A loading or loading refers to the environmental, assembly, loading, locking and unloading of goods to or from certain means of transport with the aim of relying Tung . In the context of the transport chain of combined transport and when loading or unloading ships, we also speak of transshipment or transshipment (of goods).
For this purpose, a special infrastructure such as goods handling points with facilities such as ramps , magazines, warehouses and the like are used at the loading location . Many companies use a time slot management system to coordinate loading at different ramps . Devices and systems are used as the means for loading, e.g. B. conveyor technology and loading systems .
In almost all vehicles , the distribution of the loads is important for the driving and flight behavior. The first officer is usually responsible for this on ships , a so-called load master (in technical jargon loadmaster ) for cargo aircraft and the truck driver for trucks .
Loading on land
Shipping: loading and unloading
The loading or unloading ( deletion ) takes place z. B. with the help of cranes , suction systems or pumps . Container cranes are used to handle containers . Loading and unloading can also be carried out with on-board loading gear or ship cranes , even if the appropriate superstructure is available onshore .
Cargo handling usually takes place in commercial and fishing ports .
In air traffic , air freight (cargo) is almost exclusively loaded into or out of the hold as general cargo in containers . In some cases, the air freight is also loaded into or out of the passenger cabin, which is more time-consuming and labor-intensive. The seats are covered with individual tarpaulins.
Most cargo planes are loaded through the side cargo hold flaps on the lower deck.
The side doors are used when loading into the passenger compartment. Very large and special aircraft types such as the B 747-400F are loaded from the bow. A front flap under the cockpit is opened for this.
Some military cargo planes are loaded completely from the stern, e.g. B. Transall C-160 and Lockheed C-5 . Lifting platforms and assembly lines are typical for shipments in aviation . As a rule, dispatch takes place at cargo terminals. The loading times are the shortest for cargo planes because it is the most cost-intensive means of transport. Downtimes must therefore be kept to a minimum.
A rare special form of unloading is dropping from aircraft. In military aviation and humanitarian aid operations , unloading takes place in part by dropping the goods, with the containers being hung on parachutes. The reason for this is inadequate or missing airport infrastructure , states of war or the intended dispersion.