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A bird's eye view of the runway system at Zurich Airport

With the airport one is the airport including infrastructure refers to the normally regular commercial air traffic takes place. In contrast, the general aviation (General Aviation, abbreviated GA) usually only represented on the edge. Military airfields are not declared as airports. Airports usually meet a higher safety standard than other airfields such as landing areas. Depending on their size, they have different airport infrastructures such as hangars , maintenance facilities for aircraft, handling systems on the ground, air traffic control and service facilities for passengers (restaurants, lounges and security services). In other countries, are Airport smaller airfields understand sometimes, where only general aviation or the military is based.

Origin of the term

The first fortified airports were actually shipping harbors , as the first major coordinated airlines with seaplanes were established at the beginning of aviation history . Later, the first tenders for the construction of airports were published and the first experiences were made that had a lasting impact on the development of the airports.

History of airports

Former Berlin-Tempelhof Airport (model)
San Francisco Airport at night
Sheremetyevo Airport
Aircraft handling at Frankfurt Airport

The first airfields specifically intended for permanent flight operations by aircraft were called Aerodrom or Aerodrome (in German this has been documented since 1909). They consisted of grass without trees or bushes, which could be flown over from all sides depending on the wind direction and at the edge of which aircraft could be parked and serviced in simple hangars. Often, spectator stands were also built in order to cover part of the construction and maintenance costs with entrance fees for those interested in flying. Initially, these places were not used for traffic - the transport of mail, goods or people - but were used exclusively for test and inspection flights, as well as air meetings and flight competitions. The first aerodrome of this type was the Port Aviation near Viry-Châtillon , which was officially opened on May 23, 1909 with a flight from Léon Delagrange . The first aerodrome in Germany was the Johannisthal airfield , which opened on September 26, 1909 .

Only after the First World War - with the increasing safety of the developed aircraft, the increase in aircraft sizes and the offer of overland flights by air transport companies - airfields developed into airports with steadily increasing numbers of passengers.

The demand from passengers for regular air traffic led to increased requirements in terms of safety and an orderly, conflict-free process. The Brazilian Alberto Santos Dumont first presented the concept of an airport during a visit to Theodore Roosevelt in 1902 .

The first international airport, Croydon Airport , was built in South London in 1920 . In German, the word airport has been used since 1917. In 1922 the first purely commercial airport was completed in Königsberg (Prussia) , Devau Airport . In 1955, Nuremberg Airport was built at its current location. It was the first airport built in Germany since the end of the Second World War.

The airports in their current complexity emerged gradually and adapted to the current state of aircraft technology . With the increasing weight of the aircraft, grass areas could only be used in relatively dry weather, which is why one or two lanes ( parallel lane system ) made of compacted soil, asphalt or concrete were laid in the prevailing wind direction in such areas, for example in Berlin-Tempelhof . In places with changing wind directions, runways were also laid out several times as parallel runway systems , such as in Chicago O'Hare , or as a triangular runway system , as in Johannesburg , or as a tangential runway system .

The first aircraft flew exclusively under visual flight conditions . To even in poor visibility conditions or even at night fly to an airport in the late 1920s, the lighting (was fired ) the runways introduced. Around the middle of 1930, the ALS ( approach lighting system ) came into use: landing lights that signaled the direction and angle of approach to the pilot. This system was refined in the following years and standardized with the help of the ICAO . At the beginning of the 1940s, the first successful trials with a fully automatic landing system were carried out at the Askania works with a Junkers Ju 52 / 3m . The instrument landing procedure ( ILS ) is the most common approach procedure for instrument flights today .

The advent of jet airplanes in the 1960s and the greater distances they could achieve led to a drastic increase in passenger numbers and air freight . That changed the image of the airports significantly. Much longer runways were necessary. The formerly rather cozy little airports developed into fast-paced, hectic structures. Previously only a few well-heeled passengers could afford a flight, today it is affordable for many in the age of mass tourism and low-cost airlines .

Legal situation


In German aviation law , airports are airfields which , depending on the type and scope of the planned flight operations, require protection by a building protection area in accordance with Section 12 LuftVG . Construction protection areas are the areas around an airport in which obstacle detection and control must take place for reasons of the safety of flight operations. This means that structures (buildings and other obstacles such as wind turbines , § 14 LuftVG) inside and partially outside the building protection area may only be approved by the building authority with the approval of the aviation authority ( § 27d (2) LuftVG).

German aviation law distinguishes between airfields in Section 6 (1) LuftVG and further differentiating in the LuftVZO ( Section 38 ff. ):

According to § 6 , § 8 to § 10 LuftVG, the approval for the construction and operation of airfields is issued by the aviation authority of the country in which the site is located. Problems can arise in cross-border construction protection areas of airfields.

German airports, as listed in the list of commercial airports in Germany , are further divided into

  • International airports ( § 27d LuftVG) and
  • Regional airports.

There is only a legal difference between regional airports and international commercial airports insofar as the federal government has recognized a need for air traffic control at an international commercial airport ( Section 27d (1) LuftVG), but not for a regional airport . Thus leading to an international commercial airport controllers of DFS , the air traffic control by, on a regional course work pilot of another certified air navigation service company. In Germany, the following air traffic control companies have currently been certified by the BMVBS: DFS (by law takes over the 16 major international commercial airports), DFS Aviation Services (a subsidiary of DFS to offer air traffic control services at regional airports) and Austro Control. In addition, the Mannheim and Hamburg-Finkenwerder airports have been certified for their own air traffic control services.

Despite the name, international flights are allowed to take place at the “regional” seats. In addition, there is effectively no legal protection for the term international commercial airport . The Association of German Commercial Airports also uses it for a number of places that are officially classified as regional airports.

Airport management is provided by the airport operator , who is also responsible for the airport infrastructure.

In Germany, airfields are compulsory .


The Austrian aviation law states: “(An) airport is a public airfield which is intended for international air traffic and has the facilities required for this.” Airfield is used as an umbrella term . Austrian law distinguishes between the following types of civil airports:

  • Airport
  • Airfield (defined as "airfield that is not an airport")

Further differentiation options under Austrian law are:


In Switzerland the following terms are used: airfield, airport, airfield, mountain airfield, military airfield.

Airfield is the generic term. In Switzerland, airfields are compulsory , i. In other words , planes, gliders and ecolight planes are only allowed to take off and land at official airfields. These places are (with a few exceptions!) Published in the AIP . Gliders may of course outside landing , planes are allowed to perform with flight instructor field landing exercises and helicopters may land outside under certain conditions.

An airport is an airfield with a concession. This gives the airport operator certain rights. In return, there is an operating and licensing obligation. Obligation to operate means that the airport operator must publish fixed operating times and then keep the airport open at these times. (This implies, for example, a winter service.) Authorization obligation means that no aircraft that wants to land there may be refused. But there may be restrictions, e.g. B. Private planes only by appointment and in an allocated time slot. A ban on gliders is permitted.

An airfield is an airfield without a license, operating and licensing requirements. Most airfields in Switzerland have no fixed opening times and are PPR , i. In other words, they may only be approached after prior request. (This request can be made by phone before take-off, but also by radio before landing.) Some airfields are also completely closed to foreign aircraft.

A mountain landing site is an unpaved landing site over 1100 m above sea level. M. There are around 40 designated mountain landing sites in Switzerland. These are places in the Alps without any infrastructure, where you can land and take off like at airfields. There are also mountain landing sites for helicopters only. The pilot must have completed special training and passed an examination. Most of the mountain landing sites are on glaciers; H. they can only be approached year-round by machines equipped with ski runners.

A military airfield is an airfield that is operated by the military. It may be possible for civil aircraft to land on military airfields.

United States of America

Norfolk International Airport, a
small hub facility with approx. 3 million passengers

In the United States, the English terms airport and aerodrome are mostly used interchangeably for commercial airports. Air base refers to airfields for military use .

There is no legal distinction between airport and airfield. The legal categorization does not result from the predominant use, but from the number of passengers. This categorization is the basis for the amount of federal funds from the Airport Improvement Program .

  • Commercial Service Airports
    • Large hub airports with a passenger volume of over one percent in the United States.
    • Medium hub airports with a passenger volume between 0.25% and one percent.
    • Small hub airports with a passenger volume between 0.05% and 0.25%.
    • Nonhub Primary Airports with a passenger volume of over 10,000 passengers, but less than 0.05%.
    • Nonprimary Commercial Service Airports with a passenger volume between 2,500 and 10,000 people.
  • Nonprimary Airports
    • Reliever Airports as alternative airports if commercial airports are threatened with congestion.
    • General Aviation Airports are general aviation airports of national, regional or local importance with a passenger volume of less than 2,500 people.

Airports that are exclusively for private use (e.g. private airfields or club airfields) are not categorized and do not receive any funding.

Tasks of airports

Baggage loading at Boston Logan Airport
Passenger handling
View into the mall at Leipzig / Halle Airport

Airports link land and airside modes of transport , which is known as intermodal transport links ( linking different types of transport ). The modal split provides information on the shares of the various modes of transport in the volume of traffic and the volume of traffic. On the land side, airports can use private motorized transport ( MIT ) via a road connection and parking space, public transport (regular bus, road, underground), local rail transport ( S and regional trains ), long- distance rail passenger transport ( IC / EC / ICE ) or shipping be networked on rivers and canals as well as the lake. One can distinguish between the infrastructural connection (physical) on the one hand and the intermodal service chain on the other. The former is well developed at the commercial airports in Germany, the latter hardly available.

The combination of ground-based traffic ( rail traffic , road traffic ) and air traffic results in four possible directions of traffic for passengers and freight:

  • Ground-ground
  • Ground-to-air (take-off)
  • Air-to-ground (arrival)
  • Air-to-air (transit)

The ground-to-ground traffic can be neglected here as it is generally not of great importance at airports. Only in connection with airport train stations , such as Frankfurt am Main Airport or Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport , does this traffic become more important. The main traffic control tasks of an airport consist of handling the arrival, departure and transit of passengers and freight.

Depending on the volume, the airport must provide sufficient infrastructure for this. This includes parking spaces for short-term and long-term parkers, taxi and bus stops, luggage and passenger control systems, customs and passport control systems and security systems.

economic aspects

Business models

Aligning the business models of an airport is one of the most fundamental and important tasks of the airport operator . In addition to the airport's tasks and fields of activity, the revenue structure, corporate management and positioning depend on them. Finding the right business model for an airport is a lengthy process that involves taking many different individual factors into account. If necessary, adjustments or changes must be made due to far-reaching changes in air traffic. A constant review of the market situation and your own circumstances is therefore essential.

The following strategic concepts play a key role in positioning the airports:

Hub airports

The hub airport is defined as an airport from which one or more airlines offer an integrated service network to a large number of different destinations with a high frequency of connections. It thus represents a central traffic junction or transfer airport for one or more scheduled airlines. Hub airports have mainly specialized in scheduled airlines and are entirely based on their needs. They offer a high-quality service tailored to the passenger groups in the business and first-class areas. This includes, for example, fast transport links, office services or lounges. However, they also have holiday and, in some cases, low-cost passengers. Hub airports have a high proportion of transfer traffic. In order to be able to exercise this function, they must have special infrastructure facilities.

Hybrid models

The hybrid models or full-range suppliers without clear specialization or positioning are characterized as medium-sized hubs and point-to-point airports by a mix of heterogeneous airlines and a strong focus on their catchment area. However, meeting the divergent requirements of the different customer groups has proven difficult. In addition, a clear positioning is not possible, for example through differentiation or cost leadership. The airports are therefore faced with the challenge of successfully asserting themselves in competition with competing airports in overlapping catchment areas by implementing hybrid strategies.

Specialization in low-cost airlines

The term "low-cost airport" is increasingly used for airports that have specialized in low-cost airlines. Low-cost airlines often set up a base at cheaper airports such as regional or military airports that are within easy reach of economic centers or large cities.

Cargo airports

In addition to the pure cargo airports, there are major airports such as Frankfurt am Main, which promote cargo operations as a second pillar. In order to cope with this volume of freight, the airports have a specific terminal structure on the one hand and are not subject to any legal restrictions such as the ban on night flights on the other. In addition, it is important that the airports have good rail and road connections so that the freight can be transported on the shortest route. In addition, the cargo airports should have sufficient space for the cargo terminals. A freight terminal includes a freight receiving / issuing area, a sorting and storage area, a freight loading / unloading area, storage rooms for special freight and the administration area. The sorting center represents the largest area.

Influence of airports on the environment

The economic importance of airports for the respective region is emphasized in many reports. However, the claimed effects are difficult to verify. The impact of airports on the environment is described in the reports by four effects:

Direct effect

The economic activity at the airports, i.e. H. the absorption of purchasing power from tourists passing through or remaining , and the immediate stimulation of the labor market through the recruitment of staff in the service sector are important for the overall balance of a region. However, purchasing power is also exported to the holiday regions through holiday air travel.

Indirect effect

Airports also offer economic potential for the entire region in which the airport is located, by awarding contracts to suppliers and service providers, and by transporting people and goods, primarily high-quality products and perishable goods, over long distances. The qualitative dimension of air freight traffic is reflected in the fact that a share of world freight traffic of only 2 to 3 percent is offset by up to a third of the total freight value.

Induced effect

To the outside world, airports enliven their closer and wider economic environment through consumer demand from the income of employees at the airport and the companies that work. This also applies to the labor market. Prosperous airports, as multipliers, not only create new jobs at the airport, but also in the region.

Catalytic effect

The locational advantage that arises from the proximity to the airport and its links with the road and rail network is a decision criterion when it comes to the settlement of internationally operating high-tech companies and companies with close links to air traffic.

For inner-city airports (e.g. São Paulo-Congonhas Airport , Berlin-Tempelhof or London City ) there are special economic aspects. On the one hand, they can block inner-city commercial areas, on the other hand, as a traffic junction they can also promote the economy. The tailored offers of small airlines and general aviation are used at such places by business people in particular and are therefore also a locational advantage.

In addition, there are:

Economic impact of noise pollution

Frankfurt Airport Noise Map

Due to its noise emissions in the vicinity, an airport causes a noise-related reduction in the value of the land , which is assessed differently by experts. The Federal Environment Agency defines a Noise Sensitivity Depreciation Index (NSDI) of 0.87% per dB (A) as the result of an evaluation of various publications (“Metax Analysis”). The NSDI measures the percentage change in value of a property per decibel of noise pollution. The influence of traffic noise on the market value of built-up properties was determined with the help of purchase prices for new buildings in medium-sized residential areas on average between 5% and 10%.

Measurement of the economic balance of airports

Three parameters are decisive for the economic success of an airport:

  1. Passenger volume
  2. Number of flight movements.
  3. Maximum take-off weight (MTOW = maximum take-off weight)

The number of passengers carried has a direct impact on the profitability of an airport via the passenger tariff, which is charged by the respective airline. The number of flight movements as the sum of take-offs and landings provides information about the utilization of the runway and parking space on the apron. The MTOW is defined by the manufacturer for each aircraft type and is included in the calculation of the landing tariff for a machine.

An ideal, but rarely achieved, constellation results for an airport with a combination of high MTOW growth, combined with high passenger numbers and a disproportionately low increase in flight movements. Taken together, this means optimal utilization of the piste capacity.

Building an airport

Modern airports are designed very differently. Smaller airports like Bremen only have one runway. At larger airports such as Zurich or Frankfurt am Main , several runways, e.g. Sometimes point in different directions, and possibly several terminals for the simultaneous and rapid handling of several aircraft. However, some basic principles are common to all airports in order to be able to carry out take-off and landing as well as supply and loading of the aircraft safely and smoothly.

Functional processes

Airports have highly dense air traffic in a relatively narrow space, which is made even more complicated by take-offs and landings. For this reason, precise control of air traffic at airports is an absolute prerequisite for safe and smooth handling. On the apron movements of aircraft and vehicles can be any kind of roll control (engl. Ground control ) visually, and monitored by radar. The taxiing control transfers the aircraft to the control tower for take-off . The tower controls runways and taxiways, so it is responsible for takeoffs and landings as well as approach, departure and overflights within the control zone (CTR). The wider area around an airport is monitored by arrival / departure control.

At a heavily frequented major airport such as Frankfurt am Main Airport, take-offs and landings take place every 2 minutes, especially during rush hour. These tight time constraints make one characteristic that all aircraft exhibit in flight. An aircraft leaves on its trajectory two opposing air vortex, which as wake vortices (engl. Wake turbulence ) will be referred to. Wake vortices are created because a pressure difference between the bottom and top of a surface that generates buoyancy causes a flow from bottom to top at the end of the surface. This turbulence is dangerous for the aircraft behind, so a minimum distance must be maintained. In the extended flaps , so-off or landing, strengthened depending on the weight ( MTOW of the aircraft), the intensity of the remaining behind the aircraft tubular vortices. The lifespan is influenced by the wind and the atmosphere. The occurrence of wake vortices at airports thus influences the frequency of arrival and departure as well as the take-off sequence. The coordination of the different types of aircraft is the task of the air traffic controllers in departure / approach control.

For example, the ICAO stipulates the following minimum distances ( wake turbulence separation minima ) for certain weight classes:

  • light ← light: 3 NM (C182 - C182)
  • medium ← medium: 3 NM (A320 - A320)
  • heavy ← medium: 5 NM (B747 - A320)
  • heavy ← light: 6 NM (B747 - C182)

Since the capacity of some airports is at some point exhausted due to the strong demand with given resources and restrictions, the airlines are given narrow time windows, so-called slots , during which an airline can use an airport to take off or land an aircraft.

A detailed description of passenger and freight handling can be found under Handling (air traffic) .


Night flight restrictions and flight bans at German airports, data from 2006

The resulting particularly when departing aircraft noise pollutes the riparian difficult airports. A characteristic of aircraft noise is that the sound is predominantly from above. It is therefore not possible to use barriers such as other buildings, walls or house walls to shield. Retreat options within the apartment in less noisy rooms, such as B. missing in the quieter bedroom at the back of the house. Outdoor living areas such as terraces and gardens can only be effectively protected against aircraft noise by increasing the distance to the airport.

The night air traffic can lead to significant health risks (disruption of the immune system , impaired memory function , high blood pressure, etc.). Critics assume, especially for night flights, that the economic damage outweighs the benefits of night flights.

In recent years, active and passive measures have been taken by all those involved to reduce noise pollution from air traffic:

  • Manufacturers develop noise-reduced aircraft
  • steeper approach and departure routes in order to reduce the sound pressure through rapid gain and loss of altitude (however, there is only very little leeway here, as these criteria are set by the ICAO (e.g. ILS approach 3 degrees))
  • Relocation of the approach and departure routes
  • voluntary night flight restrictions at commercial airports
  • Time restrictions for noisy aircraft
  • Noise-differentiated landing fees as a user advantage for low-noise aircraft in order to induce airlines to buy low-noise aircraft in their own interest
  • Voluntary noise protection window programs at airports
  • additional stationary aircraft noise monitoring systems in the vicinity of airports in order to obtain constant control and documentation of the current noise pollution
  • planning measures, such as the establishment of restricted areas

Settlement and transport policies play a significant role in the level of noise pollution. Some German airports were located far away from any residential development when they were first approved / commissioned. In these cases, the real cause of the noise problems is to be found in the municipal building policy, which over the decades has allowed residential development to come closer and closer to the airports. Other, now very large airports such as Berlin-Tegel or Hamburg-Fuhlsbüttel , were created as small airfields in the middle of residential areas and continuously expanded to the detriment of residential development. Some airports - such as B. Munich - have moved the location. However, due to the fact that the airport is a major employer and economic factor, settlements have formed around the airport area, the residents of which are now demonstrating against the expansion of the airport.

In addition to noise pollution, exhaust emissions, surface sealing, garbage production and drinking water consumption, winter road clearance is a particularly harmful factor for the environment. In order to maintain the operation of airports in winter that need airport surfaces by surface de and the planes themselves are freed from ice and snow. In addition to mechanical removal, biodegradable movement surface de-icers and de-icing agents are used, which are also recovered in special sewage treatment plants .

The construction of airports leads to considerable protests and very protracted planning procedures due to the large amount of space required and the expected adverse effects on people and nature . The best-known example of protests against airport expansion in Germany is the fight against the West Runway at Frankfurt Airport in the 1980s .

When designing and managing airport grassland, the focus is on flight safety. Clearance of obstacles and carrying capacity are important criteria, but also reducing the attractiveness for flocking and large birds, which can be dangerous for air traffic.

In order to prevent bird strikes in air traffic, forms of management must be found for each airport that are tailored to the local ecological conditions and aim to reduce the risk of bird strikes. The leaning of the existing green areas also serves this purpose . H. the extensive renunciation of fertilization. As a side effect of this measure, an increase in the biodiversity of plants and small organisms was observed at many airports. There are airports that are home to species that have not been found in the surrounding area for a long time.

The expansion of airports and the associated increase in air traffic are often viewed critically by climate protectors, as emissions from aircraft contribute significantly more to global warming than previously assumed.

Airport security

Control in Berlin-Schönefeld , Gate easyJet

The large commercial airports, with their concentration of people in a comparatively small area, have always been potential targets for terrorists ; even more so after the attacks in the USA on September 11, 2001 .

The airport security (engl. Security ) refers to the defense operational, technical and dangers of externally at the bottom, while with flight safety (engl. Safety ) is meant the prevention of aircraft accidents. External dangers include: B. Aircraft hijackings , acts of sabotage and other terrorist-motivated attacks or interventions. Access restrictions and security controls at airports are among the airport security measures that have a direct impact on flight safety.

Since the first of September 2015 there are new EU regulations for the security checks at European airports. The changes are primarily intended to help detect traces of explosives on passengers' hand luggage more effectively and safely. The supplementary regulation should not result in longer waiting times.

Most major airports have their own security guards assisted by police officers. In some countries soldiers or paramilitary forces also protect the airports.


Airport codes

Airports are identified by their individual three-digit IATA airport code and the four-digit ICAO code (Location Indicator).


Many airports have an individual name or different names. A commercial airport is usually named after a larger city, for example Dresden Airport . A more precise information on the location can be added to the name, for example Berlin-Tegel Airport to distinguish it from other Berlin airports - or Kassel-Calden Airport because of the location of the airport in the area of ​​the municipality of Calden . Sometimes a combination of place names, such as Leipzig / Halle Airport , indicates that the airport serves two large cities as catchment areas. At Berlin Brandenburg Airport , the metropolitan region of Berlin / Brandenburg is addressed as the catchment area. An example of being named after a famous person is John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City. Occasionally, the place name is combined with a personal name, such as at Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle Airport .

Often different names or name forms are used side by side, for example older names next to younger names, unofficial names next to official names or foreign language names next to Germanized names. For example, Cologne / Bonn Airport was renamed “Airport Cologne / Bonn - Konrad Adenauer” in 1994 and further renamed “Cologne Bonn Airport” in 2002, although the German name “Cologne / Bonn Airport” is still in use. In short, the airport can also be referred to as “Cologne / Bonn”. Another name is "Cologne Wahn Airport", after its location in the Cologne district of Wahn .

Examples of airports with more precise location names

Examples of airports with combined place names

Examples of naming a person

Examples of the combination of place names and personal names

Examples of the combination of person name and place name

useful information

Approach for landing in Sint Maarten
  • The lowest located airport in Europe is Amsterdam-Schiphol , which is about three meters below sea level .
  • One of the lowest-lying airports in the world is located near the US city of Thermal (California) , ICAO code KTRM, and is about 35 m below sea level.
  • The Airfield Courchevel in the French Alps has the runway with the largest gradient / slope of 18.5%, aircraft landing uphill and downhill start. It lies at an altitude of 2007 m, making it the highest airfield in Europe.
  • The highest airport in the world is Dabba-Yardêng Airport in the Chinese province of Sichuan at an altitude of 4,411 m (14,472 ft) above sea level.
  • The runway of Gibraltar airport is crossed by a public road, which is cordoned off with a barrier during flight operations. The road is the only connection from the mainland to the peninsula.
  • The runway at Gisborne Airport in New Zealand is crossed by a train line.
  • The Princess Juliana Airport ( Sint Maarten , former Netherlands Antilles ) starts right on the beach. The planes fly only a few meters over the beach vacationers. In Europe there are almost equally spectacular scenes at Lanzarote Airport and Helgoland Airport .
  • The only airport in the world that is operated by two countries (Switzerland and France) is Basel-Mulhouse Airport .
  • Six of 38 airports in Germany generate a profit.

See also


  • Norman Ashford, HP Martin Stanton, Clifton A. Moore: Airport Operations. McGraw-Hill, 1997, ISBN 0-07-003077-4 .
  • P. Bachmann: International Airports in Europe: Plans - Data - Facts. Motorbuch, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-613-01649-4 .
  • German Transport Forum : Facts about Germany as an aviation location. Berlin 2003.
  • Andreas Fecker : Aircraft noise. Data and facts . 1st edition. Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-613-03400-6 .
  • Andreas Fecker: Airports. GeraMond Verlag, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-7654-7237-9 .
  • Oliver Hengstenberg, Bernd-Burkhard Borys, Thomas C. Gudehus: Cooperative airport operations. kassel university press, Kassel 2003, ISBN 3-89958-026-5 .
  • R. Hujer, H. Bulwien, S. Kokot, C. Mehlinger, B. Rürup, T. Voßkamp: Income and Employment Effects of Frankfurt Airport - Status Quo - Analyzes and Forecasts. Frankfurt Airport Mediation Group, 1999.
  • R. Hujer, S. Kokot, C. Mehlinger, B. Rürup, C. Zeiss: Income and employment effects of Frankfurt Airport. 2004.
  • Wolfgang Kühr: The private pilot. Volume 5: Aviation Law, Aviation and Air Traffic Control Regulations. Luftfahrtverlag Schiffmann, Bergisch Gladbach 1983, ISBN 3-921270-13-8 .
  • Willy Puchner : Airport. A world of its own. 2003, ISBN 3-85326-277-5 .
  • Brigitte Rothfischer: Airports in the world. GeraMond Verlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-7654-7211-5 .
  • Axel Schulz, S. Baumann, S. Wiedenmann: Airport Management. Oldenbourg, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-486-59179-8 .
  • Michael Trumpfheller: Strategic Airport Management . DUV, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-8350-0478-6 .
  • Peter Wysk : Air traffic. In: Jan Ziekow (Ed.): Practice of specialist planning law. Munich / Unterschleißheim 2004, ISBN 3-8041-4306-7 , p. 571 ff.

Web links

Wiktionary: Airport  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Airport  album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. “Blickpunkt Flughafen” - report on n-tv , July 3, 2009.
  2. Flugsport , Volume I, No. 2, January 8, 1909, p. 52
  3. ^ Aerodrome in digital dictionary of the German language
  4. ^ Ronald V .: Port Aviation. In: Abandoned, Forgotten & Little Known Airfileds in Europe. December 29, 2013, accessed June 5, 2017 .
  5. ^ Airport in digital dictionary of the German language
  6. Swiss Ordinance on Aviation Infrastructure
  7. 49 US Code § 47102. Definitions
  8. Airport Categories. In: Federal Aviation Administration , November 23, 2018, accessed February 16, 2020 .
  10. Noise - a factor influencing value
  11. New EU regulation increases flight safety , last accessed on November 2, 2015.
  12. Jens Koenen, Sven Prange: The mischief with the ghost airports . In: Handelsblatt . No. 65 , April 4, 2013, ISSN  0017-7296 , p. 12 .