|Voivodeship :||Lesser Poland|
|Powiat :||Tatra Mountains|
|Area :||84.35 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||833-1130 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||34-500 to 34-504|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 18|
|License plate :||KTT|
|Economy and Transport|
|Droga wojewódzka 958|
|Rail route :||Chabówka – Zakopane railway line|
|Next international airport :||Krakow-Balice|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Community number ( GUS ):||1217011|
|Administration (as of 2015)|
|Mayor :||Leszek Dorula|
ul.Kosciuszki 13 34-500 Zakopane
Zakopane ([ zakɔ'panɛ ] ) is a city in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship in the southernmost part of Poland , around 90 kilometers south of the city of Krakow in a wide basin of the Western Tatras and the High Tatras near the Slovak border. The city is the seat of Powiat Tatrzański County and the largest winter sports center in the country.
Zakopane is one of the southernmost cities and the highest city in Poland. The highest mountains in Poland (up to 2499 m above sea level) partly belong to the municipality. The highest peak that belongs to the municipality is the Świnica at 2301 m above sea level. The urban area itself extends from 750 to 1000 m above sea level. NN South of the city borders the High Tatras National Park . The four local mountains Zakopanes are located above the town: Nosal , Giewont and Kasprowy Wierch south of the center in the Western Tatras and Gubałówka north of the center in Pogórze Gubałowskie . Cable cars lead to the last two peaks. The city center is located in the Vortatragraben .
Zakopane has an area of 84.35 km², of which: 31% is used for agriculture and forests make up 57% of the area. The inner city area makes up 17.89% of the area.
The neighboring municipalities are: Bukowina Tatrzańska in the east, Kościelisko in the west and Poronin in the north. Zakopane also borders Slovakia in the south over the main ridge of the Tatra Mountains .
- Toporowa Cyrhla
Because of its altitude, Zakopane has slightly lower temperatures and significantly higher rainfall, especially snowfall, than places in the lowlands or on the south side of the Tatra Mountains . Winds with humid air masses, which cause high amounts of precipitation in the form of rain and snow on the north and west sides of the Tatras, blow mainly from the north and north-west in winter. They are called Orawski by the Zakopans . Dry and warm southerly winds come as the foehn , which is called Halny in Zakopane , over the main ridge of the Tatra Mountains in autumn and spring. Winter in the city of Zakopane lasts from November to the end of March and from October to April on the local mountain Kasprowy Wierch . Heat thunderstorms often occur in summer. The warmest month is usually July, the coldest February.
coat of arms
Description : In a gray blue pointed sign foot with a standing on white Endrautenkreuz with rays between the cross arms. Behind the base of the cross two golden crossed keys with the beards pointing outwards with a cross incision in the beards and a heart-shaped opening in the key width.
The Podhale region was settled from north to south in the Middle Ages. The first settlements were established by the Cistercians at the beginning of the 13th century on the lower course of the Czarny Dunajec . In the course of time, the forest in the river valleys was cleared and new settlement areas opened up in higher and higher areas on the upper reaches of the headwaters of the Dunajec . Due to the cool climate in the high-altitude region, alpine farming and cattle breeding were the main activities. It is not known when the first settlers came to what is now Zakopane. In the late Middle Ages there were several seasonal shepherds' settlements in the Voratragraben . At that time, the first shepherds, farmers and woodcutters settled here.
Early modern age
In 1578, King Stephan Báthory granted Zakopisko the settlement privilege . Since then the area has belonged to the royal estates, which can be compared with the imperial immediacy in the Holy Roman Empire. In the 17th century, only a few shepherd families lived permanently in the village of Zakopane. The boom of the place came with the development of mining in the Tatras, especially the Western Tatras, in the 18th century. Various ores, especially iron ore , were extracted in the Tatra Mountains and initially processed in the valleys. The metallurgy from the Tatra valleys was later centered in today's Zakopanes Kuźnice district (in German translation: forge ). When Zakopane came to the Habsburgs in the course of the First Partition of Poland in 1772, Kuźnice was already the largest metallurgical site in Galicia.
Zakopane belonged to the Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria from 1772 to 1918 . In the 19th century, the place developed into a popular tourist and artist town, just as the entire Tatras experienced such a boom. The Sherpa Sabała accompanied numerous mountaineers on the first ascent of many peaks of the High Tatras. In the second half of the century the place already had more than 3000 inhabitants. In 1873 the Galician Tatra Society was founded in Zakopane , which was committed to the development of the Tatra Mountains for mountaineers, the promotion of the regional Podhalanie culture and nature conservation. Since the middle of the 19th century, the doctor Tytus Chałubiński promoted Zakopane as a climatic health resort and founded a sanatorium for tuberculosis sufferers here. In 1886 Zakopane received the status of a spa. Stanisław Witkiewicz created the Zakopane style in architecture in the 1880s , a mixture of Art Nouveau with the folklore of Podhalanie. The established for 1889 Tatra Museum belonging Villa Koliba dedicated to the Zakopane style. During this time Zakopane became more and more a popular holiday destination, especially for artists who were looking for inspiration and creativity here. Numerous hotels and pensions were built. When the previous owner families Eichborn and Pelz continued the overexploitation in the Tatra Mountains, Władysław Zamoyski , who had done a lot for the development of Zakopane with the construction of a sewer system and numerous public facilities (post office, schools, museums), decided to go to Zakopane and one in 1889 To acquire most of the Tatra Mountains, which laid the foundation for today's Tatra National Park . At Zamoyski's instigation, Zakopane received a railway connection through the Chabówka – Zakopane railway to Kraków and a connecting road on October 25, 1899 . In 1902 he fought the area around the Meerauge for Zakopane before a court in Graz . 1903–1906, the high trail Orla Perć was laid out in what is now the municipality in the High Tatras . At the turn of the century Zakopane had around 6,000 inhabitants.
Second Polish Republic
On October 13, 1918, the citizens of Zakopane proclaimed the independent Republic of Zakopane , citing Woodrow Wilson's 14th points . Stefan Żeromski was elected head of state . On November 16, 1918, the Republic of Zakopane joined the newly emerging Polish state. Already at that time the city was living mainly from tourism. The population climbed to almost 20,000. Zakopane was also a magnet for artists in the Second Polish Republic . Karol Szymanowski settled in Zakopane in 1932. Numerous museums were founded. Zakopane was granted town charter in 1935. The holiday region around Zakopane became one of the most ambitious projects of the Polish tourist associations. In 1925 the Wielka Krokiew ski jump was opened, in 1938 the funicular to the Gubałówka went into operation and in 1939 the first cable car started up to the Kasprowy Wierch . In the 1930s, the Luxtorpeda luxury train , which could reach a speed of 115 km / h, ran between Krakow and Zakopane.
In the interwar period, the following international winter sports championships were held in Zakopane:
- Nordic World Ski Championships 1929
- Nordic World Ski Championships 1939
- Alpine World Ski Championships 1939
Second World War
With the formation of the General Government after Poland's military defeat in World War II, Zakopane was incorporated into the Neumarkt district administration . From October 1939 to the summer of 1941, Hans Malsfey was city commissioner for Zakopane, after which he became district chief of Neumarkt . At the end of November 1939, representatives of the Gestapo and the NKVD met in Zakopane for a conference to discuss joint measures to suppress the Polish resistance movement. In the summer of 1940, the German authorities closed Zakopane to Jews and at the same time declared it a recreation area for Germans. In the following year the Jewish restricted area was extended to Neumarkt. For the Polish resistance movement, in turn, Zakopane was an important stopover in the communications network, which stretched from Warsaw and Krakow via Slovakia to Budapest. Its residents not only acted as couriers bringing news across the mountains, but were also integrated in various ways in the acts of resistance against the German occupiers. The Hotel Palace housed the Gestapo, which interrogated and tortured numerous resistance fighters in the building. The Hotel Palace is therefore also known as the Podhale's torture chamber in Zakopane. The torture cellar is accessible. The prayer of 18-year-old Helena Wanda Błażusiakówna, scribbled on the wall, was used by Henryk Mikołaj Górecki for his composition 3rd Symphony .
Skirmishes between resistance fighters and the Soviet occupation forces took place in the Tatra Mountains until 1947. In 1950, the Polskie Towarzystwo Tatrzańskie (PTT, Polish Tatra Society) merged with the Polskie Towarzystwo Krajoznawcze (PTK, Polish Society for Regional Studies) to form Polskie Towarzystwo Turystyczno-Krajoznawcze (PTTK).
The following international winter sports championships were held in Zakopane:
- Nordic World Ski Championships 1962
- Biathlon World Championships 1969
- Slalom descent as part of the 1974 Alpine Ski World Cup
The ski jumping world cup has been held regularly on the Wielka Krokiew ski jump since 1980 .
The following international winter sports championships were held in Zakopane:
- Winter Universiade 1993
- Biathlon European Championships 2000
- Winter Universiade 2001
- Alpine Junior Ski World Championship 2008
- 2009 Junior Speed Skating World Championship
Zakopane also competed for the Olympic Winter Games in 2006 , the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2011 , the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2013 , the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2015 , the Nordic World Ski Championships in 2017 and the Winter Olympics in 2022 . The last application failed due to resistance from the residents.
At the end of the 19th century Zakopane became an important place in the Polish cultural landscape. The era of Young Poland is closely linked to the city. During this time, the following lived permanently or temporarily in Zakopane: Henryk Sienkiewicz , Władysław Orkan , Stanisław Witkiewicz , Stefan Żeromski , Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer , Jan Kasprowicz , Mieczysław Karłowicz , Karol Szymanowski , Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz and others.
Stanisław Witkiewicz developed the Zakopane style in architecture in the 1880s . In Zakopane there are baroque wooden churches in the Podhalanie style as well as numerous sacred buildings and secular villas in the Zakopane style, such as the Tatra train station , the Red Court , the Villa Oksza , the Villa Koliba , the Villa Pod Jedlami , the Villa Harenda , Villa Ornak , Villa Witkiewiczówka , Villa Atma or Bazar Polski . The oldest preserved buildings, such as the Wnuk Inn or the Sabała Hut , date back to the 18th century and were built in the so-called Silesian-Zipser style. The people who have made the greatest contribution to Zakopane are buried in the old cemetery of honor and the new cemetery , which are themselves listed due to their numerous carved wooden tombs in the Podhale style.
In 1892 a theater was established in Zakopane, which gave performances in the Tatra Railway Station. The Friends of Zakopane Association finally established a permanent theater in Zakopane, in which among others appeared: Helena Modrzejewska , Antonina Hoffmann , Irena and Ludwik Solscy .
Museums and galleries
- Tatra Museum
- Tatra National Park Museum
- Kornel Makuszyński Museum
- Jan Kasprowicz Museum
- Karol Szymanowski Museum
- Antoni Rząsa Gallery
- Ryszard Orski Gallery
- Władysław Hasior Gallery
- Gallery Pegaz
- City art gallery in Zakopane
- Museum of the Resistance
Regional newspapers are:
- Tygodnik Podhalański
- Gazeta Krakowska with local edition
- Tatry (Newspaper) Newspaper of the Tatra National Park
Regional radio stations are:
- Radio Eska Małopolska - 106.8 MHz
- Radio Plus Podhale - 107.9 MHz
- Radio Alex - 105.2 MHz
- Twoje Radio Zakopane - 1485 kHz
- Radio Kraków - 100.0 MHz
In the time before Zakopane was founded and in the first centuries after its creation, the first settlers lived mainly from the alpine and timber industry. From the 17th century on, mining in the Tatras became more and more important. The ironworks and smithy in the Kuźnice district was established in the 18th century and soon grew into the largest metalworking company in Galicia. However, it was closed at the end of the 19th century. From the early 19th century, tourism became the leading industry in Zakopane and has remained so in the 20th and 21st centuries.
Zakopane is located on the Zakopianka , a 102 km long expressway that connects it with Krakow and consists of sections S 7 and DK 47 . The Oswald-Balzer-Weg panoramic road leads to the former border crossing on the Łysa Polana mountain pasture to Slovakia. The DW 958 leads to Chabówka near Rabka-Zdrój .
The Zakopane Central Bus Station is also located near the train station. Numerous bus companies offer connections between Zakopane and Krakow as well as other cities in Poland and abroad.
Minibuses run from the center of Zakopane to the various places in the vicinity, to the entrances of the Tatra National Park and the ski areas in the winter season.
Zakopane has had a bus network since 2016. It is operated by Tesco, a company that uses Solaris buses.
Zakopane has two unofficial names that aptly describe the importance of the holiday region: the capital of the Tatra Mountains and the winter capital of Poland . The city has around three million visitors a year, which means there are around 100 tourists for every inhabitant. The Tatra National Park recorded 3.5 official entries in 2016. The focus is on skiing . Athletes will also find other options such as snowboarding or paragliding . The expansion of cable cars and ski areas was steadily pushed forward. There is a dense network of hotels and the streets of the city have traditional markets linked to the culture of the Gorals. The city also offers a number of restaurants , coffee houses and nightclubs . The apres ski is all about the promenade Krupówki place in the city center. Famous ski mountains of Zakopane are Kasprowy Wierch , Nosal , Gubałówka and Antałówka . World Cup ski jumping takes place regularly on the Wielka Krokiew ski jump (translated: large rafter ) .
In addition to the numerous villas in Zakopane style , the sacred buildings in Zakopane are particularly worth seeing. The church buildings in the parish range from baroque churches to postmodern sanctuaries. Many sacred buildings are built in the Zakopane style or in a form that is linked to this:
- Johanneskirche on the Harenda
- Marienkirche to the Madonna of Czestochowa
- Church of the Holy Family
- Sacred Heart Chapel
- Marian shrine on Wiktorówki
- Albertine convent on Kalatówki
- Albertine monastery on the sleeping mountain
- Hermitage of Brother Albert
- Marienkirche on the Olcza
- Marian shrine to the Madonna of Fatima
- Holy Cross Church
- Antonius Church
- Church of Mercy on the Cyrhla
- Church of Mercy on Chramcówki
- St. Mary's Church on the Górka
- St. Mary's Church on Gubałówka
- Bonifrater taster on the Krzeptówki
- Carmelite Convent
- Ursuline convent on Jaszczurówki
- Seventh-day Adventist Church
The Eisenach – Budapest mountain hiking trail , the Lenin trail , the Brother Albert trail and the Oswald-Balzer trail panoramic road run through Zakopane . The most famous Polish high-altitude trail, the Eagle Trail , runs on the border with the eastern municipality of Bukowina Tatrzańska . Numerous marked hiking trails start in Zakopane, leading to the surrounding mountains: High Tatras, Western Tatras and Pogórze Spisko-Gubałowskie:
- Droga pod Reglami : Zakopane-Murowanica - Wielka Krokiew - Dolina Białego - Dolina Strążyska - Dolina Małej Łąki - Kiry ( Dolina Kościeliska )
- Nosal - Nosalowa Przełęcz - Kuźnice - Myślenickie Turnie - Kasprowy Wierch Zakopane-Murowanica -
- Kuźnice - Dolina Jaworzynki - Przełęcz między Kopami Zakopane-
- Boczań - Przełęcz między Kopami - Murowaniec hut on the pasture Hala Gąsienicowa - Czarny Staw Gąsienicowy - Zawrat - Dolina Pięciu Stawów Polskich - Five Polish Lakes Hut - Świstowa Czuba - Rowień nad Kepa - Meeraughütte Zakopane-Kuźnice -
- Kalatówki Mountain Hotel - Kondratowa Hut - Kondracka Przełęcz - Giewont Zakopane-Kuźnice -
- Klasztor Albertynek na Kalatówkach Zakopane-Kuźnice -
- Jaszczurówka - Dolina Olczyska - Wielki Brilleiec - Zakopane- Toporowa Cyrhla Zakopane-
- Dolina Suchej Wody Gąsienicowej - Rówień Waksmundzka - Dolina Waksmundzka - Oswald-Balzer-Weg and further: Zakopane-Toporowa Cyrhla -
- Dolina Białego - Ścieżka nad Reglami Zakopane-Pod Skocznią -
- Buńdówki - Dolina Strążyska - Dolina Grzybowiecka - Grzybowiec - Wyżnia Kondracka Przełęcz under the Giewont Zakopane-
- Krzeptówki - Dolina za Bramką Zakopane-
- Butorowy Wierch - Gubałówka Zakopane -
- Szymoszków stream Zakopane - the source of the
- Tourist House Zakopane - Gubałówka - Mietłówka - Płazówka - Witów - Przysłop Witowski - Magura Witowska Zakopane
- Nowe Bystre Zakopane -
- Furmanów - Ząb - Szaflary Zakopane-Ciągłówka -
- Antałówka - Zakopane-Harenda - Furmanów - Gubałówka Zakopane-
There are three refuges and one tourist house in the municipality of Zakopane. One is in the Dolina Gąsienicowa border valley between the High Tatras and the Western Tatras and two in the Western Tatras.
In the municipality of Zakopane there are six mountain railways from the center.
- Kasprowy Wierch cable car
- Gubałówka funicular
- Nosal cable car
- Butorowy Wierch cable car
- Polana Szymoszkowa cable car
- Harenda cable car
There are two more cable cars in the Kasprowy Wierch ski area, but they do not operate in summer.
In the municipality of Zakopane there are six larger ski areas, five of which are currently active, as well as numerous smaller ski stations.
- Kasprowy Wierch ski area
- Gubałówka ski area
- Nosal ski area
- Butorowy Wierch ski area
- Polana Szymoszkowa ski area
- Harenda ski area
The two last-mentioned ski areas are combined in the Góral Ski Pass Association together with the neighboring ski areas Search ski area in Poronin and Witów-Ski ski area in Witów . This is the second largest association in the Podhale region after the TatrySki ski pass association .
Speed skating rink
In the center of Zakopane is the COS speed skating rink , which is used for national and international competitions as well as for Olympic preparation.
There are five ski jumping hills in the municipality of Zakopane .
There are two thermal baths in the municipality of Zakopane.
There are five more in the surrounding Polish municipalities and three more on the Slovak side.
- Bansko , Bulgaria
- Bariloche , Argentina
- Bavel , Netherlands
- Polonezkoy , Turkey
- Poprad , Slovakia
- Saint-Dié-des-Vosges , France
- Siegen , Germany
- Sopot , Poland
- Stryj , Ukraine
- Vysoké Tatry , Slovakia
sons and daughters of the town
- Zbigniew Wóycicki (1902–1928), officer and skier
- Stanisław Chrobak (1902–?), Skier
- Stanisław Kądziołka (1902–1971), military patrol runner
- Henryk Mückenbrunn (1903–1956), skier
- Franciszek Cukier (1905–1954), ski jumper
- Bronisław Czech (1908–1944), skier
- Karol Gąsienica-Szostak (1908–1996), skier
- Michał Górski (1911–1985), skier and architect
- Izydor Gąsienica-Łuszczek (1912–1992), skier
- Andrzej Marusarz (1913–1968), skier
- Stanisław Marusarz (1913–1993), skier
- Anna Morawska (1922–1972), publicist, translator and book author
- Stefan Dziedzic (1927–2006), skier and politician
- Franciszek Gąsienica Groń (1931–2014), ski jumper and trainer
- Józef Gąsienica-Bryjak (1937–2002), skier
- Józef Gąsienica (1941–2005), Nordic combined skier
- Andrzej Bachleda-Curuś (* 1947), ski racer
- Stanisław Bobak (1956-2010), ski jumper
- Dorota Mogore-Tlałka (* 1963), ski racer
- Małgorzata Mogore-Tlałka (born 1963), ski racer
- Robert Mateja (* 1974), ski jumper
- Dawid Lubowicz (* 1981), jazz musician
- Marcin Bachleda (* 1982), ski jumper
- Krystyna Guzik (* 1983), biathlete
- Adam Kwak (* 1986), biathlete
- Mateusz Rutkowski (* 1986), ski jumper
- Agnieszka Gąsienica-Daniel (* 1987), ski racer
- Kamil Stoch (* 1987), ski jumper
- Paweł Urbański (* 1987), ski jumper
- Łukasz Rutkowski (* 1988), ski jumper
- Martyna Galewicz (* 1989), cross-country skier
- Aleksandra Król (* 1990), snowboarder
- Maryna Gąsienica-Daniel (* 1994), ski racer
- City website (multilingual)
- Detailed information about the city (multilingual)
- Zakopane (English)
- E-Zakopane (Polish)
- Zakopane Information about the locality of Zakopane
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- Website of the city, Burmistrz Miasta Zakopane , accessed on February 9, 2015
- Official website of the city of Zakopane / History of the city ( Memento of the original from September 28, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Poland looks ahead welt.de, accessed on April 18, 2018.
- Zakopane "Palace" cela nr 3 ściana nr 3 Błażusiakówna Helena Wanda lat 18, siedzi od 25 IX 44