień: Przyczynek do studiów nad ludnością miasta Krakowa i gmin przyległych u schyłku XIX w. 1981, p. 372 [PDF 4] (Polish, online [PDF]).
- Małgorzata Klimas, Bożena Lesiak-Przybył, Anna Sokół: Wielki Kraków. Rozszerzenie granic miasta w latach 1910–1915 (Greater Krakow. Expansion of the city borders in the years 1910–1915) . Archiwum Państwowe w Krakowie, Kraków 2010, ISBN 978-83-927658-2-0 , p. 18 (Polish, English, online ).
- Meyers Konversations-Lexikon , 5th edition, 10th volume, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna 1896, p. 621.
- Armin A. Wallas (Ed.): Eugen Hoeflich . Diaries 1915 to 1927 . Vienna: Böhlau, 1999 ISBN 3-205-99137-0 , p. 143
- Contrary to the original description of the picture, there is no police, as they did not have artillery. Drawn SS artillery is also not very likely.
- Paweł Stachnik: Norymberga wschodu. Niemiecki trwały ślad w Krakowie ( pl ) March 19, 2019. Accessed June 14, 2019.
- Jurist with a preference for fur ( memento from September 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) by Dieter Schenk in Ossietzky , 24/2006.
- Information to the world from September 3, 2009.
- Result on the website of the electoral commission, accessed on July 17, 2020.
- Result on the website of the electoral commission, accessed on July 17, 2020.
- Krakow wants to breathe again in the NZZ on December 13, 2018
- http://www.radiokrakow.pl/rozmowy/wojciech-kozak-nie-ma-wegla-zlej-jakosci-sa-tylko-odpowiednie-warunki-spalania-dla-kazdego-wegla/ November 24, 2016, 8.49 a.m.
- Why study in Krakow  (English)
- Gospodarka - Krakow - www.krakow.pl. Archived from the original on November 18, 2005 ; accessed on February 28, 2015 .
- English text of the entry in the Krakow list , accessed on July 2, 2018.
- isap.sejm.gov.pl: Rozporządzenie Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 15 marca 2017 r. w sprawie uznania za pomnik historii 'Tyniec - zespół opactwa benedyktynów'. (Polish, Sejm document server ; accessed July 17, 2020)
- ( Page no longer available , search in web archives: opening of the museum in the Schindler factory. ) June 10, 2010 (zenit.org)
- Asociation de Agencias de Turismo del Cusco: Ciudades hermanas